Obrazy na stronie

them all abroad for themselves round about 34 And he called the name of that place the camp.

"Kibroth-hattaavah : because there they bu33 And while the 'flesh was yet between ried the people that lusted. their teeth, ere it was chewed, the wrath of | 35 And the people journeyed from Kibroththe LORD was kindled against the people, and hattaavah unto Hazeroth; and "abode at the LORD smote the people with a very great Hazeroth. plague.

16 Psal. 78, 30, 31, il That is, The graves of lust. 18 Heb. they were in, &c.

Verse 5. •We remember the fish, which we did eat in Egypt 4. Leeks. The original is gym chatzir, which the freely.'--As to the abundance of fish in Egypt and its majority of interpreters concur with our version in recommon use as an article of food, see the note on Exod.

garding as the leek in this text. The uncertainty which vii. 21. We may bere add, that although fish is at all was felt about it is, however, indicated by the fact that times a common diet in that country, its use becomes par

although it occurs several times in Scripture, this is the ticularly conspicuous in the hot season occasioned by the only place where it is so rendered. It is translated grass prevalence of the south winds in April and May, when the in i Kings xviii. 5; 2 Kings xix. 26; Job xl. 15; Ps. inhabitants scarcely eat anything but fish with pulse and xxxvii. 2; herb in Job viii. 12; hay in Prov. xxvii. 25; herbs, the great heat taking away the appetite for all sorts

Isa, xv. 6; and court in Isa. xxxiv. 13. The fact is that of flesh meat. All the inhabitants of Egypt, without dis

Hebrew scholars know that the leading idea of the word tinction, then give into this custom, which is very ancient.

is grass ; but as the eating of grass seemed incredible to The fish which they eat is either fresh or dried in the sun.

them, they were content to suppose that here, where it is It would therefore seem that the Israelites, being now in the

applied to what was evidently a common article of food, it midst of the hot season (rather later in Arabia than in

must denote some vegetable of grass-like shape, like the Egypt), longed with too great impatience for the fish aud

leek. This was unfortunate; for, in fact, it appears that the refreshing vegetables which they had at such times been article denoted is a kind of grass so peculiar to Egypt, that accustomed to enjoy. How desirable such food is to those

the mere mention of it as an article of food is a strong in. who have been accustomed to it is strikingly instanced, in

cidental proof of the historical authority of the book, and the fact related by Vitriacus, who says that when Damietta of the intimate acquaintance with Egypt which its author was besieged in 1218, many of the more delicate Egyptians,

possessed. That very peculiarity has, however, been the although they had corn in abundance, pined away and died

cause of the general error of commentators with reference for want of the garlic, onions, fish, birds, fruits, and herbs, to it, since they failed to derive the explanation from an to which they had been accustomed.

accurate knowledge of Egypt. It is to the acuteness of · Cucumbers' Dirup kishuim. The Arabic and Syriac Hengstenberg that we are indebted for the indication ve names of this well known vegetable are from the same root

have now to offer. He justly remarks that in this matter as the Hebrew. Arabia and Egypt afford many varieties

appeal cannot be made to the ancient translators. For of the cucumber, some of which are soft, and are less apt

who can give us security that they, supposing that all to disagree with the digestive functions than the cucumbers

herbage used for fodder is excluded, and looking around of this country. This is owing, in all probability, to the

among the products which serve men for food, for one that mellowing effects of the sun's rays, which cannot be brought

at least furnishes an external similarity to grass, have not about by any heating contrivance of human invention. In

merely guessed at the one they have taken But we see Egypt and south-western Asia, cucumbers are, when in

that the Hebrew word has etymologically the meaning not

so much of grass as of fodder, or food for cattle. The first season, eaten by all classes, to an extent which would

criterion for the correctness of an interpretation would there scarcely seem credible in this country.

