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deal of flour mingled with the fourth part of an give unto the Lord an heave offering in your hin of oil.

generations. 5 And the fourth part of an hin of wine for 22 9 And if ye have erred, and not oba drink offering shalt thou prepare with the served all these commandments, which the burnt offering or sacrifice, for one lamb. LORD hath spoken unto Moses

6 Or for a ram, thou shalt prepare for a 23 Even all that the Lord hath commanded meat offering two tenth deals of flour mingled you by the hand of Moses, from the day that with the third part of an hin of oil.

the LORD commanded Moses, and hencefor7 And for a drink offering thou shalt offer ward among your generations ; the third part of an hin of wine, for a sweet 1 24 Then it shall be, if ought be committed savour unto the LORD.

by ignorance 'without the knowledge of the 8 And when thou preparest a bullock for congregation, that all the congregation shall a burnt offering, or for a sacrifice in perform- | offer one young bullock for a burnt offering, ing a vow, or peace offerings unto the LORD : | for a sweet savour unto the LORD, with his

9 Then shall he bring with a bullock a meat meat offering, and his drink offering, according offering of three tenth deals of four mingled to the 'manner, and one kid of the goats for a with half an hin of oil.

sin offering. 10 And thou shalt bring for a drink offer | 25 And the priest shall make an atoneing half an hin of wine, for an offering made ment for all the congregation of the children by fire, of a sweet savour unto the Lord. of Israel, and it shall be forgiven them; for

11 Thus shall it be done for one bullock, it is ignorance : and they shall bring their or for one ram, or for a lamb, or a kid. offering, a sacrifice made by fire unto the

12 According to the number that ye shall | LORD, and their sin offering before the LORD, prepare, so shall ye do to every one according for their ignorance : to their number.

26 And it shall be forgiven all the con13 All that are born of the country shall gregation of the children of Israel, and the do these things after this manner, in offering stranger that sojourneth among them ; seeing an offering made by fire, of a sweet savour | all the people were in ignorance. unto the LORD.

27 TT And "if any soul sin through ignorance, 14 And if a stranger sojourn with you, or then he shall bring a she goat of the first year whosoever be among you in your generations, for a sin offering. and will offer an offering made by fire, of a 28 And the priest shall make an atonement sweet savour unto the LORD; as ye do, so for the soul that sinneth ignorantly, when he he shall do.

sinneth by ignorance before the LORD, to 15 ‘One ordinance shall be both for you of make an atonement for him ; and it shall be the congregation, and also for the stranger forgiven him. that sojourneth with you, an ordinance for 29 Ye shall have one law for him that ever in your generations : as ye are, so shall °sinneth through ignorance, both for him the stranger be before the LORD.

that is born among the children of Israel, and 16 One law and one manner shall be for for the stranger that sojourneth among them. you, and for the stranger that sojourneth with 30 | But the soul that doeth ought pre

sumptuously, whether he be born in the land, 17 | And the LORD spake unto Moses, or a stranger, the same reproacheth the LORD; saying,

and that soul shall be cut off from among his '18 Speak unto the children of Israel, and | people. say unto them, When ye come into the land 31 Because he hath despised the word of whither I bring you,

the Lord, and hath broken his commandment, 19 Then it shall be, that, when ye eat of that soul shall utterly be cut off ; his iniquity the bread of the land, ye shall offer up an shall be upon him.

32 | And while the children of Israel were 20 Ye shall offer up a cake of the first of in the wilderness, they found a man that gayour dough for an heave offering: as ye do thered sticks upon the sabbath day. the heave offering of the threshingfloor, so 33 And they that found him gathering shall ye heave it.

sticks brought him unto Moses and Aaron, 21° Of the first of your dough ye shall and unto all the congregation. 6 Esod. 12. 49. Chap. 9. 14. 7 Heb. from the eyes. Or, ordinance. Levit. 4. 97. 10 Heb. doeth. 11 Heb. with an high hand

for 28 And the port sinneth ignorthe Lord, hoe


the bread of the to the LORDie of the first to thered stindo heave offer shall offer have offering i sitoor, so sticks brou

- 34 And they put hing win ward, because borders of their garments throughout their

