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belly. So the plague was stayed from the

children of Israel. 1 Israel at Shittim commit whoredom and idolatry.

9 And those that died in the plague were 6 Phinehas killeth Zimri and Cozbi. 10 God therefore giveth him an everlasting priesthood. 16 The

twenty and four thousand. Midianites are to be vexed.

10° And the LORD spake unto Moses,

aying plinelas, the Senateht turned, why been

peon and therael joined their gods. People did / momealous to children the turned in the son

jea12 Wherefore of peace and his seed after him on And he shall have an everlasting proces

And Israel abode in 'Shittim, and the people 11 "Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son began to commit whoredom with the daugh- of Aaron the priest, hath turned my wrath ters of Moab.

2 And they called the people unto the was zealous for my sake among them, that sacrifices of their gods : and the people did I consumed not the children of Israel in my eat, and bowed down to their gods.

jealousy. 3 And Israel joined himself unto Baal- | 12 Wherefore say, 'Behold, I give unto peor : and the anger of the LORD was kindled him my covenant of peace : against Israel.

13 And he shall have it, and his seed after 4 And the LORD said unto Moses, Take him, even the covenant of an everlasting priestall the heads of the people, and hang them up hood ; because he was zealous for his God, before the LORD against the sun, that the and made an atonement for the children of fierce anger of the LORD may be turned away Israel. from Israel.

14 Now the name of the Israelite that was 5 And Moses said unto the judges of Is slain, even that was slain with the Midianitish rael, Slay ye every one his men that were woman, was Zimri, the son of Salu, a prince joined unto Baal-peor.

of a 'chief house among the Simeonites. 6 | And, behold, one of the children of 15 And the name of the Midianitish woIsrael came and brought unto his brethren a man that was slain was Cozbi, the daughter Midianitish woman in the sight of Moses, and of Zur; he was head over a people, and of a in the sight of all the congregation of the | chief house in Midian. children of Israel, who were weeping before 16 4 And the LORD spake unto Moses, the door of the tabernacle of the congregation. saying,

7 And 'when Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, | 17°*Vex the Midianites, and smite them : the son of Aaron the priest, saw it, he rose up 18 For they vex you with their wiles, from among the congregation, and took a wherewith they have beguiled you in the javelin in his hand ;

matter of Peor, and in the matter of Cozbi, 8 And he went after the man of Israel into the daughter of a prince of Midian, their the tent, and thrust both of them through, the sister, which was slain in the day of the plague man of Israel, and the woman through her | for Peor's sake.

1 Chap. 33. 49. 2 Deut. 4. 3. Josh. 22. 17. 3 Psalm 106. 30. 1 Mac. 2. 54. 41 Cor. 10.8. 5 Psalm 106. 30.

6 Ecclus. 45. 24.

1 Mac. 2. 54.

7 Heb, house of a father.

8 Chap, 31, 2,

Verse 3. Israel joined himself unto Baal-peor.'—Those obscene rites. Such rites were not indeed by any means who have given their attention to the elucidation of the peculiar to any one deity, but were more or less common idolatries mentioned in Scripture, are not agreed respecting to many, whence the Scripture, with just severity, freBaal-peor. We may observe that the same god was often quently calls the deities of the surrounding nations, not worshipped by the same people, but almost always under gods,' or even idols, but abominations, the abomidifferent names, and with different ceremonies; and as the nation of Moab,' the abomination of the Ammonites,' the worship of the Baal so frequently mentioned in Scripture abomination of the Zidonians, etc. This view as to Baalwas most extensively diffused, it is not improbable that peor seems rather to be sanctioned by the striking passage this was the same idol, distinguished as the national deity in Hosea ix. 10:of the Moabites by the affix • Peor,' derived probably from Mount Peor, within their territory (chap. xxiii. 28), being

• They went to Baal-peor, and separated themselves to

shame; the chief seat of his worship. We all know how common a custom it was to call the same deity by different sur

And became abominable as the object of their love.' names, according to the different places where he was Whichever view we take, there is little question that the worshipped. The Olympian and Dodonæan Jupiter form worship of this idol was celebrated by the most immodest an instance of this. As, however, Baal (lord) is rather actions, and that the unholy connections of the Israelites the titular distiuction of a chief deity (the sun generally) with the daughters of Moab and Midian were as much than a proper name, it may be doubted whether precisely crimes of idolatry as of lust. We learn from ch. xxxi. 16, the same deity is always intended by this term, particu that in this melancholy affair, the Israelites were designlarly when a distinctive surname is given. Jerome, edly seduced by the people of the land, by the advice of Origen, and many other high authorities, are of opinion Balaam, who having much against his inclination, been that Baal-Peor was the same, or nearly the same, as the obliged to bless those whom he desired to curse, and being Priapus of the Romans, and was worshipped with similar probably aware of the consequences which attended their