fore be to find that the product in question is a proper food Melons' Dinoax abattichim. This is, beyond all

for beasts, so that man goes, as it were, to the same table doubt, the melon, and probably the Cucurbita citrullus, or with him. And it is only when no such article could be water-melon. . This is a native of the warmer climes, and found, that we should be warranted in resorting to the leek, grows abundantly in the Levant and in Egypt. The fruit to which this criterion will by no means apply. But among is about the size of the common pumpkin, which it very the wonders in the natural history of Egypt it is mentioned much resembles in appearance. The interior is a pulp of by travellers that the common people there eat with special a blooming red, abounding with a copious irrigation of pel- | relish a kind of grass similar to clover. The impression lucid juice; and thus it becomes both meat and drink at the which the sight of this makes upon those who have trasame time. A traveller in the East, who recollects the intense velled much, is very graphically described by Mayr (Reise gratitude which the gift of a slice of melon inspired, while nach Ægyptien, p. 226). *A great heap of clover was journeying over the hot and dry plains-or one who remem thrown before the beasts, and a smaller heap of clorer-like bers the consciousness of wealth and security which he fodder was placed before the master of the bouse and his derived from the possession of a melon, while prepared for companions. The quadrupeds and the bipeds ate with a day's journey over the same plains-he will readily com equal greediness, and the pile of the latter was all gone prehend the regret with which the Hebrews in the Arabian before the former had finished theirs. This plant is very desert looked back upon the melons of Egypt. The follow similar to clover, except that it has more pointed leaves ing account of the uses of melons in Egypt is from Hassel and whitish blossoms. Enormous quantities are eaten by quist. The water-melon is cultivated on the banks of the the inhabitants, and it is not unpalatable. I was afterNile, in the rich clayey earth which subsides during the wards, when hungry, in a situation to lay myself down in inundation. This serves the Egyptians for meat, drink, the fields where it grows, and graze with pleasure. Delile and medicine. It is eaten in abundance during the season, (Descript, de l'Egypte, xix. 50, sq.) gives a more scientific even by the richer sort of people ; but the common people description of it. The Fenu-Grec (Trigonella fanum scarcely eat anything else, and account this the best time Græcum, Linn.) is an annual plant, known in Egypt under of the year, as they are obliged to put up with worse fare the name of Helbeh. It very much resembles clover. The at other seasons. This fruit likewise serves them for drink, people of the country find the young fresh shoots, before the juice so refreshing these poor creatures that they have blossoming, a very delicious food.' But the most particular much less occasion for water than if they were to live on and the best account is by Sonpini (Voyage, i. 379), and more substantial food in this burning climate.'

an extract from him will shew how the emigrating Egyptians (the mixed multitude) and the Israelites, could, | under ordinary circumstances; but that the word denotes among other things, look back longing upon the grass of a species of garlic bas never been called in question. It Egypt. •Although this helbeh of the Egyptians is a nou is true that Egypt does not now produce this plant; but rishing food for the numerous beasts who cover the plains this is the case with many other plants (including the paof the Delta; although horses, oxen, and buffaloes eat it pyrus) which were formerly abundant in that country, but with equal relish, it appears not to be destined especially are now almost if not entirely extinct (Sonnini, p. 68). for the sustenance of animals, since the barsim furnishes an Ancient authors assure us that garlic was formerly cultialiment better even, and more abundant. But that which vated and abundantly consumed in Egypt. Herodotus (ii. will appear very extraordinary is, that in this fertile coun 125) mentions it in connection with the onion, as a printry the Egyptians themselves eat the fenu-grec so largely cipal article of food in that country, especially among the that it may be properly called the food of man. In the poorer classes. Pliny also speaks of the two in connection month of November they cry "Green helbeh for sale!” in (Hist. Nat. xix. 6). Dioscorides describes it among the the streets of the towns. It is tied up in large bunches, plants of Egypt; and Rosellini (Monumenti dell'Egitto, M.C. which the inhabitants eagerly purchase at a low price, and ii. 383) thinks he has discovered a representation of it upon which they eat with incredible greediness, without any a painting at Beni Hassan. The species considered to have kind of seasoning. They pretend that this singular diet is been then cultivated in Egypt is the Allium Ascalonicum, an excellent stomachic, a specific against worms and dysen which is the most common in Eastern countries, and tery; in fine, a preservative against a great number of ma obtains its specific name from having been brought into ladies. They, in fact, regard it as endowed with so many Europe from Ascalon. It is now usually known in the good qualities, that it is, in their estimation, a true pa kitchen garden by the name of “eschalot' or shallot :' nacea,

and is too common to require particular description. Onions.'-01289 betzalim, Sept. nå kpóuuva. This is

