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Asia, which were anciently famous for their fertility, are now quite barren.
27. The botch of Egypt. See the note on ch. vii, 15. Some writers think this the elephantiasis, and it may be so, although that appears to be sufficiently represented elsewhere as one of the forms of leprosy. We, however, incline rather to think that it may have been a disease more peculiar to Egypt; and in that case we might see sufficient analogy in a troublesome cutaneous disease which afflicts the people of that country towards the end of June or beginning of July, and which is on that account attributed to the rising of the Nile. It consists of an eruption of red spots and pimples, which for the time of their continuance occasion a very troublesome smarting.
• Emerods.' -See 1 Sam. v. 6.
• The scab' (an garab).- Probably a malignant kind of scurvy.
• The itch' (ohn cheres). — The itch is no doubt intended, from the analogy of the Arabic, in which the same word occurs as a verb, to scratch, to be rough or scabby, Its appearance here, in a list of the severest physical calamities, need occasion no surprise. The disorder is far more common and incomparably more formidable in the East than in Europe. It is not unusual to see a man covered from head to foot with the noisome and irritable sores of this disorder.
35. • In the knees and in the legs.'--Roseumüller, in his Scholia, has shewn that this verse contains a very exact description of the elephantiasis, a disorder which in the middle ages was well known in Europe under the name of leprosy. This term was erroneously applied to it: but the mistake originating in the old Latin translators from the Arabic, is still kept up by travellers in the East, who usually describe as leprosy that which is in reality the elephantiasis. The following description of the disease forms part of the notice of it in Dr. W. A. Nicholson's Art. LEPROSY, in the Cyclopædia of Biblical Literature.
Elephantiasis first of all makes its appearance by spots of a reddish, yellowish, or livid hue, irregularly disseminated over the skin and slightly raised above its surface. These spots are glossy, and appear oily, or as if they were covered with varnish. After they have remained in this way for a longer or shorter time, they are succeeded by an eruption of tubercles; these are soft, roundish tumours, varying in
size from that of a pea to that of an olive, and are of a reddish or livid colour. They are principally developed on the face and ears, but in the course of years extend over the whole body. The face becomes frightfully deformed; the forehead is traversed by deep lines, and covered with numerous tubercles; the eyebrows become bald, swelled, furrowed by oblique lines, and covered with nipple-like elevations; the eyelashes fall out, and the eyes assume a fixed and staring look; the lips are enormously thickened and shining: the beard falls out; the chin and ears are enlarged and beset with tubercles; the lobe and alæ of the nose are frightfully enlarged and deformed; the nostrils irregularly dilated, internally constricted, and excoriated; the voice is hoarse and nasal, and the breath intolerably fetid. After some time, generally after some years, many of the tubercles ulcerate, and the matter which exudes from them dries to crusts of a brownish or blackish colour; but this process seldom terminates in cicatrization. The extremities are affected in the same way as the face. The hollow of the foot is swelled out, so that the sole becomes flat; the sensibility of the skin is greatly impaired, and, in the hands and feet, often entirely lost, the joints of the toes ulcerate and fall off one after the other; insupportable fætor exhales from the whole body. The patient's general health is not affected for a considerable time, and his sufferings are not always of the same intensity as his external deformity. Often, however, his nights are sleepless or disturbed by frightful dreams; he becomes morose and melancholy; he shuns the sight of the healthy, because be feels what an object of disgust he is to them, and life becomes a loathsome burden to him; or he falls into a state of apathy, and after many years of such an existence he sinks either from exhaustion, or from the supervention of internal disease. The Greeks gave the name of elephantiasis to this disease, because the skin of the person affected with it was thought to resemble that of an elephant, in dark colour, ruggedness, and insensibility, or, as some have thought, because the foot, after the loss of the toes, when the hollow of the sole is filled up and the ankle enlarged, resembles the foot of an elephant.
