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el-Ghoeyr) furnishes a passage, which would be extremely i was a city of Egypt, situated near the mouth of one of the difficult to a hostile force, and still more to one so large branches of the Nile, thence called Ostium Taniticum. Of and so encumbered as the Hebrew host. This wady of el. this city we know little further than that it was one of the Ghoeyr probably offered the 'highway, through which the most ancient capitals of Egypt. This indeed appears from Israelites subsequently wished to pass eastward; and, failing the Scriptures. The miracles wrought by the hand of to obtain permission to do so, were obliged to retrace their Moses evidently took place at the then capital of Lower steps and go round the southern extremity of the chain, Egypt, the seat of the Pharaolis; and the Psalmist says near the head of the Gulf of Akabah. The plain on its that this was in the field of Zoan' (Ps. lxxviii. 12). Even other or western side is bounded by a lower chain of hills in the time of Isaiah it is mentioned as the capital, or as which separate it from the Desert of Paran. The average one of the capitals, of that country (Isa. xix. il); but as breadth of this plain is about five miles. It is wholly immediately after we find Noph Memphis) similarly destitute of water, and in every respect answers to the noticed, and as there were certainly not at that time two Scriptural account of the Desert of Zin, which, as distin kings in such close vicinity, it is inferred that the kings of guishing it from that of Paran, could never be definitely that period exchanged their residence between Zoan and understood until Burckhardt's researches furnished the in Noph, according to the season, as the kings of Persia did formation which has contributed so materially to the elu between Susa and Ecbatana. This idea is countenanced cidation of a very important but previously obscure portion by the respective positions of Memphis and Tanis, which of Sacred writ.
must have ensured a considerable alternation of climate in - Rehob,' elsewhere called Beth-rehob. This place is a removal from the one to the other. Tanis, from its situaalso mentioned in Judges xviii. 28; Josh. xix. 28; 2 Sam. tion on the shores of the lake Menzaleh, being open to the x. 8, in such a manner that its general situation cannot be refreshing breezes from the Mediterranean, was therefore, questioned, although we are not acquainted with its precise | in all probability, the summer capital. It is thought by site. It must have stood in the north of the Holy Land, Bryant and others, however, that Tanis was too distant within Mount Hermon, near the pass leading through that from the land of Goshen to have been the scene of the mountain to Hamath beyond, and not far from Dan. It miracles recorded in Exodus; and they therefore decline was the capital of a Syrian kingdom, and continued to be the aathority of the Septuagint, and rather look for Zoan such long after the city, in the division of the land, had at Sais, the Sin’ of the Scriptures-not that Sais on the fallen to the lot of Asher, that tribe being unable to drive Canopic branch of the Nile, but another more ancient Sais, out the old inhabitants. It seems to be mentioned as a which Bryant determines to have been situated a little distinct kingdom in 2 Sam. x. 8; and one of those which above the point of the Delta, not far from Heliopolis, and leagued with the Ammonites against David ; but it is pro- | therefore, according to him, bordering close on the land of bable that, in common with the other small Syrian states Goshen. This difficulty of identifying Zoan with Tanis has there enumerated, it was tributary to the kingdom of Zobah, only been felt by those who either place the land of Goshen with which they acted on that occasion, and afterwards to | too far to the south, or extend it too little towards the norththat of Damascus, by which Zobah was superseded.
