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not know what to do with ; and such of were, “ I will be the institutor of a legion these as have no places, carry all their of honour, and I will distribute its hoill humour down with them to the country! nours as I please." His military ardou

“ The men I should like to see in the was, “the military fanaticism is useful legislature are old landed proprietors, who to me, as it makes men indifferent 10 should be married, as it were, to the state, death,” p. 203. The same spirit may by their family connexions, or by their pro- be seen running through every sentifession, and thus be more or less attached ment of his mind. With him Napo. to public life. These personages would leon was the genius of the nation, the come up to Paris once a year - would constitution, the monarchy, the democonverse with the Emperor at his levee cracy, the aristocracy, the state. Perand return home again perfectly satisfied haps it was the idolatry of a mighty with this little ray of glory shed on the mo

genius that paid this universal homage notony of their lives.

to its own greatness. But if we make " • It is of use that other public func- allowance for this latent, and it might tionaries, besides those who may be rec. koned upon for actual business, should be

even be, unconscious tendency to regard

all as if absorbed in his own person, members of the legişlative body. As far as the good of the nation is concerned,

we shall find many lessons of wisdom, the legislative body cannot be rendered from which those who have that form of too tractable; (On ne saurait, pour le government in which the constitution bien d'une nation, rendre le corps légis- should be to them, what Napoleon was latif trop maniable,) because, if it should to his own political speculations, may be strong enough to inspire any wish to

learn much. govern, it would in the end either destroy Well would it have been for England the government, or be itself destroyed.' if her rulers had long ago perceived To our mind, no chapter in the whole the last extract we have quoted. The

and acted on the truths contained in volume is inore interesting than the seventeenth, which is headed, “ Upon they must be brought up in all the

people must be trained to be citizens ; Public InstruCTION AND THE Uni, hallowed associations of their country; VERSITY.” Napoleon's general views of education were philosophical enough of the constitution ; pains should be

they must be educated in the precepts His great principle appears to have taken to adapt and mould them for the been, to educate the people to attach- place they are to fill in the structure of ment to the constitution under which the social fabric. There should be some they were to live.

one com non principle of action to per“ . There never will be a fixed political vade the nation; there shonld be some state of things in this country,' said he, one common sentiment on which the

till we have a corps of teachers instructed minds of feilow-citizens can agree.on established principles, So long as the This it is that gives their value to people are not taught, from their earliest the recollections of national glors years, whether they ought to be Repub- this it is that gives importance as well licans or Royalists, Christians or Infidels,

as interest to the inemorials of national the state cannot be properly called a na- pride. And that a state should be tion, for it must rest on a foundation which great or prosperous there must, we is vague and uncertain, and it will be for ever exposed to disorders and Auctua- say, be diffused throughout her people

some one sentiment of national politics

which may make attachment to their We have alreadly observed, that all constitution a law of the national heart. the juilgments of Napoleon's mind And this may be under any form of appear to be the dictates of pritoumd governinent. In Athens it was the political thought, biassed and warped love of democracy, and the noble feelby the overwrening selfishness of his ing that their republic was the chamcharacter, and his love of despotism. pion of the liberties of Greece. In Self with him was the centre romd America it is or was a pride in their which all politics should revolve, and federal union. In Enyland it was attachhe calculated every thing in relation to mert to Protestantism and the glorious thatcentre, while the national advantage revolution. But be it what it may, and the happiness of the people appear some national sentiment is needed to to be subordinate elements, but still influence the people-some feeling that eleinents, in his computations. His may be, so to speak, the religion of democracy was, “ the people have given politics, and which may be sacredly it to me, and I may do what I please enshrined in the recesses of the national with it.” His aristocratic predilections heart.


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Personal admiration of Napoleon Heretofore there have existed in the supplied, for a time, the place of such a world only two orders—the Military and feeling in France. It became the chivalry Ecclesiastical. The barbarians who overof the people ; and it was, perhaps, the whelmed the Roman empire, had it not consciousness that this was all that in their power to form solid establishtook the place of attachment to the ments, because they had neither an order constitution, that made him exclaim- of priests, nor an order of civilians. The «. All this will last as long as I hold stantine I. indeed, established, through the

Romans had only the military order. Conout, but when I am gone, my son may medium of the priests, a kind of civil order; call himself a lucky fellow if he has a and Clovis founded the French monarchy couple of thousands a year !""