33, 37. • Thou shalt be only oppressed and crushed alway .... Thou shalt become an astonishment, a proverb, and a byword, among all nations.'—How remarkably have these prophecies been accomplished in the whole history of this
singular people, since they became a people dispersed were spared; but were snatched up by the soldiers, and through all natious-cast down, but not utterly destroyed ! thrown down from the citadel. Indeed the whole series of prophecies in this chapter have 53. • Thou shalt eat the fruit of thine own body:—This been so remarkably accomplished, that there could be few was remarkably fulfilled at the siege of Jerusalem by studies better adapted to convince a wavering mind of the Titus, as recorded by Josephus. But the same had preDivine authority by which Moses acted and spoke, than to viously happened also, when Samaria was besieged by the trace out the generally well known facts by which these king of Syria in the time of Ahab. See the note on 2 most intelligible predictions were fulfilled, and are still Kings vi. 29; Luke xxi. 23. The prophecy probably fulfilling. Nor is there any other theory which will ac refers to both, and to other similar events which may not count for the amazing peculiarities which the Hebrew have been recorded. nation continues, at this day, to exhibit, than that which 62. • Few in number.'— The present number of the we find in the Divine intention, which is here expressed Jews throughout the world is not supposed by any to exthrough Moses, and in after-times through other prophets. cecd six millions, and is reckoned by some at not above We shall hereafter have occasion to point out, in the Scrip four millions--and this after the lapse of long ages during ture history itself, the accomplishment of much that is which peoples originally but few in pumber have grown here foretold: and shall chiedy limit the few following into mighty and populous nations. It does not, however, remarks to instances which occurred after the sacred his appear that the present text refers to this, but rather to tory had closed. It is not part of the duty we have under the numbers which would be left remaining after, as the taken to investigate or point out generally the fulfilment following verse expresses it, they should be . plucked from of prophecy: but there will still be some conspicuous in off the land' which they were then about to take for a stances concerning which there is no difference of opinion, possession. These are few indeed ; and these few are and which come fully within our plan. These are chiefly aliens in the land that was once their own; and of all such as referred to the then future history of different the aliens found in that land, they are the most oppressed nations, and which foretold the condition to which various and degraded. countries and cities have long since been brought. Those 68. "There ye shall be sold;'—This was accomplished who wish to trace the fulfilment of prophecy in detail will on several occasions. It is related both by Aristeas and of course avail themselves of the assistance which the ex Josephus, that in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus there cellent works of Bishop Newton and Dr. Keith are so well were vast numbers of Hebrew slaves in Egypt, and that calculated to afford.
the king himself bought above 100,000 of them from their 49. · The Lord shall briny a nation against thee from
masters and set them free. Egypt indeed was the great far.'- This prophecy is thought to refer to the destruction
slave mart of ancient times, and several of the conquerors
and oppressors of the Jews sent, at least, a large proportion of the Jewish nation by the Romans, to which it certainly
of their captives thither to be sold. Titus had 90,000 capmost literally applies. They came from far; and the pro
tives after Jerusalem was taken. Those above seventeen phecy has a still closer application, when we consider that
years of age were sent to different parts of the Roman emthe soldiers themselves were mostly from France, Spain,
pire to labour on the public works, besides great numbers Britain, and, what the Hebrews would call, the ends of the
who perished in compulsory combats with wild beasts. carth. Vespasian and Hadrian, the two great destroyers
Those under seventeen were doomed to be sold for slaves; of the Jews, also came from commanding here in Britain.
but in such deep contempt and detestation was the nation The eagle was their standard ; and their language was far
held, that few were willing to buy them; and the Jews more unknown to the Jews than was that of the Chaldeans,
who remained at large were too few and poor to be able to to whom some would refer this prophecy.
