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12 'It is not in heaven, that thou shouldest 17 But if thine heart turn away, so that say, Who shall go up for us to heaven, and thou wilt not hear, but shalt be drawn away, bring it unto us, that we may hear it, and do it? and worship other gods, and serve them ;

13 Neither is it beyond the sea, that thou 18 I denounce unto you this day, that ye shouldest say, Who shall go over the sea for shall surely perish, and that ye shall not prous, and bring it unto us, that we may hear it, long your days upon the land, whither thou and do it?

passest over Jordan to go to possess it. 14 But the word is very nigh unto thee, in 19 'I call heaven and earth to record this thy mouth, and in thy heart, that thou mayest day against you, that I have set before you do it.

life and death, blessing and cursing: there15 I See, I have set before thee this day fore choose life, that both thou and thy seed life and good, and death and evil;

may live: 16 In that I command thee this day to 20 That thou mayest love the LORD thy love the LORD thy God, to walk in his ways, God, and that thou mayest obey his voice, and to keep his commandments and his sta- | and that thou mayest cleave unto him : for tutes and his judgments, that thou mayest he is thy life, and the length of thy days : live and multiply; and the LORD thy God that thou mayest dwell in the land which the shall bless thee in the land whither thou goest LORD sware unto thy fathers, to Abraham, to to possess it.

Isaac, and to Jacob, to give them. 8 Rom. 10. 6, &c.

4 Chap. 4. 26.

CHAPTER XXXI.

strong and of a good courage: for thou must

go with this people unto the land which the 1 Moses encourageth the people. 7 He encourageth Joshua. 9 He delivereth the law unto the priests, to

LORD hath sworn unto their fathers to give read it in the seventh year to the people. 14 God them; and thou shalt cause them to inherit it. giveth a charge to Joshua, 19 and a song to testify 8 And the LORD, he it is that doth go beagainst the people. 24 Moses delivereth the book of |

fore thee; he will be with thee, he will not the law to the Levites to keep. 28 He maketh a protestation to the elders.

fail thee, neither forsake thee: fear not, nei

ther be dismayed. And Moses went and spake these words unto 9 And Moses wrote this law, and deall Israel.

livered it unto the priests the sons of Levi, 2 And he said unto them, I am an hundred which bare the ark of the covenant of the and twenty years old this day; I can no LORD, and unto all the elders of Israel. more go out and come in : also the LORD 10 And Moses commanded them, saying, hath said unto me, 'Thou shalt not go over At the end of every seven years, in the sothis Jordan.

lemnity of the year of release, in the feast of 3 The LORD thy God, he will go over be tabernacles, . fore thee, and he will destroy these nations 11 When all Israel is come to appear befrom before thee, and thou shalt possess them: fore the LORD thy God in the place which he and Joshua, he shall go over before thee, 'as shall choose, thou shalt read this law before the Lord hath said.

all Israel in their hearing. 4 And the LORD shall do unto them as he 12 Gather the people together, men, and did to Sihon and to Og, kings of the Amo women, and children, and thy stranger that is rites, and unto the land of them, whom he within thy gates, that they may hear, and that destroyed.

they may learn, and fear the LORD your God, 5 And 'the LORD shall give them up be and observe to do all the words of this law : fore your face, that ye may do unto them 13 And that their children, which have not according unto all the commandments which known any thing, may hear, and learn to fear I have commanded you.

the LORD your God, as long as ye live in the 6 Be strong and of a good courage, fear land whither ye go over Jordan to possess it. not, nor be afraid of them: for the LORD thy 14 | And the LORD said unto Moses, BeGod, he it is that doth go with thee; he will hold, thy days approach that thou must die : not fail thee, nor forsake thee.

: call Joshua, and present yourselves in the 7 And Moses called unto Joshua, and tabernacle of the congregation, that I may said unto him in the sight of all Israel, Be give him a charge. And Moses and Joshua Num. 20. 12. Chap. 3. 27.

Num. 27. 21.
| 8 Chap. 1. 2.