34 And they put him "in ward, because borders of their garments throughout their it was not declared what should be done to | generations, and that they put upon the fringe him.

of the borders a riband of blue : 35 And the LORD said unto Moses, The 39 And it shall be unto you for a fringe, man shall be surely put to death: all the con- | that ye may look upon it, and remember all gregation shall stone him with stones without the commandments of the LORD, and do them; the camp.

and that ye seek not after your own heart and 36 And all the congregation brought him your own eyes, after which ye use to go a without the camp, and stoned him with stones, whoring: and he died; as the LORD commanded Moses. 40 That ye may remember, and do all my

37 | And the LORD spake unto Moses, commandments, and be holy unto your God. saying,

41 I am the LORD your God, which brought 38 Speak unto the children of Israel, and you out of the land of Egypt, to be your God: bid -them that they make them fringes in the I am the LORD your God. 12 Levit, 24. 12.

13 Deut. 22. 12. Matt. 23. 5.

Verse 24. "If ought be committed by ignorance.'- This law is different from that concerning sins of ignorance as specified in Levit. iv.: and it is therefore probable that a different class of offences is intended. It is very commonly thought that the law there is for the less aggravated infractions of the moral law, and that now before us for those of the ceremonial law, that is, of that law which prescribed the usages of divine worship, and the different ceremonies of purification which were to be performed in the various instances which the law specifies.

30. Presumptuously.'—7277be-yad ramah, with a high hand,' It is desirable to obtaiu a clear idea of what is here meant, as this will enable us the better to understand the apparent severity of the ensning punishment of the sabbath-breaker, and of other punishments of a similar character. Upon the whole, we think that the most explanatory understanding is that stated by Michaelis, who is of opinion that while it certainly implies will-transgression, it does not apply to the wilful violation of every Mosaic commandment, but only of the ceremonial as distinguished from the criminal law. This is indeed evident from the fact that many offences, which the criminal law must regard as wilful and deliberate, have a much milder punishment than is here assigned to sins of presumption. Sinning with a high hand' would therefore indicate an offence against the ceremonial law, open and daring, in which the sinner has no desire to conceal that he has transgressed the law of God. Thns in the strongest manner he reproacheth the Lord, and • hath despised the word of the Lord.' . It appears to me,' says Michaelis, that transgressing the law presumptuously, or with a high hand, is here to be understood of transgressions committed publicly in defiance of the law, and therefore amounting to a sort of renouncement of religion.'...... Capital punishments,' he continues, on account of transgressions of the ceremonial law, must have been very frequent indeed, if we are to understand the phrase, with a high hand, as equivalent to wilful or deliberate in a moral sense; and yet in the Biblical history we find but very little notice of the infliction of such punishments.' Commentaries, Art. 249.

32. They found a man that gathered sticks upon the sabbath day. This remarkable incident will perhaps be the better understood when regarded in connection with the immediately preceding law, relative to sins of presumption as distinguished from sins of ignorance, and as to be punished with extirpation. It seems, indeed, that the fact is related as an example of the application of the preceding law. This is the only example in the Bible of a person punished capitally for breaking the sabbath, although the crime itself is often mentioned in the Prophets; and this therefore is the place for a few observations as to a punishment which, to us, is apt to seem severely disproportioned

to the offence, which, taken in its mere external aspect, was merely that of picking up some sticks, or straw, or stubble. Was this labour ? Might not the man have thought such an act allowable without infraction of the law ? Few people have read this passage without asking such questions. The act itself of gathering sticks was certainly not forbidden on the sabbath ; but the kindling of household fires was expressly forbidden (Exod. xxxv. 3). Thus, then, if we acquit the man of one branch of offence, we must find him guilty of the other-guilty of sabbath-breaking. But then the question recurs, on what ground the crime itself of sabbathbreaking was made so highly penal by the Hebrew law ? The answer is found in the strong probability that the man * sinned with a high hand'-audaciously, and with open contempt of a well-known command. Let us therefore look to the declared object of the institution, to ascertain the degree of criminality which its presumptuous infraction involved. The seventh day was to be kept holy in remembrance of God's having, after the six days of creation, rested on the seventh day from all his works. The imitation of this rest was to be, to the Hebrews, a sign of the covenant between the God who made heaven and earth, and them-of his being peculiarly their God (see Exod. xxxi. 13, 17); and therefore the prescribed observance of this institution was equivalent to a weekly profession that the people acknowledged and revered the Creator of heaven and earth as the true and only God; and the law was thus closely connected with the fundamental principles of the Mosaic legislation, whose object was to keep the people from idolatry, and to maintain the worship of one God. Thus we see how a man, by presumptuously violating this law, did in effect deny and despise Jehovah ; and by so doing exposed himself to the punishment of death. It ought further to be observed, that Jehovah being in a civil sense the king of the Israelites and the founder of their government, to disown him, by this or any other act, was at the same time a crime against the state, and was therefore liable to punishment on this ground also. We think that these considerations will exhibit the grounds on which this sabbath-breaker was punished with death; his crime (though trifling in act) being evidently of the wilful and presumptuous character to which the statements in this and the preceding note refer.