redeem their brethren. The market was also glutted with 50. • Shall not regard the person of the old,' etc.—This their numbers, so that they were sold at a mere nominal was true of the Chaldeans. ' In 2 Chron. xxxvi. 17, it is price-sometimes thirty for a small piece of money. Those said, • He' (the Lord). brought upon them the king of the who remained unpurchased were sent into confinement, Chaldeans, who slew their young men with the sword.... where they perished by hundreds and by thousands togeand had no compassion upon young man or maiden, old ther, from neglect and hunger. Egypt received a large inan, or him that stooped for age. This was also true of proportion of these slaves, who were probably sent thither the Romans; for Josephus informs us, that when Vespasian in ships, as the Romans had a fleet in the Mediterranean, entered Gadara, he slew all, man by man, the Romans and this was a much easier and safer way of transporting shewing mercy to no age, out of hatred to the nation, and them than by land across the desert. The same things, from a remembrance of their former injuries. Similar precisely, took place on the final desolation of Israel by slaughter took place at Gamala, where, as the same his Hadrian, who may be said to have consummated their torian informs us, nobody escaped except two women, and doom, by decreeing, with the concurrence of the Roman they only by concealing themselves from the fury of the senate, that no Jew should ever, on pain of death, enter the Romans when the city was taken. Not even the infants land of his fathers,
said unto them, 'Ye have seen all that the 2 Moses exhorteth them to obedience, by the memory of |
LORD did before your eyes in the land of the works they had seen. 10 Aü are presented | Egypt unto Pharaoh, and unto all his serbefore the Lord to enter into his covenant. 20 The vants, and unto all his land; great wrath on him that flattereth himself in his 3. The great temptations which thine
3 The great temptations which thine eyes wickedness. 29 Secret things belong unto God.
have seen, the signs, and those great miThese are the words of the covenant, which 'racles : the LORD commanded Moses to make with 4 Yet the LORD hath not given you an the children of Israel in the land of Moab, heart to perceive, and eyes to see, and ears to beside the covenant which he made with them hear, unto this day. in Horeb.
5 And I have led you forty years in the 2 | And Moses called unto all Israel, and wilderness : your clothes are not waxen old
1 Exod. 19.4 VOL. I. 2J
. and gave it foto
from under the LORD shall of Israel, accompare
upon you, and thy shoe is not waxen old upon 19 And it come to pass, when he heareth thy foot.
the words of this curse, that he bless himself 6 Ye have not eaten bread, neither have in his heart, saying, I shall have peace, ye drunk wine or strong drink : that ye might though I walk in the 'imagination of mine know that I am the LORD your God.
heart, to add ®drunkenness to thirst: 7 And when ye came unto this place, Sihon | 20 The LORD will not spare him, but then the king of Heshbon, and Og the king of the anger of the LORD and his jealousy shall Bashan, came out against us unto battle, and smoke against that man, and all the curses we smote them :
that are written in this book shall lie upon 8 And we took their land, and gave it for him, and the LORD shall blot out his name an inheritance unto the Reubenites, and to the Gadites, and to the half tribe of Ma 21 And the LORD shall separate him unto nasseh.
evil out of all the tribes of Israel, according 9 'Keep therefore the words of this cove to all the curses of the covenant that 'are nant, and do them, that ye may prosper in all written in this book of the law: that ye do.
22 So that the generation to come of your 10% q Ye stand this day all of you before children that shall rise up after you, and the the LORD your God; your captains of your stranger that shall come from a far land, shall tribes, your elders, and your officers, with all say, when they see the plagues of that land, the men of Israel,
and the sicknesses which the LORD hath 11 Your little ones, your wives, and thy laid upon it; stranger that is in thy camp, from the hewer | 23 And that the whole land thereof is of thy wood unto the drawer of thy water : | brimstone, and salt, and burning, that it is
12 That thou shouldest Senter into cove- not sown, nor beareth, nor any grass groweth nant with the LORD thy God, and into his therein, "like the overthrow of Sodom, and oath, which the Lord thy God maketh with Gomorrah, Admah, and Zeboim, which the thee this day :
LORD overthrew in his anger, and in his 13 That he may establish thee to day for wrath : a people unto himself, and that he may be | 24 Even all nations shall say, 'Wherefore unto thee a God, as he hath said unto thee, hath the LORD done thus unto this land ? and as he hath sworn unto thy fathers, to what meaneth the heat of this great anger? Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob.