• Chap 15 1.

went, and presented themselves in the taber- for it shall not be forgotten out of the mouths nacle of the congregation.

of their seed; for I know their imagination 15 And the LORD appeared in the taber- which they go about, even now, before I have nacle in a pillar of a cloud : and the pillar of | brought them into the land which I sware. the cloud stood over the door of the taber-| 22 Moses therefore wrote this song the nacle.

same day, and taught it the children of Israel. 16 | And the LORD said unto Moses, 23 | And he gave Joshua the son of Nun Behold, thou shalt 'sleep with thy fathers; a charge, and said, 'Be strong and of a good and this people will rise up, and go a whoring courage : for thou shalt bring the children of after the gods of the strangers of the land, Israel into the land which I sware unto them: whither they go to be among them, and will and I will be with thee. forsake me, and break my covenant which I | 24 | And it came to pass, when Moses have made with them.

had made an end of writing the words of this 17 Then my anger shall be kindled against law in a book, until they were finished, them in that day, and I will forsake them, 25 That Moses commanded the Levites, and I will hide my face from them, and they which bare the ark of the covenant of the shall be devoured, and many evils and trou LORD, saying, bles shall befall them; so that they will say 26 Take this book of the law, and put it in that day, Are not these evils come upon us, in the side of the ark of the covenant of the because our God is not among us?

LORD your God, that it may be there for a 18 And I will surely hide my face in that witness against thee. day for all the evils which they shall have 27 For I know thy rebellion, and thy stiff wrought, in that they are turned unto other neck : behold, while I am yet alive with you

this day, ye have been rebellious against the 19 Now therefore write ye this song for LORD; and how much more after my death? you, and teach it the children of Israel: put 28 Gather unto me all the elders of your it in their mouths, that this song may be tribes, and your officers, that I may speak a witness for me against the children of these words in their ears, and call heaven and Israel.

earth to record against them. 20 For when I shall have brought them 29 For I know that after my death ye will into the land which I sware unto their fathers, utterly corrupt yourselves, and turn aside that floweth with milk and honey; and they from the way which I have commanded you; shall have eaten and filled themselves, and and evil will befall you in the latter days; waxen fat; then will they turn unto other because ye will do evil in the sight of the gods, and serve them, and provoke me, and LORD, to provoke him to anger through the break my covenant.

work of your hands. 21 And it shall come to pass, when many 30 And Moses spake in the ears of all the evils and troubles are befallen them, that this congregation of Israel the words of this song, song shall testify against them as a witness ; | until they were ended. 5 Heb, lie down. 6 Heb, find them. 7 Heb. before.

8 Heb. do.

gods.

9 Josh. 1. 6.

Verse 24. Made an end of writing the words of this law | to take it up in fragments as the several passages bring in a book.' - In order to give the reader some idea of the the details under our notice. probable form and material of this most ancient book, and I. VEGETABLE SUBSTANCES.-1. Wood. Inscriptions the other books mentioned in the sacred volume, we shall on wood are very ancient, but do not require to be here here state a few leading facts on the general subject, ac noticed. Tablets of wood were very early in use, and companying the statement by such engraved illustrations, seem to have been generally employed much in the same from authentic sources, as seem calculated to render more way as slates among ourselves, that is, for temporary distinctly intelligible the information supplied. It will be writing (see the notes on Num. v. 23). Sometimes they observed that our present notice is limited to such portable were single, but frequently from two to five or more leaves writings as may inore or less properly come under the were done up into a sort of book, something like our denomination of books. As we shall not enlarge the slate-books. "The Greeks and Romans usually coated the subject by investigating the chronological priority in the boards with wax, on which the letters were traced with a use of the different substances employed, we shall find it style, or pen, commonly of iron, but also of gold, silver, convenient to arrange our brief remarks under the heads brass, and sometimes of ivory or bone. These instruments of Vegetable, Metallic, and Animal Substances. Most of had one end pointed, to trace the letters, and the other those we shall notice, or probably all, were, in due order broad and smooth, for the purpose of obliterating what of time, known to the Jews, as we either know positively | had been written, by spreading back the wax, so as to froin Scripture, or else may, with tolerable certainty, infer render it fit to receive other words. In such books, there from their connections with other nations. It may be was in the middle of each leaf a sort of button, to prevent therefore more useful to view the subject connectedly, than the pages from touching each other when closed. But the