east; or who embarrass their conclusions by ascribing to - • Hamath.'—This is another capital of a small Syrian the Israelites a point of departure from Egypt more rekingdom, beyond Mount Hermon, and having Rehob on mote from Tanis than the case seems to require. This the south and Zobah on the north. The approach to it matter has been examined in the note to Exod. xii. 37. from the south is through a pass in Mount Hermon (Jebel The great antiquity of Zoan is attested in the present text, esh-Sheikh), called the entrance of • Hamath,' and the which states that it was built seven years before Hebron, entering in of Hamath,' which, being the passage from the which already existed in the time of Abraham : and it northern extremity of Canaan into Syria, is employed, like incidentally evinces how well acquainted with Egypt the Dan, to express the northern boundary of Israel. The writer was, that this reference to the date of the foundation kingdom of Hamath appears to have nearly corresponded, of an Egyptian city should have been introduced. The at least in its central and southern parts, with what was locality is now covered with mounds of unusual height and afterwards called Cæle-Syria, or the great plain or valley extent, full of the fragments of broken pottery which such between Libanus and Anti-Libanus; but stretched north sites usually exhibit. These mounds extend for about a ward so far as the city of Hamath on the Orontes, which mile from north to south, and occupy nearly the same seems to have been the capital of the country. This city breadth. The area in which stood the sacred enclosure was called Epiphania by the Greeks, and is mentioned of the temple is about 1500 feet by 1250, surrounded by under that name by Josephus and the Christian fathers. the mounds of fallen houses. Though in a very ruinous It has now, like many other sites in Asiatic Turkey, condition, the fragments of walls, columns, a gateway, and recovered its ancient name, which tradition had preserved. fallen obelisks, sufficiently attest the importance of the No part of this kingdom was allotted to the Israelites, with building to which they belonged. The obelisks, twelve whom the Hamathites seem to have lived on very good in number, are all of the time of Rameses the Great terms. Toi, who was their king in the time of David, sent (1355 B.c.); and the gateway also bears his name. More his son with presents to congratulate that monarch on his interest, however, attaches to the fact that the oval of victory over the Syrians of Zobah, who, it would seem, Osirtasen III., who was king when Joseph died, has also had been dangerous neighbours to Hamath. (See 2 Sam. been found, as this shews that the town must then have viii. 9.) The present government of Hamath comprises existed : it forms a valuable corroboration of the present one hundred and twenty inhabited villages, and seventy or text. Among the objects which engage the attention of eighty that have been abandoned. The western part of the travellers are two black statues, a granite sphinx, and territory is the granary of Northern Syria, although the some blocks of hewn and occasionally sculptured granite. harvest never yields more than ten for one, in consequence The modern village of San or Zan (in which the ancient of the immense numbers of mice, which sometimes wholly name of Zoan may be recognised) consists of a few huts, destroy the crops. Hamath, the capital, is situated on both with the exception of a ruined kasr of modern date, sides of the Orontes, and is built partly on the declivity of 23. • The brook of Eshcol— The word rendered · brook' a hill, and partly on the plain. The town is large, and
is sny nachal, which means both a brook and the valley (for the country) well built, though the walls are chiefly of mud. There are four bridges over the Orontes, and a through which it flows. The valley of Eshcol may be stone aqueduct, supported on lofty arches, for supplying supposed to have taken its name from the Amoritish chief the upper town with water. There are few ancient remains, who was the ally of Abraham, and wbo joined him in the the materials having been taken away to be employed in pursuit of Chedorlaomer (Gen. xiv. 13-24); and as he was modern buildings. Burckhardt thinks that the inhabitants settled in the neighbourhood of Hebron, we have to seek of the town could not amount to less than 30,000. See his the valley called after him in the neighbourhood of Hebron. Travels in Syria, pp. 146-148.
Accordingly, the valley through which lies the commence22. • Zoan-The Seventy render this as Tanis,' which ment of the road from Hebron to Jerusalem, is usually
This reduction took place at so early a period, that perhaps notice this impression : but in admitting that the Anakim this theory cannot be fairly disproved by reference to were a gigantic race, we are not required to suppose more skeletons, monuments, mummies, personal ornaments, or than the existence of a family of men above the ordinary sepulchral remains; for although we generally find these stature; and in this there would be no improbability even adapted to the present stature of men, we do not know that at the present time. any of them are more ancient than the period when it is - And we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and allowed that human life and human stature became as we so we were in their sight.'-This is of course a hyperbolical now find them. There seems to us, however, a fallacy in exaggeration; but although they might know what they the reasoning from the greater duration of human life. It were in their own sight, how came they to know what the is true the period of growth may have been longer; but it sons of Anak thought of them? Some of the rabbins have does not follow that the growth was so rapid in the longer the bluntness to call them liars; but the majority do not as in the shorter period. The analogy of other existences so easily consent to lose the opportunity of relating a story. would rather indicate the contrary, as we generally see that One of their stories is given by Bishop Patrick from the short-lived animals grow faster than those that are long Gemara; but other Jewish writers give a shorter one, to lived. Long-lived animals, also, are not generally larger the effect that the spies were perceived by the Anakim, and than the short-lived ; and in the existing human race we they were heard to observe to one another, There are do not find that the people or families who attain a great pismires in the vineyards like unto men.' age are generally larger than others. It is well here to
signs which there they believe me and How
them with stones. And the glory of the
LORD appeared in the tabernacle of the con1 The people murmur at the news. 6 Joshua and Caleb labour to still them. 11 God threateneth them.
gregation before all the children of Israel. 13 Moses persuadeth God, and obtaineth pardon.