34. And they put him in ward, because it was not declared what should be done to him.'-Death had been declared the punishment of a profanation of the sabbath in Exod. Xxxi. 14; Xxxv. 2; but the manner of its infliction had not been indicated. It is therefore thought by some that this was the question to be decided. Taken in connection with what had previously been said concerning sins of ignorance and sins of presumption, it seems, however, quite as probable that the doubtful point was, under which of the two classes of sin this man's crime should be classed, and,

consequently, whether the capital punishment had been in corners of the upper garment, the proper use of these curred or not. On many occasions it could only be clearly | strings being to tie the corners together. Of this opinion known to the criminal himself and to the great “Searcher are the modern Jews, as appears by the following descripof hearts,' to whom the question was now submitted, tion, taken chiefly from Levi's Ceremonies of the Jews : whether the offender sinned through ignorance or error, — Every male of the Jewish nation is obliged to have a or with that audacious defiance of the law and contempt garment with fringes at the four corners; and every mornagainst God, which seems to have constituted the deep ing when they put on these garments they take the fringes crime to be punished with death.

in their hand, and say “ Blessed art thou, O Lord our God, 38. • Fringes.'-Concerning the form of this fringe per

king of the universe, who hast sanctified us with thy comhaps nothing positive can be determined. Some endea

mandments, and commanded us the commandment of the vour to ascertain its character by examining the two

fringes !" What they understand by the injunction of the Hebrew words by which it is expressed. These are nyys

text appears from his description of the tzizith or robe in

question. It is made of two square pieces, with two long tzizith, in the present text, and D'7) gedilim, in Deut.

pieces like straps joined to them, in order that one of the xxii. 12. The former of these words elsewhere (as in said pieces may hang down before upon the breast, and the Ezek. viïi. 3) means a lock of hair ; and the latter a rope, other behind ; at the extremity of the four corners are such as that with which Delilah bound Samson (Judges fastened the strings, each of which has five knots besides xiv. 11, 12); and it is hence imagined that these fringes the tassel, signifying the five books of the law. The consisted of many threads which hung like hair, and were rabbins, under whose instruction this profound analogy twisted like a rope. As to the riband of blue' in the has been established, further observe that each string connext verse, to be put upon the fringe; the word should be sisted of eight threads, which, with the number of knots

thread,' not.riband;' or else it may signify a lace, as it and the numeral value of the letters in the word tzizith, is rendered in Exod. xxxix. 31. It may therefore have make 613, which is, according to them, the exact number been either a blue thread twisted with a white one through of the precepts in the law. From this they argue the imthe whole fringe, or else a lace by which the fringe was | portance of this command, since he who observes it, tbey fastened to the edge of the garment. There are many say, in effect observes the whole law! The law seems to commentators of authority, however, who think, from the require that the fringes should be constantly worn; but as explanation in Deut. xxii., that the fringes' were no other it would not consist with the costume of the countries than strings with tassels at the end, fastened to the four through which the Jews are now dispersed to wear the

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fringed garment as an external article of dress, every Jew We think that we may thus obtain a new light on the submakes use of two-a large one which is used only atject which has escaped observation. In Luke viii. 43, a prayers and on some other occasions, and is then worn ex woman having an issue of blood comes behind him and ternally, and a sĩall one which is constantly worn as an touches the border' of his garment, and is healed. She under garment. The principal denomination of this article afterwards falls down at his feet and acknowledges what is Tziżith, on account of the fringes, in which all its she had done. Hence the 'fringe,' so to call it, was not, sanctity is supposed to consist; but the proper name of as the modern Jews think, in front exclusively, but behind the vestment itself is Talith, and by this it is commonly likewise, if not wholly behind ; and hence also the same distinguished.