16. • Seventy men of the elders of Israel: — We read of

seventy elders in Exodus xxiv. 9, who were with Moses in doubtless the common onion (Allium cepa), as proved by

the mount, and who in the 11th verse are called the nobles the identity of its Arabic name with the Hebrew, and by

of Israel. It is therefore thought by some that the present its early use as an article of food in Egypt. The vative

institution consisted in giving new authorities and powers country of the onion is uncertain; but it is presumed

to a body already existing. It is a great question among that it came from India, whence it passed into Egypt. In

commentators, whether this body was merely temporary, warm countries, the onion often constitutes a staple article

or was perpetual and the same which in the New Testaof diet. The sun has the same mellowing effect upon it as

ment and later Jewish history makes so conspicuous a upon the cucumber, so that its savour is more bland than

figure under the name of the Sanhedrim. The Jewish when grown in this country, and its use far less likely to

writers are strongly of the latter opinion, which is also affect the stomach with any disagreeable consequences.

admitted by many Christian writers of great eminence. Most of the people of Western Asia are remarkably fond

The former opinion is, however, that which is now most of onions. The Arabs in particular have even a childish

commonly entertained, and in which we are strongly dispassion for them, and several of their proverbial phrases

posed to concur. The principal reasons on which this express this attachment. We have known poor Arabs wait

conclusion is founded may thus be stated :-No mention is for more than an hour, till the refuse of onions employed

made of the existence of such a council in all the Old Tesin cooking should be thrown away.

tament; and this silence seems quite decisive, as, if it ex. Onions are frequently represented in the sculptures of

isted, it could not have failed to occupy such a position, Egypt. According to D’Arvieux, they are in that country

and to have been so connected with the public affairs of the sweet and large, and taste better than even those of Smyrna.

country, that not to notice it would be much the same as Ilasselquist protests that there are in the world none better.

to omit any notice of the senate in a history of Rome. We Herodotus shews that they were, anciently, frequently an

observe also that circumstances continually occur in which article of diet among the people, and a common food of

such a council must have acted, and must have been menthose who laboured on the pyramids. In what estimation

tioned, if it had been in existence. Besides, the Sanhethey are now held we see from Sonnini. . This species of

drim of later times, which is described as identical with vegetable is yet extraordinarily common in this country ; , the Mosaical council of seventy, seems to had very diffeit is the aliment of the common people, and almost the very | rent functions and powers. The Saphedrim was a supreme lowest classes. Onions cooked or raw are sold in the streets

college of justice and court of appeal. It was a judicial

ollege of inst for almost nothing. These onions have not the tartness of

| institution : but we can discover nothing judicial in the

instito those of Europe, they are sweet, they do not sting the

council established in this chapter. There was no need of mouin uupleasantly: mouth unpleasantly, and they do not extort the tears of

judges, of whom the people had already between sixty and those who cut them' (Travels, p. 68). Plir

p ling save that

| seventy thousand, under the plan suggested by Jethro. onions and garlic were worshipped by the Egyptians; and

Nor would a judicial assembly be required by the peculiar Juvenal, in a well known passage of his fifteenth Satire,

circumstances under which the appointment originated. thus names these garden-born deities :

This was a rebellion; which led Moses to feel that he was It is a sin to violate a leek or onion, or to break them unable alone to bear the burden of governing the unruly with a bite.

multitude, in consequence of which the Lord directed the O holy nation, for whom are born in gardens

appointment of seventy elders, persons of respectability and These deities!

influence; who might form a senate to share with him the

responsibilities and cares of government. This measure It has been asked, how this is compatible with the statement of the text, and of various ancient authors, that onions,

would naturally tend to obviate the jealousy with which leeks, and garlic, were abundantly eaten in Egypt. Some

the people appear at times to have regarded the extensive

and sovereign powers which rested in, or were rather adthing must be allowed for the exaggeration of the Romans,

ministered by, the hands of Moses. The later Sanhedrim by whom the Egyptians were never well understood; and

would seem to have been quite another thing. It was the evidence that these products were used as common food

doubtless intended as an imitation of the Mosaical institugreatly preponderates. There is no evidence from the mo

tion, and the difference may be accounted for by a refernuments that onions were sacred, for we see them as com

ence to the period of its establishment, which was appamon offerings upon the altars : and the truth seems to be,

rently in the age of the Maccabees, when the long interval that whatever religious feeling prohibited their use on cer

of captivity, in a strange land, had rendered the Jews ignotain occasions, this was confined to the initiated, who were

rant of the nature of the original institution, as they indeed required to keep themselves more especially pure for the

were of many other customs of their ancestors. service of the gods.