11 | And the LORD said unto Moses, How 26 The murmurers are deprived of entering into the long will this people provoke me? and how land. 36 The men who raised the evil report die by long will it be ere they believe me, for all the a plague. 40 The people that would invade the land i signs which I have shewed among them ? against the will of God are smitten.
12 I will smite them with the pestilence, And all the congregation lifted up their voice, and disinherit them, and will make of thee a and cried ; and the people wept that night. greater nation and mightier than they.
2 And all the children of Israel murmured 13 [ And Moses said unto the LORD, against Moses and against Aaron : and the Then the Egyptians shall hear it, (for thou whole congregation said unto them, Would broughtest up this people in thy might from God that we had died in the land of Egypt! | among them ;) or would God we had died in this wilderness! 14 And they will tell it to the inhabitants
3 And wherefore hath the Lord brought us of this land : for they have heard that thou unto this land, to fall by the sword, that our LORD art among this people, that thou LORD wives and our children should be a prey ? were art seen face to face, and that 'thy cloud it not better for us to return into Egypt ? standeth over them, and that thou goest be
4 And they said one to another, Let us make | fore them, by day time in a pillar of a cloud, a captain, and let us return into Egypt. and in a pillar of fire by night.
5 Then Moses and Aaron fell on their faces 15 Now if thou shalt kill all this people before all the assembly of the congregation of as one man, then the nations which have heard the children of Israel."
the fame of thee will speak, saying, 6.1 And Joshua the son of Nun, and Caleb 16 Because the LORD was not able to the son of Jephunneh, which were of them that | bring this people into the land which he sware searched the land, rent their clothes :
unto them, therefore he hath slain them in the 7 And they spake unto all the company of wilderness. the children of Israel, saying, The land, which 17 And now, I beseech thee, let the power we passed through to search it, is an exceeding of my Lord be great, according as thou hast good land.
spoken, saying, 8 If the Lord delight in us, then he will 18 The Lord is 'longsuffering, and of great bring us into this land, and give it us; a land | mercy, forgiving iniquity and transgression, which floweth with milk and honey.
and by no means clearing the guilty, ovisiting 9 Only rebel not ye against the LORD, the iniquity of the fathers upon the children neither fear ye the people of the land ; for they unto the third and fourth generation. are bread for us: their 'defence is departed 19 Pardon, I beseech thee, the iniquity of from them, and the LORD is with us : fear this people according unto the greatness of thy them not.
mercy, and as thou hast forgiven this people, 10 But all the congregation bade stone from Egypt even 'until now. 1 Heb. shadow. 2 Exod. 32. 12. Exod. 13. 21. Deut. 9.28. 5 Exod. 34. 6. Psal. 103. 8. Exod. 20. 5, and 34, 7.
7 Or, hitherto.
20 And the LORD said, I have pardoned | 34 After the number of the days in which according to thy word :
ye searched the land, even "forty days, each 21 But as truly as I live, all the earth shall day for a year, shall ye bear your iniquities, be filled with the glory of the Lord.
even forty years, and ye shall know ''my breach 22 Because all those men which have seen of promise. my glory, and iny miracles, which I did in 35 I the LORD have said, I will surely do Egypt and in the wilderness, have tempted me it unto all this evil congregation, that are now these ten times, and have not hearkened gathered together against me: in this wilderto my voice ;
ness they shall be consumed, and there they 23 Surely they shall not see the land which shall die. I sware unto their fathers, neither shall any of 36 | And the men, which Moses sent to them that provoked me see it:
search the land, who returned, and made all 24 But my servant 'Caleb, because he had the congregation to murmur against him, by another spirit with him, and hath followed me | bringing up a slander upon the land, fully, him will I bring into the land whereinto 37 Even those men that did bring up the he went; and his seed shall possess it. evil report upon the land, "died by the plague
25 (Now the Amalekites and the Canaan before the LORD. ites dwelt in the valley.) To morrow turn 38 But Joshua the son of Nun, and Caleb you, and get you into the wilderness by the the son of Jephunneh, which were of the men way of the Red sea.