25 Then men shall say, Because they have 14 Neither with you only do I make this forsaken the covenant of the LORD God of covenant and this oath;
their fathers, which he made with them when 15 But with him that standeth here with he brought them forth out of the land of us this day before the LORD our God, and also with him that is not here with us this 26 For they went and served other gods, day:
and worshipped them, gods whom they knew 16 (For ye know how we have dwelt in not, and whom he had not "given unto them: 1 the land of Egypt; and how we came through 27 And the anger of the LORD was kindled the nations which ye passed by ;
against this land, to bring upon it all the 17 And ye have seen their abominations, curses that are written in this book: . and their idols, wood and stone, silver and | 28 And the LORD rooted them out of their gold, which were among them :)
land in anger, and in wrath, and in great 18 Lest there should be among you man, / indignation, and cast them into another land, or woman, or family, or tribe, whose heart as it is this day. turneth away this day from the LORD our 29 The secret things belong unto the LORD God, to go and serve the gods of these na- our God: but those things which are revealed tions ; lest there should be among you a root belong unto us and to our children for ever, that beareth Søgall and wormwood;
that we may do all the words of this law. 2 Chap. 4.6. Josh. 1.7. 1 Kings 2. 3. 3 Heb. pass. 4 Heb. dungy gods. 5 Or, a poisonful herb.
7 Or, stubbornness. Il Gen. 19, 24, 25,
8 Heb, the drunken to the thirsty.
9 Heb. is written. 10 Heb, wherewith the LORD hath made it sick.
14 Heb. divided
Verse 5. · Your clothes are not waxen old upon you,' etc. but, as Patrick observes, there was no need of this, as the - The Rabbins add many circumstances to explain and clothes of the persons that died would serve for their chilmagnify this miracle, stating that the clothes and shoes dren when they reached their stature. The miracle, as grew with the growth of the individual who wore them; | expressed in the text, would be that the clothing which
the Hebrews had brought with them from Egypt, and that But this is judging the customs of the East by those of which they afterwards obtained as spoil from the Egyptians Europe, and the wants of nomades by those of settled and Amalekites, did not wear out during their long wan people. At this day the Bedouin Arabs do not generally derings. The great majority of interpreters in ancient wear any linen, but only a sort of woollen mantle wrapped and modern times understand the miracle literally as thus around their naked bodies; and it is not only probable that expressed; but there are also a considerable number of the mass of the Israelites-while they also were wandering commentators, of piety and learning equally unquestioned, shepherds, and at a period so much more ancient-in like who do not take the text literally, but suppose it to express manner dispensed with linen, but that they even continued figuratively, that God had at all times kept them provided to do so long after their settlement in Canaan. with sufficient clothing; or, that they were never, through 11. From the hewer of thy wood unto the drawer of thy mere poverty, reduced to wear their clothes and sandals water.'—These seem to have been regarded by the Hebrews till they were old and torn: just as Isa. xlviii. 21, • They as the lowest offices of useful service, and were commonly thirsted not when he led them through the deserts,' is not performed by slaves and aliens. The hewers of wood” literally true, as they sometimes did thirst severely; but it probably not only felled the wood in the first instance, and is true figuratively, as their thirst was appeased by mira brought it now to the camp and eventually to the towns, culous supplies of water. It is also observed, that if in but also chopped it up for daily use as fuel. Fire-wood tended to be literally understood, so great a miracle would is usually brought to houses in rough branches, and cut scarcely have been mentioned in so cursory a manner, not up from time to time, as wanted; the trunk being rc. being at all noticed in the regular history, like all the served for building and carpentry. In Oriental towns, other miracles, and only slightly referred to in exhortatory water is not conveyed to the several streets and houses by portions of the present book. It is further observed that pipes or trenches. It must all be fetched from the river God is not represented to work miracles, except when or drawn from the wells. In towns, this is seldom done natural means fail; and yet here is one of the greatest, for by the householders themselves, or by their servants. which