26. They prophesied in the camp.'—Eldad and Medad Garlick - Dipiw shumim. The word occurs only in

ord occurs only in | were two of the seventy, who were, like the others, to have this place, and it might thus be difficult to identify the plant gone to the tabernacle to receive there a measure of that

divine spirit which rested on Moses. It is generally un tudes from the sea, and stored them up for future subsistderstood that they declined to attend, from no culpable | ence and sale. Herodotus says that quails, ducks, and motive, but from extreme modesty and humility, inducing some other birds, were salted by the Egyptians, and subin them a deep sense of their own unworthiness of the in sequently eaten without dressing. His testimony as to the tended distinction. But the divine favour, which is not salting of birds is confirmed by existing paintings, where limited to place, sought them, even in the camp, and some poulterers appear to be preserving them in this manmarked them out by extraordinary gifts for that distin ner, and depositing them in jars. They are taken with guished office which, if left to themselves, they would pro nets in Egypt, at present, in vast numbers. In the north bably have declined.

of Persia and Armenia they are caught with equal ease, 31. Quails:-See the note on Exod. xvi. 13. These even when the birds are not in an exhausted state, or in migratory birds, as well as the way of taking and prepar such vast numbers as we are now considering. The proing them, must have been well known to the Israelites cess is curious. The men stick two poles in their girdles, while in Egypt. At the proper season they resorted to apon which they place either their outer coat, or a pair of Egypt in such vast flocks, that even the dense population trowsers, and these, at a distance, are intended to look like of that country was unable to consume them while fresh, the horus of an animal. They then with a hand-net but they salted and dried great quantities for future use. prowl about the fields, and the quail, seeing a form more It is still the same in those countries; and modern travel like a beast than a man, permits it to approach so near as lers, on witnessing the incredible numbers of these birds, to allow the hunter to throw his net over it. The rapidity have expressed their conviction that, as the text describes, with which the Persians catch quails in this way is astosuch a suitable wind as the Almighty sent, could only have nishing. (See Morier's Second Journey, p. 343.) In supbeen necessary to supply even the great Hebrew host with port of the view of this matter which appears to us prefera sufficient supply of quails to last for a month.

able, we may add, that if the birds had sain two cubits deep - As it were two cubits high upon the face of the upon the ground, the far greater part of them must have earth.'- Various commentators, under the sanction of the been dead before they could be collected, and would thereSeptuagint, of Josephus, and of Jerome, read • at about two | fore have been unfit for food, since the Israelites could eat cubits above the face of the earth. That is, that they flew nothing that died of suffocation, or the blood of which had so low as to be easily caught, and this is what the birds not been poured out. always do when fatigued with a long aërial voyage. This | 32. They spread them all abroad ... round about the is also our impression, and not that they fell on the ground camp.:- This is the first direct indication in Scripture of and lay there iwo cubits deep. As we understand, it would animal food being prepared so as to be preserved for seem that the quails were so exhausted, or rather, they | future occasions. Our earliest information concerning the were so strictly kept by the Divine power within the limit Egyptians describes them as salting and drying, for future of a day's journey from the camp, that even when roused, use, great quantities of fish and fowl. A nomade people, or attempting flight, they could not rise more than three as the Hebrews were when they went down to Egypt, feet from the ground, and were thus easily caught with never think of any such processes, even at the present day. nets or by the hand. The commentators, who hesitate to It is therefore natural to conclude that they had learnt this admit this view, from the feeling that it would have been simple and useful art from the Egyptians. We are disposed difficult for the people to have collected the quantity they to conclude with Calmet (in his note on this place), that the did if they had anything more to do than to pick them up, Hebrews salted their quails before they dried them. We are probably not aware of the almost proverbial facility have here, then, the earliest indication of processes, the with which quails are caught. They may be taken with benefits resulting from which have become so diffused and almost any kind of net, or without any net. The method familiar, that it costs an effort of recollection to recognise followed by the inhabitants of Rhinocolura, as described them as benefits. Yet many centuries have not elapsed by Diodorus, is thus :They placed long nets, made of since the Emperor Charles V. thought it became him to split reeds, along the shore for many stadia, in which they erect a statue to the man (G. Bukel) who discovered the caught the quails that were brought up in immense multi- | process of salting and barrelling herrings.


| 5 And the LORD came down in the pillar

of the cloud, and stood in the door of the I God rebuketh the sedition of Miriam and Aaron.

tabernacle, and called Aaron and Miriam : 10 Miriam's leprosy is healed at the prayer of Moses. 14 God commandeth her to be shut out of the host.

and they both came forth.