that went to search the land, lived still. 26 | And the Lord spake unto Moses and 39 And Moses told these sayings unto all unto Aaron, saying,
the children of Israel: and the people mourned 27 How long shall I bear with this evil greatly. congregation, which murmur against me? I 40 | And they rose up early in the morning, have heard the murmurings of the children of and gat them up into the top of the mountain, Israel, which they murmur against me. saying, Lo, we be herc, and will go up unto
28 Say unto them, '' As truly as I live, saith the place which the Lord hath promised : for the LORD, as ye have spoken in mine ears, so we have sinned. will I do to you:
| 41 And Moses said, Wherefore now do ye 29 Your carcases shall fall in this wilder- transgress the commandment of the LORD ? ness; and all that were numbered of you, but it shall not prosper. according to your whole number, from twenty 42 Go not up, for the Lord is not ainong years old and upward, which have murmured you ; that ye be not smitten before your against me,
enemies. 30 Doubtless ye shall not come into the 43 For the Amalekites and the Canaanites . land, concerning which I"sware to make you are there before you, and ye shall fall by the dwell therein, save Caleb the son of Jephunneh, sword : because ye are turned away from the and Joshua the son of Nun.
Lor]), therefore the LORD will not be with 31 But your little ones, which ye said
you. should be a prey, them will I bring in, and 1 44 But they presumed to go up unto the they shall know the land which ye have hill top: nevertheless the ark of the covenant despised.
of the Lord, and Moses, departed not out of 32 But as for you, your carcases, they shall the camp. fall in this wilderness.
45 Then the Amalekites came down, and 33 And your children shall "wander in the the Canaanites which dwelt in that hill, and wilderness forty years, and bear your whore- | smote them, and "discomfited them, even unto doms, until your carcases be wasted in the Hormah. wilderness. 8 Heb. If they see the land. Josh. 14.6. 10 Chap. 26, 65, and 32. 11. Deut. 1. 35. 11 Heb. lifted up my hand. 12 Or, feed. 8. • A land which floweth with milk and honey.' - This is i 22. • Ten times.'—This is no doubt a definite for an ina proverbial expression, characterizing a land exuberantly definite number, in which sense it is often used by the productive, not only in the necessaries but in the luxuries sacred writers. Indeed this use of the word ten, as reof life. It includes more than it expresses; yet even as presenting an indefinite number, is common in all counmore strictly understood, it is particularly applicable to tries, our own not excepted: and it probably arose from Palestine, the rich pastures of which secure an ample the original use of the fingers in counting or expressing supply of very excellent milk, while, for the superior qua numbers; when a person, not feeling quite certain about a lity of its honey, it seems at all times to have enjoyed a precise number below ten, or wishing to use a round high reputation. In illustration of this we translate the number, would naturally exhibit the collective amount following from a valuable old traveller, Eugene Roger, | which the fingers of both hands represent. We say • below who says: "The pasturage of the country is in many parts ten,' under the impression that the word · ten' is seldom still so rich and nutritive that it may still be truly called or never thus used to express a number larger than ten. “ a land flowing with milk and honey." There is no one 25. (* Now the Amalekites and the Canaanites dwelt in so poor but that he may have in his court a hive of bees, the valley:')-This should be read without the parenthesis, from which he draws the most delicious honey; and so and with the verb in the present tense. As it stands, it is nourishing is the herbage to the cattle that milk is most not only obscure, but seems to contradict verse 45:-. Then abundant; so that both milk and honey are used in all their the Amalekites came down and the Canaanite which dwelt in repasts, and are largely employed in the preparation of that hill. The meaning of verses 25, 43, and 45 will, with other viands.'-La Terre Saincte, 1646.
18 Psal. 95. 10. Ezek. 4. 6.
14 Or, altering of my purpose. .
15 I Cor. 10, 10. Heb. 3. 17. Jude 5.
16 Deut. 1. 41.
17 Deut. 1. 44.
Verse 4. • Let us make a captain, and let us return into pendence. And when we see them so insultingly un Egypt:'- It appears from Nehem. ix. 17, that they actually grateful to God as to desire to return to the miserable did appoint a leader for this purpose. Nothing can more condition from which, by so many signs and wonders, he strikingly exhibit the utterly debased state of their minds had gloriously redeemed them, we are constrained to bow than their design to return to the bondage of Egypt, rather in devout acquiescence to the wisdom and justice of that than undergo those privations and make those exertions decree, which shut out that generation from the rich inwhich were required to establish and secure their inde | heritance which they had so lightly esteemed.