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worship of the golden calf, suggested the attempt to seduce i is scarcely room to doubt, they were assembled, not to be them from their allegiance to Jehovah as the most likely themselves hanged up, but to execute judgment on the way to bring down ruin upon them.

offenders. Modern interpreters seem therefore inclined to It is believed by many commentators, that Chemosh, retain a clause which is here found in the Samaritan, and “the abomination of Moab,' from whom the Moabites are which is supposed to have dropped out of the Hebrew text. called, in chap. xxi. 29, the people of Chemosh,' and to It would then read: Take the heads of the people with whom Solomon erected an altar on the Mount of Olives thee, and let them slay those men who have joined themselres (1 Kings xi. 7), was the same as Baal-peor. This opinion unto Baal-Peor, and hang them up.' 'This clause also was entertained by Milton, who thus alludes to the present completes the sense in another respect; for as the text transaction, and defines the limits to which the worship of stands, it seems to state that certain persons were to be this idol extended :

hanged: but hanging was not a punishment in use among Chemos, th' obscene dread of Moab's sons,

the Jews, although, as a punishment of infamy, they hung From Aroer to Nebo, and the wild

up or gibbeted certain criminals otherwise executed; and Of southmost Abarim ; in Hesebon

this previous slaying and subsequent gibbeting is exAnd Horonaim, Sihon's realm, beyond

pressed clearly, when the text is thus amended from the The flow'ry vale of Sibma, clad with vines;

And Eleale, to the Asphaltic pool :

9. • Twenty and four thousand. - St. Paul says twentyPeor his other name, when he enticed

three thousand. The account of Moses includes, most Israel in Sittim, on their march from Nile,

probably, the total number, as well those that were put to To do him wanton rites, which cost them woe.'

death and hanged up, as those that died of the plague;

while the Apostle limits his notice to those only who died Paradise Lost, i. 406.

of the plague. The persons hanged up probably did not 4. Take all the heads of the people, and hang them up,' exceed the one thousand, which is the amount of the difetc.-If these • heads of the people' were the same who are ference between the numbers. described as • Judges of Israel' in the next verse, as there |

itf Jachin, herali, the of the Shauhe Simeo


against Aaron in the company of Korah, when 1 The sum of all Israel is taken in the plains of Moab.

they strove against the Lord: 52 The law of dividing among them the inheritance 10 And the earth opened.her mouth, and of the land." 57 The families and number of the swallowed them up together with Korah, when Levites. 63 None uere left of them which were

that company died, what time the fire denurnbered at Sinai, but Caleb and Joshua.

voured two hundred and fifty men: and they And it came to pass after the plague, that became a sign. the LORD spake unto Moses and unto Elea 11 Notwithstanding the children of Korah zar the son of Aaron the priest, saying, died not.

2 Take the sum of all the congregation of | 12 | The sons of Simeon after their fami- ! the children of Israel, 'from twenty years old lies: of Nemuel, the family of the Nemueland upward, throughout their fathers' house, ites: of Jamin, the family of the Jaminites : all that are able to go to war in Israel. of Jachin, the family of the Jachinites :

3 And Moses and Eleazar the priest spake | 13 Of Zeralı, the family of the Zarhites : with them in the plains of Moab by Jordan of Shaul, the family of the Shaulites. near Jericho, saying,

14 These are the families of the Simeonites, 4 Take the sum of the people, from twenty twenty and two thousand and two hundred. years old and upward ; as the Lord 'com 15 | The children of Gad after their fami- ' manded Moses and the children of Israel, lies: of Zephon, the family of the Zephonites : which went forth out of the land of Egypt. of Haggi, the family of the Haggites: of

5 1 °Reuben, the eldest son of Israel: | Shuni, the family of the Shunites : . the children of Reuben; Hanoch, of whom | 16 Of Ozni, the family of the Oznites : of cometh the family of the Hanochites : of Eri, the family of the Erites : Pallu, the family of the Palluites:

17 Of Arod, the family of the Arodites: 6 Of Hezron, the family of the Ilezronites : of Areli, the family of the Arelites. of Carmi, the family of the Carmites.

18 These are the families of the children 7 These are the families of the Reuben- of Gad according to those that were numbered ites : and they that were numbered of them of them, forty thousand and five hundred. were forty and three thousand and seven hun | 19 | The sons of Judah were Er and dred and thirty.

Onan: and Er and Onan died in the land of 8 And the sons of Pallu ; Eliab.