6 And he said, Hear now my words: If AND Miriam and Aaron spake against Moses there be a prophet among you, I the LORD because of the 'Ethiopian woman whom he will make myself known unto him in a vision, had married : for he had 'married an Ethio | and will speak unto him in a dream pian woman.

7 My servant Moses is not so, 'who is 2 And they said, Hath the Lord indeed faithful in all mine house. spoken only by Moses ? hath he not spoken 8 With him will I speak 'mouth to mouth, also by us ? And the Lord heard it.

even apparently, and not in dark speeches : 3 (Now the man Moses was ‘very meek, | and the similitude of the LORD shall he beabove all the men which were upon the face hold : wherefore then were ye not afraid to of the earth.)

speak against my servant Moses? 4 And the LORD spake suddenly unto 9 And the anger of the LORD was kindled Moses, and unto Aaron, and unto Miriam, against them; and he departed. Come out ye three unto the tabernacle of the | 10 | And the cloud departed from off the congregation. And they three came out. I tabernacle ; and, behold, Miriam became

10r, Cushite. 2 Heb. taken. Ecclus. 43. 4. Heb. 3. 2. 5 Exod. 33. 11.

leprous, white as snow: and Aaron looked 14 | And the LORD said unto Moses, If upon Miriam, and, behold, she was leprous. her father had but spit in her face, should she

11 And Aaron said unto Moses, Alas, my not be ashamed seven days ? let her be shut lord, I beseech thee, lay not the sin upon us, out from the camp seven days, and after that wherein we have done foolishly, and wherein let her be received in again. we have sinned.

15 And Miriam was shut out from the 12 Let her not be as one dead, of whom camp seven days : and the people journeyed the flesh is half consumed when he cometh | not till Miriam was brought in again. out of his mother's womb.

16 | And afterward the people removed 13 And Moses cried unto the LORD, saying, from Hazeroth, and pitched in the wilderness Heal her now, O God, I beseech thee. of Paran.

Levit. 13. 46.

Verse 1. · Ethiopian woman.'—The wife of Moses was a native of a part of Arabia which was originally occupied by the descendants of Cush the son of Ham, and which therefore, in common with other parts of Arabia and the other countries settled by Cush and his descendants, was called Cush or Ethiopia (see the notes on Gen. xxv. 16, and Exod. ii. 15). Our more restricted application of the name Ethiopia occasions some difficulty, at times, from its being so frequently used to translate the original word ‘Cush. In the present instance it does not even follow that Zipporah was a Cushite by descent, but only by being born in à country called after Cush. There are some, however, who think that the woman in question was not Zipporah, but a new wife, Zipporah being dead. There is not the least ground for this supposition; nor does it remove any difficulty, as no other woman, whom Moses was likely to have an opportunity of espousing, could well be a Cushite in any other sense than the daughter of Jethro was.

3. ( Now the man Moses was very meek,' etc.)-This parenthetical clause has been eagerly taken hold of by Spinoza and other sceptics, as furnishing an argument that Moses was not the author of these books, since no man, however great his egotism, would thus speak of himself, In reply, it might be allowed that Moses did not write this clause, which was probably, with some other small matters, introduced by Ezra or some other person. It has quite the air of a gloss: the sense is complete without it; and the form of expression, the man Moses,' no where else occurs. We may retain it, however, without any reflection on the humility of Moses, for the word (1) anav) translated

meek' may, with equal or greater propriety, be translated depressed or afflicted, and that he really was so, and had cause to be so, is manifest in every chapter from the eleventh to the seventeenth. Some commentators, however, admit the current rendering, and contend that this declaration, by one who never hesitated to record his own faults,

of the grace which God had given to him, was justified by | the occasion, which required him to repel an unjust aspersion upon his character and motives.