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greater warmth of their climate prevented the Jews from strument. At this day, books made with the leaves of generally using wax: they, therefore, wrote on the tablets different trees are common among the Indian nations, and with a kind of ink, which could be easily sponged out specimens of them are numerous in England. The palwhen necessary. Such tablets of wood were in use long myra leaf is that which is most generally used, but others before the time of Homer, who lived 150 years before are preferred in some parts, as those of the talipot-tree, in Isaiah; and Horne thinks it highly probable that several Ceylon, on account of its superior breadth and thickness. of the prophets wrote upon tablets of wood, or some similar The letters are written, or rather engraved, with a fine. material (compare Isa. xxx. 8, and Hab. ii. 2). Such cer pointed style, or sort of bodkin ; and the writing is aftertainly was the alakídlov, 'writing-table, on which Zecha wards rubbed over with a composition of oil and pulverized rias wrote the name of his son, John the Baptist (Luke i. charcoal, which renders the characters distinct and per63). They were not wholly disused in Europe until the manent. fourteenth century; and are still employed in North 4. Papyrus. This was a vegetable tissue, the manufacAfrica, Western Asia, and Greece. The leaves of these ture of which originated and was, in a great degree, pecutablet-books, whether of wood, metal, or ivory, were con liar to Egypt. It is obtained from a bulrush (Cyperus nected together by rings at the back, through which a rod papyrus, Linn.) which grew in the swamps of the Nile to was passed, that served as a handle to carry them by. the height of ten or fifteen feet. The parts used in making

2. Bark of trees. The fine inner bark of such trees as the papyrus were the thin concentric coats or pellicles that the lime, ash, maple, or elm, was early used as a sub surround the triangular stalk; those nearest the centre stance for writing. As such was called in Latin liber, being the best and finest. A layer of these was laid out this name came permanently to be applied to all kinds of lengthwise on a board, and another layer pasted over it books, and has, in a similar connection, been adopted into crosswise, and after being pressed and dried in the sun, the most European languages. These books, like all others sheet was completed by the surface being polished with a of flexible materials, were rolled up to render them shell, or other hard and smooth substance. A number of portable, and to preserve the writing. They were usually these sheets were glued together, to form a roll of the rerolled round a stick or cylinder; and if they were long, quired dimensions. The breadth was determined by the round two cylinders. Hence the name volume' (volu length of the slips taken from the plant; but the length men)—a thing rolled up—which continues to be applied to might of course be carried to almost any extent. The books very different from rolls. In using the roll, thé largest which has yet been found is that which was reader unrolled it to the place he wanted, and rolled it up bought, in 1836, for the British Museum, at the sale of again when he had done. The book of the law, written Mr. Burton's collection of Egyptian antiquities; it conon parchment, is thus rolled and thus read in the Jewish sists of one entire sheet of papyrus without a single join, synagogues at the present time. We do not know that and measures one hundred feet in length. The writing, rolls of bark are mentioned in the Scripture, but it does as in all rolls of whatever material, is not across the length not therefore follow that they were not known to the Jews. or breadth of the roll, but in columns, extended in the