Canaan. 9 And the sons of Eliab; Nemuel, and 20 And the sons of Judah after their famiDathan, and Abiram. This is that Dathan | lies were ; of Shelah, the family of the Sheand Abiram, which were “famous in the con- lanites: of Pharez, the family of the Pharzites: gregation, who strove against Moses and of Zerah, the family of the Zarhites.

1 Chap. 1. 3. 2 Chap. 1. 1. 3 Gen. 46. 8. Exod. 6. 14. i Chron, 5. 1. Chap. 16. 2. 5 Gen. 38. 2, &c. and 46.1:.

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21 And the sons of Pharez were; of Hez- | bered of them, thirty and two thousand and ron, the family of the Hezronites : of Hamul, five hundred. These are the sons of Joseph the family of the Hamulites.

after their families. 22 These are the families of Judah ac 38 | The sons of Benjamin after their cording to those that were numbered of them, families : of Bela, the family of the Belaites : threescore and sixteen thousand and five hun of Ashbel, the family of the Ashbelites: of dred.

Ahiram, the family of the Ahiramites : 23 1 Of the sons of Issachar after their 39 Of Shupham, the family of the Shufamilies : of Tola, the family of the Tolaites : phamites : of Hupham, the family of the of Pua, the family of the Punites :

Huphamites. 24 Of Jashub, the family of the Jashub 1 40 And the sons of Bela were Ard and ites: of Shimron, the family of the Shim Naaman: of Ard, the family of the Ardites: ronites.

and of Naaman, the family of the Naamites. 25 These are the families of Issachar ac 41 These are the sons of Benjamin after cording to those that were numbered of them, their families : and they that were numbered threescore and four thousand and three hun- of them were forty and five thousand and six dred.

hundred. 26 9 Of the sons of Zebulun after their 42 These are the sons of Dan after their families: of Sered, the family of the Sardites: families : of Shuham, the family of the Shuof Elon, the family of the Elonites : of Jah- hamites. These are the families of Dan after leel, the family of the Jahleelites.

their families. 27 These are the families of the Zebu- ' 43 All the families of the Shuhamites, lunites according to those that were numbered according to those that were nunbered of of them, threescore thousand and five hun- them, were threescore and four thousand and dred.

four hundred. 28 9 The sons of Joseph after their fami- | 44 I of the children of Asher after their lies were Manasseh and Ephraim.

families : of Jimna, the family of the Jim29 Of the sons of Manasseh : of Machir, nites : of Jesui, the family of the Jesuites : the family of the Machirites: and Machir of Beriah, the family of the Beriites. begat Gilead : of Gilead come the family of 45 Of the sons of Beriah : of Heber, the the Gileadites.

family of the Heberites : of Malchiel, the 30 These are the sons of Gilead : of Jee- / family of the Malchielites. zer, the family of the Jeezerites : of Helek, / 46° And the name of the daughter of Asher the family of the Helekites :

was Sarah. 31 And of Asriel, the family of the As- |

| 47 These are the families of the sons of rielites : and of Shechem, the family of the Asher according to those that were numbered Shechemites:

of them ; who were fifty and three thousand 32 And of Shemida, the family of the and four hundred. Shemidaites : and of Hepher, the family of 48 I Of the sons of Naphtali after their the Hepherites.

families : of Jahzeel, the family of the Jah33 And 'Zelophehad the son of Hepher zeelites : of Guni, the family of the Gunites : had no sons, but daughters : and the names | 49 Of Jezer, the family of the Jezerites : of the daughters of Zelophehad were Mahlah, of Shillem, the family of the Shillennites. and Noah, Hoglah, Milcah, and Tirzah.

50 These are the families of Naphtali ac34 These are the families of Manasseh, cording to their families : and they that were and those that were numbered of them, fifty numbered of them were forty and five thouand two thousand and seven hundred. sand and four hundred.

35 | These are the sons of Ephraim after 51 These were the numbered of the children their families : of Shuthelah, the family of the | of Israel, six hundred thousand and a thousand Shuthalhites: of Becher, the family of the seven hundred and thirty. Bachrites : of Tahan, the family of the Ta- | 52 And the LORD spake unto Moses, hanites.

saying, 36 And these are the sons of Shuthelah : | 53 Unto these the land shall be divided of Eran, the family of the Eranites.

for an inheritance according to the number of 37 These are the families of the sons of ], names. Ephraim according to those that were num-/ 54 To many thou shalt "give the more Josh, 17. 1. 7 Chap. 27. 1.