fringe could scarcely have been at the bottom of the robe, There have been various conjectures as to the object of | as the other account supposes. We may therefore ask this law. The most probable is that the 'fringe' was in whether it was not in fact such an embroidered edge, of tended as a sort of badge or livery, by which, as well as various breadth, as we now see wrought with coloured by circumcision and by the fashion of their beards, and by worsted or silk around the opening for the neck and down their peculiar diet, the Hebrews were to be distinguished the breast of the abba, or woollen mantle, now in use from other people. Be this as it may, much superstition among the Arabs (see the note on Exod. xxii. 27), and came in the end to be connected with the use of these which is a very ancient article of dress, and probably in fringes. The Pharisees are severely censured by our use among the Jews. This border might, on the one hand, Saviour for the ostentatious hypocrisy with which they be touched by a person behind the wearer, while, on the made broad the borders' of their garments. Our Lord other, the part in front would be under his own eye, as the himself wore the fringe, which is commonly called in the law seems to require. We would by no means make a New Testament the hem or border;' and it was this part stand upon this conjecture; but being founded on a real of his dress which the sick desired to touch, under the im Oriental usage, it is at least entitled to as much attention pression that the contact would make them whole. It was as the others, which are not so. Further information on probably the peculiar sanctity ascribed to this part of the the subject of these fringes may be found in Ainsworth's robe which directed attention to it in preference, for we Annotations, and Jennings's Jewish Antiquities. may be certain that Christ himself did not point it out. !


| be that the man whom the LORD doth choose, 1 The rebellion of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram.

| he shall be holy: ye take too much upon you, 23 Moses separateth the people from the rebels' tents. | ye sons of Levi. 31 The earth swalloweth up Korah, and a fire con- 8 And Moses said unto Korah, Hear, I pray sumeth others. 36 The censers are reserved to holy | you, ye sons of Levi: use. 41 Fourteen thousand and seven hundred are

9 Seemeth it but a small thing unto you, slain by a plague for murmuring against Moses and Aaron. 46 Aaron by incense stayeth the plague.

that the God of Israel hath separated you from

the congregation of Israel, to bring you near Now 'Korah, the son of Izhar, the son of to himself to do the service of the tabernacle Kohath, the son of Levi, and Dathan and of the Lord, and to stand before the congreAbiram, the sons of Eliab, and On, the son | gation to minister unto them? of Peleth, sons of Reuben, took men:

10 And he hath brought thee near to him, 2 And they rose up before Moses, with and all thy brethren the sons of Levi w certain of the children of Israel, two hundred and seek ye the priesthood also ? and fifty princes of the assembly, 'famous in | 11 For which cause both thou and all thy the congregation, men of renown:

company are gathered together against the 3 And they gathered themselves together LORD : and what is Aaron, that ye murmur against Moses and against Aaron, and said against him? unto them, 'Ye take too much upon you, seeing 12 | And Moses sent to call Dathan and all the congregation are holy, every one of them, Abiram, the sons of Eliab: which said, We and the LORD is among them : wherefore then will not come up: lift ye up yourselves above the congregation 13 Is it a small thing that thou hast brought of the LORD?

us up out of a land that floweth with milk and 4 1 And when Moses heard it, he fell upon honey, to kill us in the wilderness, except thou his face:

make thyself altogether a prince over us ? 5 And he spake unto Korah and unto all 14 Moreover thou hast not brought us into his company, saying, Even to morrow the | a land that floweth with milk and honey, or LORD will shew who are his, and who is holy; given us inheritance of fields and vineyards : and will cause him to come near unto him : wilt thou 'put out the eyes of these men ? we even him whom he hath chosen will he cause will not come up. to come near unto him.