3. Leaves of trecs. Pliny thinks that the most early direction of the roll's breadth, with a blank strip between substance used for writing was the leaf of the palm-tree; them. Many such rolls have been found in Egypt, in meaning, we presume, that this was the first flexible sub mummy-cases and earthen vessels, and many also in the stance employed. Be this as it may, the process is cer houses excavated at Herculaneum. The former, though tainly of very remote antiquity; and would be naturally more ancient, are better preserved and more easily unsuggested by its being perceived how readily particular rolled than the latter, which have suffered from the action leaves received and retained marks made by a pointed in- | of heat. The superiority of the papyrus to all other ma

terials previously known, brought it speedily into general | tically, and ticketed at the upper extremity with their use, for books, among the western civilized nations; and titles. (See more largely in Egyptian Antiquities, ii, 7, it must, in the time of the Apocrypha and New Testament, and Pompeii, ii. 13, in Library of Entertaining Koov. have been well known to the Jews. Indeed it may pro ledge; Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians, üï146-151.) bably enough have been known to the prophets ; for 5. Linen. The use of linen az a substance for writing although the common account niakes the discovery pos on, is allowed to have been long prior to the invention of terior to the foundation of Alexandria, this must be an papyrus. Indeed, it is evident that when men had incrror; since it was extensively used and formed an article vented linen cloth for dress, and afterwards began to feel of export from Egypt in the time of Herodotus, whose the need of a flexible and durable material for writing, it visit to that country was more than a century prior to th would naturally occur to them, that if their linen could be foundation of Alexandria : indeed papyri of the remote

so prepared as to receive and retain the characters, it Pharaonic periods are still met with : and since the mode would be more convenient to form a portable book with. of writing on them is shewn by the sculptures to have than any substance previously known. They soon found been common in times long prior to the Exode, there is how to adapt their tissues to this purpose by priming or some reason to suppose that the use of the papyrus was painting them all over, before they began to write, the known to Moses, and to the Hebrews who with him left writing itself being also rather painted than written, for Egypt. The papyrus was too dear, even in Egypt, to be the inks of antiquity were rather paints than inks, conemployed for common uses, and as it must have been still taining no mordant to give them durability; resembling. inore rare and costly when exported, this may well enough in this, the inks now used in the East. That such writing account for our not finding in the Old Testament any 110 was known to the ancient Egyptians, we know from the tice of its use among the Hebrews; although we are not written baudages which are sometimes found on mummies. thence entitled to infer that it was unknown to them. The Linen books are mentioned by Pliny and Vopiscus; and rush itself is distinctly mentioned by Isaiah (xix. 7) in Livy speaks of such books that were found in the temple predicting the confusion of Egypt. The subjoined wood- of Moneta. The obvious character of the resource is also cut exhibits a portion of an Egyptian roll, and the one in i indicated by the fact, that the pictorial epistles of the the preceding page shews others from Herculaneum, one Mexicans were painted on a cotton tissue. The use of unrolled, some closed, and others in the boxes in which linen was certainly known to the Jews in the time of they were usually kept, several together, deposited ver- | Moses, the priestly robes being principally of that mate

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rial; and there are Biblical scholars who think that the

al of the Pentateuch and the other books of the Old Testament were written on rolls of linen. The question is certainly open to investigation, as rolls only are mentioned in a general sense, without our being informed of what they were composed. Our own impression certainly is, that when a roll (172 megillah) or · book' (70D sepher) is mentioned, we are to understand that it was either of linen or of the skins of animals—sometimes, perhaps, the one, and sometimes the other.

II. METALLIC SUBSTANCES.—Tablets, and sometimes several tablets formed into a book like the wooden tablets, consisting of plates of lead, copper, brass, and other metals, were anciently used, either to form leaves on which the wax might be spread, or else for the writing to be engraven upon them. The latter process is exceedingly ancient. Writing on lead is mentioned by Job (xix. 24). Pliny mentions that leaden sheets or plates were used for important public documents. This we learn also from other sources; and brass was also employed for inscriptions intended to be very durable. What Pliny says on the general subject is instructive. “At first men wrote on the leaves of the palm, and the bark of certain other trees; but afterwards public documents were preserved on leaden plates or sheets, and those of a private nature on