9 Chap 33. 34. o lleb. mul.iply his inheritance.


inheritance, and to few thou shalt "give the i 60 And unto Aaron was born Nadab, and less inheritance: to every one shall his in- | Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar. heritance be given according to those that 61 And *Nadab and Abihu died, when were numbered of him.

they offered strange fire before the LORD. 55 Notwithstanding the land shall be "di | 62 And those that were numbered of them vided by lot : according to the names of the were twenty and three thousand, all males tribes of their fathers they shall inherit. from a month old and upward : for they were

56 According to the lot shall the possession not numbered among the children of Israel, thereof be divided between many and few. because there was no inheritance given them

57 | 'And these are they that were num- / among the children of Israel. bered of the Levites after their families : of | 63 | These are they that were numbered Gershon, the family of the Gershonites: of by Moses and Eleazar the priest, who numKohath, the family of the Kohathites : of bered the children of Israel in the plains of Merari, the family of the Merarites.

Moab by Jordan near Jericho. 58 These are the families of the Levites : 64 But among these there was not a man the family of the Libnites, the family of the of them whom Moses and Aaron the priest Hebronites, the family of the Mahlites, the numbered, when they numbered the children family of the Mushites, the family of the of Israel in the wilderness of Sinai. Korathites. And Kohath begat Amram. 65 For the Lord had said of them, They

59 And the name of Amram's wife was shall surely die in the wilderness. And I 18 Jochebed, the daughter of Levi, whom her | there was not left a man of them, save Caleb mother bare to Levi in Egypt: and she bare the son of Jephunneh, and Joshua the son of i unto Amram Aaron and Moses, and Miriam Nun. their sister. 10 Heb. diminish his inheritance. 11 Chap. 33. 54. Josh. 11. 23, and 14.2. 2 Exod. 6. 16, 17, 18, 19. 13 Exod. 2. 1, 2, and 6. 20. 14 Levit. 10. 2. Chap. 3. 4. i Chron. 24. 2.

15 Chap. 14, 28. 1 Cor. 10, 5, 6.

Verse 2. Take the sum of all the congregation.'— The | Exode, shewing the increase or decrease which took place following table furnishes a view of the results of this cen- in each tribe during the intervening period :sus as compared with that which was taken soon after the |



DECREASE. Reuben .


2,770 Simeon .


37,100 Gad


5,150 Judah .


1,900 Issachar.


9,900 Zebulun.


3,100 Ephraim.


8.000 Manasseh


20,500 Benjamin.


10, 200 Dan


41,500 . . 53,400 .

11,900 Naphtali .




Decrease on the whole 1,820 Levites from a month old. 22,273 . . 23,000

727 . • That there should have been a decrease, may, at the first 1 (xiv. 45.) Smitten by the Amalekites. 4. (xvi. 32, 33, view, seem surprising when we recollect the great rapidity | 49.) Korah's rebellion and its consequences caused the with which the Israelites had previously increased. But destruction of about 15,000. 5. (xxi. 1.) Smitten by the there is not the least difficulty in accounting for it. The king of Arad. 6. (xxi. 6.) Plague of fiery serpents : difference between the plenty of Egypt and the sterility much people died.'' 7. (XXV. 5, 9.) 24,000 destroyed by and privations of the desert may be taken into the account ; plague for their sin in the matter of Baal-peor, besides but still we can see that there actually would have been those previously slain with the sword. a large increase if the frequent perversity and rebellion of The remarkable difference between the rate of increase the people had not from time to time occasioned vast num and decrease in the several tribes, might give occasion for bers of them to be destroyed. Perhaps we should not be much curious investigation. The most striking points are far wide of the mark in estimating at about 100,000 the the astonishing increase in Manasseh, and the still more loss thus occasioned to the population; and the probability astonishing decrease in Simeon. The former, from being of this conjecture may be seen, by considering the different numerically the lowest of the tribes at the former census, circumstances which operated in causing this reduction. is at this become the sixth; and the latter, from being the

1. (Num. xi. 1.) Murmuring; in consequence of which third, has become the lowest of all, having lost not very the fire of the Lord burnt among them and consumed much less than two-thirds of its former number. For the them that were in the uttermost parts of the camp.' 2. increase in Mauasseh it is difficult to discover any other (xi. 35.) Very great plague' for loathing manna. 3. | cause than the Lord's blessing upon the house of Joseph;

but as to the decrease in Simeon, it is not without reason by lot, Reuben, Gad, and half the tribe of Manasseh, ha ving conceived that this tribe sustained the principal loss in the previously been settled on the east of the Jordan. matter of Baal-peor. We know that Zimri, one of the 64. ' Among these there was not a man of them whom ringleaders, was a chief of this tribe, and nothing is more Moses and Aaron the priest numbered ....in the wilderness probable than that a large number of its members should I of Sinai.'-This shews that the census was not a mere have been induced to follow the example of so influential counting of heads, but a regular registration of ages, if a person.