by the same means, without which he And it was just the desire to supply could not have sustained himself against the place of a personal attachment the Goths. The Prussian monarchy is with a veneration for the dynasty the most military in Europe, because the which he hoped to establish, that Roman Catholic priests have been exgoverned him in his schemes for the cluded from it. The monks are the university. He wished to create in the natural enemies of the soldiers, and they

have more than once served as a barrier minds of the people an attachment, not to Napoleon the general, but to the against them. Julian became an apostate, emperor—an attachment which he because at the time he was governor of might bequeath with the imperial dig. who was afraid of him, invariably placed

Gaul, the Emperor of Constantinople, nity to his descendants. But he saw

the civil order, of which the priests were the one great truth, that it is essential that a love and veneration for the con

the chiefs, in opposition to him. The stitution should be the leading impulse people have believed them to be in our

monks, I suspect, are not so useless as of the national mind.

days. The civil order will be strengthened We are not about to entangle our

by the creation of a body of teachers, and readers in a long political disquisition. still more would it be fortified by a large The principle to which we have ad- body of magistrates. The presidents of verted is one upon which, in some

the higher tribunals ought to be eminent degree, all governments have been

persons. The charms which belong to compelled to act; and when we find great authority and high consideration in that the spirit of attachment to the society, will counteract that philosophical constitution is passing from the nation, repugnance which, in some countries, men and no other national sentiment taking of easy fortunes feel for office; and where, its place, we may augur ill for the per- in consequence, the government falls into manence of any institution in such a the hands of blockheads and intriguers. country. We do not, of course, pre. This is not yet the case in France, it is tend to say, that any change in the true, where all the world is eager for constitution, even when it is extensive place, especially since the senate enough to be entitled a revolution, in- established-but'it is the case in Austria.'” volves the forfeiture of such a national sentiment: far from it. The national

Napoleon, with just discrimination, allegiance may be transferred from one

rejected the idea of female boarding form of government to another, the schools. We wish his sentiinents upo: same chivalrous loyalty which caused

this point were universal. the national heart to beat with ardour "I do not think we need trouble ourin defence of a monarch, may in time selves with any plan of instruction for animate them to die in the cause of the young femalos; they cannot be better stern simplicity of a republic; nay, the brought up than by their mothers. Pubvery revolution may become the object lic education is not suitable for them, beof the national enthusiasın and devotion cause they are never called upon to act in -the reformation—the revolution of public. Manners are all in all to them, 1688—-or the reform bill, might all be and marriage is all they look to. In the object of the sentiment of which times past the monastic life was open to we speak; but this we do say, that no

the women; they espoused God, and matter what be its object, the senti- though society gained little by that ment must exist, or there is no hope of alliance, the parents gained by pocketing

All that, however is how permanence in any institution of the the dower. country in which there is nothing like changed !' a national allegiance.

Napoleon had entrusted to Fourcroy, "* It is my wish,' said Napoleon, 'to the celebrated chemist, the task of precreate in France a civil order in society. paring the draught of a body of statutes


for the new university. Fourcroy, how- required to adhere to the terms of the edict ever, was but little adapted to realize of 1682, relating to the four propositivas the political views of the Emperor: after contained in the declaration of the clergy the plan had gone through several edi- of France at the above period.""+ tions in the council, it was still further changed by the Emperor himself. Baron

It may, perhaps, be necessary to Pelet has preserved a record of some apprise our readers, that the liberties of the changes which he thus finally of the Gallican Church was a term made: those relating to religion are denoting the maintenance of the four especially deserving of attention :

propositions of 1682; the change

which Napoleon made in the secood “ The discussions, which had been in. paragraph of the 38th article was more terrupted by the campaigns of 1806, were in its form than its spirit. resumed in February 1808, after Napo.

It is a curious fact, that the Gallican leon's return from Jena and Tilsit. Fourcroy had employed the interval in arranging the See of Rome, yet differing mate

Church continued for ages attached to and methodising the points agreed upon in 1806. But when the decree of the 17th rially from the Catholic Church on so March, 1808, came out, it was easy to diso important an article as the authority of cover that the Emperor had made many

the Pope. The Council of Constance, alterations on the edition which had been

which met without the authority of the adopted in council, and as some of these Pope, and declared its indepenılence changes are curious, especially those which of the Bishop of Rome, continued for show what his system was in relation to its earlier sessions to act without his the clergy, one or two of them may prove authority; after this it sat with the interesting.

authority of the Pope, and the Gal“ The 3d article enacted, that no estab- lican Church alone recognised the lishment for instruction was to be formed first sessions as having the authority beyond the walls of the university, and of a general council, while all the without the sanction of its head or prin- rest of the Catholic world only recipal. Napoleon added a sentence which garded it as a general council for that * exempted the seminaries and left them period when its proceedings obtained under the sole direction of the bishops. * the sanction of the Pope. The influ

“ The 7th article vested, for the first ence of these Gallican liberties upon time, the nomination of the deans, and of the genius of the French Church will the professors of theology, in the grand be readily traced by the student of his master, who was to choose them according tory who bears their existence in mind; to their merit. The Emperor's decree, and it is curious to observe how cauhowever, required the grand master to tiously they are guarded in the constimake his selection from amongst the can- tution of Napoleon's university, didates presented by the bishops.