SYXAGOGUE ROLL. wax and linen.' The order of sequence here is of no lish feet. In its present condition it consists of thirty. weight; we cite it for the facts. Montfaucon purchased seven skins, comprehending 170 columns, four inches in at Rome, in 1699, an ancient book entirely composed of breadth, and containing each from forty to fifty lines. It lead. It was about four inches long and three inches is in some places worn out, and the holes have been sewn wide: and not only were the two pieces that formed the up with pieces of parchment. (See further particulars in cover, and the leaves, six in number, of lead, but also the Horne's account of Hebrew Manuscripts in his Introduce stick inserted through the rings to hold the leaves together, tion, iv. 86-89.) We refer to this remarkable roll merely as well as the hinges and pails. It contained Egyptian as representing a very primitive manner of writing imGnostic figures and unintelligible writing. Brass, as more portant documents, without expressing any opinion as to durable, was used for the inscriptions designed to last the the date of the roll, or the value of its text.Dr. Buchanan longest, such as treaties, laws, and alliances. These pub- himself states, in his Researches, p. 236, that the Cabul lic documents were, however, usually written on large Jews, who travel into the interior of China, say that in tablets. The ornamental brasses in our churches, many of some synagogues the law is still written on a roll of leather, which are in excellent preservation, although of ancient made of goats' skins, dyed red; not on vellum, but on a date, illustrate this still more ancient date of brazen soft flexible leather.' tablets. The style, for writing on brass and other hard 2. Parchment. This is but an improvement, although substances, was sometimes tipped with diamond (Jer. a very important one, on the process iust mentioned. It xvii. 1).

was one of the latest, if not the latest of the various proIII. ANIMAL SUBSTANCES. -1. Skins. The skins of cesses we have noticed, although some assign it a very animals were in use for writing long before parchment early date, for want of adverting to the difference between was invented. Herodotus meutions the barbarians as it and skins less artificially prepared. The improvement writing or painting on the skins of goats and sheep; and is said to have been invented at Pergamos, at a time when Diodorus describes the ancient Persian records as being Ptolemy Philadelphus prohibited the exportation of papy. kept on the same substance. The recourse was so very rus from Egypt, with the view of obstructing the formation obvious that it has prevailed in most countries. Even in of a grand library which Eumenes, king of Pergamos, America, the Mexicans had books of skins, and the North was forming, and which he feared might eclipse his own American Indians had maps painted on skins. It was also great library at Alexandria. It is certain that the best certainly one of the most ancient, if not the most ancient parchment was made at Pergamos, and skins thus preform of portable writing; and they have great probability pared were hence called Charta Pergamena, of which our on their side who contend that the books of Moses were parchment is a corruption. In Greek they are sometimes written on the skins of sheep or goats. The Jews, then, called membrana (ueußpáva), under which' name St. Paul had most certainly the art of preparing and dyeing skins, mentions them in 2 Tim. iv. 13. Parchment came to be for rams' skins dyed red, made a part of the covering for employed for legal, sacred, and other particular classes of the tabernacle. In connection with this fact, the following works; but, in these later times, the comparative cheapness particulars of a Hebrew MS. roll of the Pentateuch, now of papyrus, combined with as much durability as could be in the public library at Cambridge, are very instructive. required for the more common literary works, maintained The roll was discovered by Dr. Claudius Buchanan, in the it still in general use. The Jews soon began to write record-chest of the black Jews in Malabar, supposed to be

upposed to be their scriptures on parchment, of which the rolls of the

their scriptures on parchment, of which descended from the first dispersion of the Hebrew nation law used in their synagogues are still composed. by Nebuchadnezzar. The date of the manuscript could 3. Ivory. Tablets and tablet-books of ivory, on the not be ascertained, but the text is supposed to have been same principle as those of wood and metals, were anciently derived from those copies which their ancestors brought ! in use, much as they continue to be so among ourselves. with them to India. It is written on a roll of goat-skins, į They were written on with that paint-like ink which, as dyed red, and measures forty-eight feet in length by we have already noticed, might be washed off when necestwenty-two inches in breadth. As it wants Leviticus and sary. The Burmese have beautiful books formed of ivory the greater part of Deuteronomy, it is calculated that its / sheets stained black, on which the characters are gilt or original length must have been not less than ninety Eng- ! enamelled, and the margins adorned with gilding.

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