15 And Moses was very wroth, and said 6 This do ; Take you censers, Korah, and unto the LORD, 'Respect not thou their offerall his company;

ing: I have not taken one ass from them, 7 And put fire therein, and put incense in neither have I hurt one of them. them before the Lord to morrow : and it shall 16 | And Moses said unto Korah, Be thou 1 Chap. 27. 3. Ecclus. 45. 18. Jude 11. Chap. 26. 9. - 3 Heb. It is much for you. • Heb. bore out., 5Gen. 4. 4. VOL. 1.

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end of speak under that was her mouth, ani

them fled at his allow us out a fire from and

and all thy company before the LORD, thou, an end of speaking all these words, that the and they, and Aaron, to morrow :

ground clave asunder that was under them : 17 And take every. man his censer, and 32 And the earth opened her mouth, and put incense in them, and bring ye before the swallowed them up, and their houses, and all Lord every man his censer, two hundred and the men that appertained unto Korah, and all fifty censers; thou also, and Aaron, each of you their goods. his censer.

33 They, and all that appertained to them, 18 And they took every man his censer, went down alive into the pit, and the earth and put fire in them, and laid incense thereon, closed upon them: and they perished from and stood in the door of the tabernacle of the among the congregation. congregation with Moses and Aaron.

34 And all Israel that were round about 19 And Korah gathered all the congre- them fled at the cry of them: for they said, gation against them unto the door of the Lest the earth swallow us up also. tabernacle of the congregation: and the glory 35 And there came out a fire from the of the LORD appeared unto all the congre- | Lord, and consumed the two hundred and gation.

fifty men that offered incense. 20 And the Lord spake unto Moses and 36 9 And the LORD spake unto Moses, unto Aaron, saying,

saying, 21 Separate yourselves from among this | 37 Speak unto Eleazar the son of Aaron congregation, that I may consume them in a the priest, that he take up the censers out of moment.

the burning, and scatter thou the fire yonder; 22 And they fell upon their faces, and said, for they are hallowed. O God, the God of the spirits of all flesh, 38 The censers of these sinners against shall one man sin, and wilt thou be wroth their own souls, let them make them broad with all the congregation ?

plates for a covering of the altar : for they 23 | And the LORD spake unto Moses, offered them before the LORD, therefore they saying,

are hallowed : and they shall be a sign unto 24 Speak unto the congregation, saying, the children of Israel. Get you up from about the tabernacle of 39 And Eleazar the priest took the brasen Korah, Dathan, and Abiram.

censers, wherewith they that were burnt had 25 And Moses rose up and went unto offered ; and they were made broad plates for Dathan and Abiram ; and the elders of Israel a covering of the altar : followed him.

40 To be a memorial unto the children of 26 And he spake unto the congregation, Israel, that no stranger, which is not of the saying, Depart, I pray you, from the tents of seed of Aaron, come near to offer incense these wicked men, and touch nothing of their's, before the LORD ; that he be not as Korah, lest ye be consumed in all their sins.

and as his company : as the LORD said to him 27 So they gat up from the tabernacle of by the hand of Moses. Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, on every side : 41 | But on the morrow all the congreand Dathan and Abiram came out, and stood gation of the children of Israel murmured in the door of their tents, and their wives, and against Moses and against Aaron, saying, their sons, and their little children.

Ye have killed the people of the LORD. 28 And Moses said, Hereby ye shall know 42 And it came to pass, when the conthat the LORD hath sent me to do all these gregation was gathered against Moses and works ; for I have not done them of mine own against Aaron, that they looked toward the mind.

tabernacle of the congregation : and, behold, 29 If these men die the common death of the cloud covered it, and the glory of the all men, or if they be visited after the visitation LORD appeared. of all men ; then the Lord hath not sent me. | 43 And Moses and Aaron came before the

30 But if the LORD 'make a new thing, tabernacle of the congregation. and the earth open her mouth, and swallow 44 | And the LORD spake unto Moses, them up, with all that appertain unto them, saying, and they go down quick into the pit; then ye 45 Get you up from among this congregashall understand that these men have provoked tion, that I may consume them as in a moment. the LORD.

And they fell upon their faces. 31 q And it came to pass, as he had made 46 | And Moses said unto Aaron, Take a

6 Heb. as every man dieth. 7 Heb. create a creature. 8 Chap. 27. 3. Deut. 11. 6. Psal. 106. 17. .

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