While there is thus manifested an " The 38th article enumerates the bases anxiety to preserve these liberties of the instruction to be given in the uni. which had left the French clergy comversity, and in the first paragraph, the paratively free from the baleful influprecepts of the Christian religion are ence of foreign domination, there is spoken of. Napoleon took his pen and also singularly displayed on the part substituted in the decree the word Catholic of Napoleon, a wish to leave them all religion.

their just privileges. The exemption “In the 2d paragraph he erased the of the theological seminaries from the sentence which specified as one of the interference of the University, might bases of instruction the marims and rights almost seem to spring from a sincere (libertés) of the Gallican church: and desire to keep religion free from the also the paragraph which spoke of the latitudinarian influence wbich might marims upon which the organic laws of pervade the educational body. And worship are founded. And in place of the provision that the selection of prothese two expunged sentences he wrote as

fessors of divinity should be made from follows:

candidates presented by the bishop, is Every professor of theology shall be one which recent events has taught us,

• These "seminaires” were houses managed by the clergy for the purpose of educating young persons destined for the church.

+ The declaration above alluded to maintains that, in temporal matters, sovereigns are to be considered independent of ecclesiastical authority-and that, in spiritual matters, even the authority of the Pope is subordinate to that of the Councils.

might be applied with advantage much ence testifies abundantly, that never nearer home.

has there been a mischievous error or a But, perhaps, the most remarkable false conceit, without its missionaries, alteration is that in the 38th article. with all the zeal of propagandaism It surprises us to find Napoleon's to disseminate its pernicious influence. council recognising the necessity of The fact may be unaccountable, but basing all education on religion ; " It history and our own experience, prove is worthy of remark,” said Napoleon that it is a fact. The influence of this himself," that education at its com- must be counteracted ; truth must be mencement has always been connected disseminated with as much activity, if

with religious notions.” It is still not with as much zeal as error, or, if · more curious to find Napoleon himself left to its unaided power, it will be

substituting for the vague and indefi- overwhelmed in the unequal contest. nite expressioni “ Christian religion," These are truths which should now the unequivocal term “ Catholic.” He be taken to heart ; the cry of instruct had sagacity enough to feel that the the people,” should now be the watchlatitudinarian indifference which would word of patriotism. Napoleon felt that, regard all forms of Christianity alike, even under a despotic government, it was could have but one intelligible result - essential to national stability, that pains the impartial, because undiscriminating should be taken to educate the people disregard of all.

in the principles of the national polity. There is much that is instructive in How incalculably is the necessity inthe anxiety of Napoleon to diffuse creased in a constitution in which the through the people some settled prin- people themselves direct the moveciples which might become the maxims ments of the state, in which they must of the national creed in politics. It is not only have the dispositions that a part of goverument too much ne- make men fit to be governed, but glected in all old and established in- much of the knowledge and the temstitutions, for the very reason, that per that qualify them to govern. We such institutions appear to have a pre- repeat, that the watchword of patriscriptive claim to the confidence and otism in Britain should now be “ affections of the people, which it needs STRUCT THE PEOPLE." no pains or trouble to enforce. How This, however, is a subject too imunsafe it is to trust to this, let the ex- portant to be incidentally discussed perience of England tell. When that we return to Napoleon and his Uniparty, which perhaps, deserve the name versity. The emperor's views as to the of Tories were in power, they neglect- education of physicians are thus exed the people ; they took no pains to pressed : inform or to instruct them, and the consequence has been just what might “. With respect to the degrees given by have been anticipated, that with the the university, that of doctor ought not to very first popular commotion, the alien- be too readily bestowed. The candidate ation of the people from the consti- ought to be examined on the most difficult tution was made too fatally evident ; subjects,- for example, on the comparison those watchwords which had been fool- of languages, -and it would not be amiss ishly relied on as possessing some ma

were they required to converse in Latin

for an hour and a half. It is by no means gic power of appeal to Britons, were unheeded as the wind, and all the feel. necessary that all the world should be renings and prejudices which we had dered eligible for a doctor's degree. Nor fondly hoped were permanent, without

do I approve of the condition which reculture or care, were found to have quires that a bachelor of medicine should been supplanted by idle delusions first take a scientific degree; for medicine which had been circulated by the of observation and conjectures. For my

is not a positive and exact science, but one emissaries of evil, while the friends of

part, I should have more confidence in the constitution were inactive.