not also of names and families, for else this fact could not 55. The land shall be divided by lot.'--The numbers of well have been ascertained. It also forms one circumthe tribes being so different, there must necessarily be an stance to account for the diminished population, it being inequality in the extent and importance of their respective ordained that all the males above twenty at the first enuterritories. The country also which they were to inherit meration should die before the second. This could not was of an unequal and diversified character. The distri- | have happened according to the ordinary laws of mor. bution was probably therefore directed to be by lot, in tality. It will of course be recollected that the effect of order to prevent the charges of partiality or prejudice this must have been that in all the tribes (Levi excepted) which the tribes might have been ready to make against there were only two men above sixty years of age at the those who, in the absence of the lot, would have had to period of the second census. In ordinary circumstances a direct the distribution. The people would not doubt that great number must have exceeded this age, particularly as their inheritance was appointed by God, when they saw at this early period of the world the average duration of that, being thus taken, each tribe received the portion that human life seems not to have been quite reduced to its was suited to its wants. The manner in which the lot was present standard. It has been stated, as an objection to the taken is quite a matter of conjecture. Some of the Rab account in the text, that Caleb and Joshua were not the bins say that the limits were defined on scrolls of parch- | only persons numbered in Sinai, who entered Canaan, as ment, which the princes of the respective tribes drew in Eleazar and Phinehas are mentioned (Josh. xiv. 1, and succession (beginning with Reuben), from the urn in which xxii. 13) among those who did so. The answer is easythey were placed. But others have it, that there were two The Levites were not included in the general enumeration urns, one containing the name of the tribe, and the other at Sinai, but were numbered distinctly and on a different the definition of the limits of a province, and that a person principle (from a month old, not from twenty years old). who drew the lots took first a scroll containing the name Neither had they any share in the transaction which of a tribe from one urn, and then took from the other brought the sentence of death on the mass of the people. another scroll, the district defined in which belonged to This tribe did not, like the others, send a spy into Canaan, the tribe previously drawn. It will be recollected that nor does it appear that it concurred in the general muronly nine tribes and a half thus received their inheritance | muring which the report of the spies occasioned.


right: thou shalt surely give them a possession 1 The daughters of Zelophehad sue for an inheritance. of an inheritance among their father's bre

6 The law of inheritances. 12 Moses, being told of thren; and thou shalt cause the inheritance his death, sueth for a successor. 18 Joshua is ap of their father to pass unto them. pointed to succeed him.

8 And thou shalt speak unto the children Then came the daughters of 'Zelophehad, of Israel, saying, If a man die, and have no the son of Hepher, the son of Gilead, the son son, then ye shall cause his inheritance to pass of Machir, the son of Manasseh, of the fami unto his daughter. lies of Manasseh the son of Joseph : and these 9 And if he have no daughter, then ye are the names of his daughters; Mahlah, shall give his inheritance unto his brethren. Noah, and Hoglah, and Milcah, and Tirzah. 10 And if he have no brethren, then ye

2 And they stood before Moses, and before shall give his inheritance unto his father's Eleazar the priest, and before the princes and brethren. all the congregation, by the door of the taber 11 And if his father have no brethren, then nacle of the congregation, saying,

ye shall give his inheritance unto his kinsman 3 Our father died in the wilderness, and that is next to him of his family, and he shall he was not in the company of them that | possess it: and it shall be unto the children of gathered themselves together against the LORD Israel a statute of judgment, as the LORD in the company of Korah ; but died in his own commanded Moses. sin, and had no sons.

12 . And the LORD said unto Moses, 'Get 4 Why should the name of our father be thee up into this mount Abarim, and see the 'done away from among his family, because land which I have given unto the children of he hath no son ? Give unto us therefore a Israel. possession among the brethren of our father. I 13 And when thou hast seen it, thou also

5 And Moses brought their cause before shalt be gathered unto thy people, as Aaron the LORD.

thy brother was gathered. 6 | And the LORD spake unto Moses, ! 14 For ye 'rebelled against my commandsaying,

ment in the desert of Zin, in the strife of the 7 The daughters of Zelophehad speak | congregation, to sanctify me at the water be1 Chap. 26. 33. Josh. 17. 3. 2 Chap. 14. 85, and 26. 64, 65,

3 Heb. diminished.

4 Deut. 32. 49. 1 Chap 20. 84.

| 6 Chap. 20. 24.

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