a little consideration, appear to be this:-The Lord informs 9. • Their defence is departed from them.'-The margin the Israelites that the Amalekites and Canaanites were in reads shadow; but as this word has a common applica readiness to oppose them, and held in military occupation tion, which the original has not in view, perhaps shade' (not resided in the valley on the other side of the hill; and would be better; but as even this is not unambiguous, therefore tells them not to go forward, lest they should fall perhaps the paraphrase 'protecting shade' would be best into their ambuscades; but to turn, on the morrow, and of all. The force of this and other similar allusions in | get into the wilderness by the way of the Red Sea. Instead the Bille is in a great degree lost upon those who, under of obeying, they determined the next morning to go up the the scorching sun of the East, have not had occasion to mountain (v. 40); but were again dissuaded and assured experience that the shelter of some shady place is an en (v. 43) that their enemies, ascending the valley on the joyment of such essential importance, as to be only inferior other side, would gain the advantageous post on the hill in value and gratification to that of drink to one who is top before them. But they persisted; and what might dried up with thirst under the same circumstances. Hence, have been expected happened :— the Amalekites and in the language of Asia, we generally find that the word Canaanites, who had gained previous possession of the
shade' or shadow' is used as a metaphor to express summit, poured down upon them, and became the instru. defence and shelter ; but it must be admitted that it is not ments of punishing them for their mutiny and rebellion. always easy to understand where a person's own shadow, 30. “Save Caleb . . . . and Joshua.' – This has, been or a protecting shade for him is expressed. Both senses thought not to agree with Josh. xiv. 1, whence it appears seem to be in use, the former implying the protection and that Eleazer and others of the old generation did enter favour he has the power to bestow, and the latter the pro Canaan along with Joshua and Caleb. Now, all the murtection and favour which he enjoys. Hence, in Arabia murers were excluded from the promised land ; but it is and Persia particularly, complimentary expressions con not said that those who did not murmur, among whom the tinually refer to the shadow, in such phrases as— May priests may be reckoned, were prohibited from entering. your shadow be continually extended;" · May your Joshua and Caleb, who brought back a good report of the shadow never be diminished May your shadow be land, are singled out by name, because they encouraged extended over the heads of your well-wishers; May your the people to go up and take possession; whereas the mulshadow be a continual shelter to me,' etc. Sometimes the titude rose up against them and refused. The Lord therephrase runs: May the shadow of your prosperity '--'of fore, to mark his approbation of their conduct, selects them your protection,' etc. Mr. Roberts notices a similar use of as destined to enter the country of promise. They were the word in India, where a poor man, speaking of a rich afterwards the leaders; and it was natural to mention their friend, says, • He is my shadow,' that is, he is my defence: names as the representatives of those who should be pri. *My shadow is gone, meaning, he has lost his defence; vileged to go into Canaan. See Davidson's Sacred Her. * Alas! those poor people have lost their shadow,' etc. meneutics, p. 536. The Sultan of Turkey and the Shah of Persia are both 33. • Your children shall wander.'_The Hebrew word styled • The Refuge of the World,' unquestionably with a translated · wander,' expresses that kind of wandering life primary reference to a shadow : indeed both these mo. that shepherds lead; who have no fixed residence, but renarchs lay claim to the title of. The shadow of God' move from place to place in search of pasturage-such a (Zil-ullah); and the idea which such a title is intended to | life, in short, as the Bedouin Arabs lead at the present convey will, after this explanation, be comprehended day. without difficulty.
| land of your habitations, which I give unto 1 The law of the meat offering and the drink offering.
you, 14,29 The stranger is under the same law. 17 The
3 And will make an offering by fire unto law of the first of the dough for an heave offering.
the LORD, a burnt offering, or a sacrifice 'in 22 The sacrifice for sins of ignorance. 30 The performing a vow, or in a freewill offering, punishment of presumption. 32 He that violateth
or in your solemn feasts, to make a sweet the sabbath is stoned. 37 The law of fringes.
savour unto the LORD, of the herd, or of the And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, flock :
2 'Speak unto the children of Israel, and 4 Then 'shall he that offereth his offering say unto them, When ye be come into the unto the LORD bring a meat offering of a tenth I Levit. 23. 10. Levit. 22.21. Heb. separating. Exod. 29. 18. 5 Levit. 2, 1.