a doctor who had not studied the exact The plain and simple truth is this, sciences, than in him who was acqua ed that the mass of mankind cannot be with them. I preferred M. Corvisart to safely left to form their own opinions M. Hallé, because M. Hallé belongs to without any interference on the part of the Institute, whereas M. Corvisart does the wise and the good. It is the not know what is meant by two triangles solemn duty of every person who loves being equal to one another! The student true principles, to use his best endea- of medicine ought not to be disturbed in vours to place those principles before his visits to the hospital or dissecting-room, the minds of the multitude. Experi- or in bis medical studies. Anatomy, though


it be the least uncertain branch of the art, is sequently they were more to be dreaded still enveloped in darkness. We know nej- than the secular clergy, who, but for the ther why we live nor how we live, nor what monks, would never bave caused any enthe living principle is. To require, there- barrassment. fore, that a young man sball be versed in « • Every one knows the scandalos knowledge of such different kinds, before he excesses which were carried on by tbe can enter upon his profession, is to risk monks; and I can myself form a good losing the public services of the great men estimate upon that subject, as I was for whom such a profession might turn out. some time brought up by them. I respect For, by a strange caprice in the structure all which religion respects; but as a of the human mind, it may well happen statesman, I cannot esteem the fanaticismu that a man may be a great physician or a of celibacy, which was a mere device great jurist, who could never work a sum adopted by the court of Rome for rivetting in compound division !'”

the chains of Europe, by preventing the

religious orders from becoming citizens The suggestion that the higher de- The military fanaticism is the only obe grees should be bestowed with great which is of any use to me, as it makes Den discrimination, and not as a mere mat- indifferent to death.'” ter of form, to those who had already attained the lower ones, we would

In another chapter we would recomrespectfully submit to the attention of mend the following passage to the our British Universities. With the serious attention of the statesmen who exception of the medical degrees, the uphold the endowment of Maynooth. degree of A. B.is the only one with which

«• I am well satisfied with the Prothe attainments of the candidate bave

testants, they ask for nothing, and they any necessary connection. This once obtained, the others follow as a matter

recognise me as their religious head, and,

in consequence, I am exempted from the of course ; and by waiting a few years, necessity of superintending the doctrines and paying a certain sum of money, a taught in their schools. Moreover their man becomes Master of Arts, or even

numbers are only three millions. The a Doctor learned in both laws.

Catholics, on the contrary, require to be * From this curious chapter we select watched by the government, because their at random a few more detached pas. head is a foreign prince. At all events, sages illustrative of Napoleon's views. we must take care not to let the education We take them without any reference of our young priests fall into the hands of to subject or connection.

fanatics, or of ignorant persons; for it

may be truly said of the priesthood, as it “ At the meeting of the 29th May, bas been said of the tongue, it is either 1804, Napoleon said, “The minister of the worst of things or the best.'public worship must determine what classical works shall be placed in the We have been able to make but a hands of the young men; and I desire few selections from this interesting and that he will print a small volume for each extraordinary book, -embracing disclass, containing passages selected from cussions upon almost all possible topics ancient as well as modern writers, and of government and legislation, and which shall bave a tendency to inspire the reporting the opinions of a man whose rising generation with opinions in con

career has influenced for centuries the formity with the principles of the new empire.

course of events in Europe, it has been “I am aware that the suppression of the impossible for us even to glance at the

multifarious subjects which it brings Jesuits has left a great void in these matters

under review. It is long since we have of education ; but it is not iny intention to re-establish them, nor to raise up any

met with any work, containing at once other corporation which may be influenced

so much that is interesting and inby external authority; but I feel called structive.

But what will the reader think of upon to organise a system of education for the new generation, such, that both Napoleon with the help to his judg. political and moral opinions may be duly ment which these revelations of his regulated thereby.

council afford him? The perusal of « « There ought to be two distinct classes this volume makes us more intimately of masters,—one who should teach the acquainted with the child and champion pupils, another who should govern them; of democracy—will the old proverb be for these matters require very different verified in spirit—"no man was erer a talents.

hero to his valet." We will follow the "-" The monks were the Pope's militia, example both of the anthor and the who owned no other sovereign, and con- translator, and let these documents

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