it is difficult to discover the occasion, as the people There are men who make it a trade to supply every day, to had numerous flocks of sheep and goats, and herds of regular customers, the quantity of water required. This cattle, which would amply supply them with wool, hair, they carry about in a well prepared goat-skin, which is and skins for their clothes and sandals; and that they slung to the back in the manner represented in our cut, the knew how to spin and weave we see from Exod. xxxv. 25. neck, which is usually brought under the arm and comThey might also probably, if necessary, have obtained such pressed by the hand, serving as the mouth of this curious articles by traffic with their Arabian neighbours. These but exceedingly useful vessel. Persons of larger dealings arguments seem to have great weight; and while we have an ass which carries two skins at once, borne like would repel indignantly any attempt to explain away the panniers : and we have known very prosperous water-cardetailed and manifest exhibitions of the Divine power riers who had ox-skins carried on a horse or camel. which the sacred books contain, we rather incline to the These men, continually passing to and fro with their wet opinion that the present text should be figuratively under bags through the narrow streets, are great nuisances in the stood. Dr. Graves, indeed, in his Lectures on the Penta- | towns, from the difficulty of avoiding contact with them. teuch, contends for the literal interpretation, on the ground The care taken to avoid them, in some degree answers to that even though the above explanation were admitted, still that which people exhibit in our own streets to avoid linen, the most necessary and the least lasting part of the carriages and carts. There are no draught vehicles in dress of every class,' could only be obtained by miracle. Asiatic towns; and the water-carriers with their bags,
HEEKS OF WOOD,
together with the hewers of wood,' bearing large faggots | lamity in itself. The writer remembers that, when this on their own backs or the backs of their animals, form the happened in the time when a severe plague was raging, only obstructions which usually occur in the streets, narrow Europeans, who were quite alive to the importance of as they are. In a time of public calamity the water maintaining a strict quarantine in their own houses, were, carriers are the last to discontinue their labour; and their nevertheless, obliged to go out through the town to fetch doing so is a sure indication that the distress has become water for themselves from the distant river, most intense and imminent, and is indeed a great ca.
'thou shalt possess it; and he will do thee
good, and multiply thee above thy fathers. 1 Great mercies promised unto the penitent. 11 The
e 6 And the Lord thy God will circumcise commandment is manifest. 15 Life and death are set before them.
thine heart, and the heart of thy seed, to love
the LORD thy God with all thine heart, and And it shall come to pass, when all these with all thy soul, that thou mayest live. things are come upon thee, the blessing and 7 And the LORD thy God will put all these the curse, which I have set before thee, and | curses upon thine enemies, and on them that thou shalt call them to mind among all the | hate thee, which persecuted thee. nations, whither the LORD thy God hath 8 And thou shalt return and obey the driven thee,
voice of the LORD, and do all his command2 And shalt return unto the LORD thy ments which I command thee this day. God, and shalt obey his voice according to ail 9 ?And the LORD thy God will make thee that I command thee this day, thou and thy plenteous in every work of thine hand, in the children, with all thine heart, and with all fruit of thy body, and in the fruit of thy cattle, thy soul ;
and in the fruit of thy land, for good : for the 3 That then the LORD thy God will turn LORD will again rejoice over thee for good, thy captivity, and have compassion upon thee, as he rejoiced over thy fathers : and will return and gather thee from all the | 10 If thou shalt hearken unto the voice of nations, whither the LORD thy God hath the LORD thy God, to keep his commandments scattered thee.
and his statutes which are written in this book 4 'If any of thine be driven out unto the of the law, and if thou turn unto the LORD outmost parts of heaven, from thence will the thy God with all thine heart, and with all thy LORD thy God gather thee, and from thence soul. will he fetch thee :
11 | For this commandment which I com5 And the LORD thy God will bring thee mand thee this day, it is not hidden from into the land which thy fathers possessed, and thee, neither is it far off. 1 Nehem. 1. 9.
2 Chap 28. 11.