14. 'If her father had but spit in her face,' etc.--The word translated in her face may equally mean before her face,' or in her presence. The force of the expression depends much upon its being understood that expectoration as a natural act, or even as excited by the abundant use of tobacco, scarcely ever takes place in the East; and when it does, is regarded with such strong disgust as to render it a medium for expressing the most intense abhorrence and detestation towards the person upon whom, or in whose presence, the discharge is made, or even towards an absent person to whose conduct it is applied. Indeed, so far is this idea carried, that it is the highest insult to any one, absent or present, for a person to say that he does or would discharge his saliva on his person or on the ground before him. Thus, I spit on his beard,' is in Persia an exceedingly strong expression of contempt and aversion, in proverbial use among all classes, from the king to the beggar. It appears from the text that, among the Hebrews, such an act on the part of a parent so disgraced his children as to render them unclean, and oblige them to live apart for seven days.


5 Of the tribe of Simeon, Shaphat the son

of Hori. 1 The names of the men who were sent to search the L 6 Of the tribe of Judah. Caleb the son of land. 17 Their instructions. 21 Their acts. 26 Their relation.


7 Of the tribe of Issachar, Igal the son of And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, Joseph.

2 Send thou men, that they may search 8 Of the tribe of Ephraim, Oshea the son the land of Canaan, which I give unto the of Nun. children of Israel: of every tribe of their | 9 Of the tribe of Benjamin, Palti the son fathers shall ye send a man, every one a ruler of Raphu. among them.

10 of the tribe of Zebulun, Gaddiel the 3 And Moses by the commandment of the son of Sodi. LORD sent them from the wilderness of Paran: 11 Of the tribe of Joseph, namely, of all those men were heads of the children of the tribe of Manasseh, Gaddi the son of Israel.

Susi. 4 And these were their names: of the tribe 1 2 Of the tribe of Dan, Ammiel the son of of Reuben, Shammua the son of Zaccur. Gemalli.

13 Of the tribe of Asher, Sethur the son of which the children of Israel cut down from Michael.

thence. 14 Of the tribe of Naphtali, Nahbi the son 25 And they returned from searching of the of Vophsi.

land after forty days. 15 Of the tribe of Gad, Geuel the son of | 26 | And they went and came to Moses, Machi.

and to Aaron, and to all the congregation of 16 These are the names of the men which the children of Israel, unto the wilderness of Moses sent to spy out the land. And Moses Paran, to Kadesh; and brought back word called Oshea the son of Nun Jehoshua.. unto them, and unto all the congregation, and

17 | And Moses sent them to spy out the shewed them the fruit of the land. land of Canaan, and said unto them, Get you 1 27 And they told him, and said, We came up this way southward, and go up into the unto the land whither thou sentest us, and mountain :

surely it floweth with milk and honey; and 18 And see the land, what it is; and the people that dwelleth therein, whether they be 28 Nevertheless the people be strong that strong or weak, few or many;

dwell in the land, and the cities are walled, 19 And what the land is that they dwell in, and very great: and moreover we saw the whether it be good or bad ; and what cities children of Anak there. they be that they dwell in, whether in tents, or 29 The Amalekites dwell in the land of the in strong holds ;

south : and the Hittites, and the Jebusites, 20 And what the land is, whether it be fat and the Amorites, dwell in the mountains : or lean, whether there be wood therein, or not. and the Canaanites dwell by the sea, and by. And be ye of good courage, and bring of the the coast of Jordan. fruit of the land. Now the time was the time 30 And Caleb stilled the people before of the firstripe grapes.

Moses, and said, Let us go up at once, and 21 [ So they went up, and searched the possess it ; for we are well able to overcome it. land from the wilderness of Zin unto Rehob, 31 But the men that went up with him said, as men come to Hamath. .

We be not able to go up against the people ; 22 And they ascended by the south, and for they are stronger than we. came unto Hebron ; where Ahiman, Sheshai, 32 And they brought up an evil report of and Talmai, the children of Anak, were. the land which they had searched unto the (Now Hebron was built seven years before children of Israel, saying, The land, through Zoan in Egypt.)

which we have gone to search it, is a land 23 And they came unto the brook of that eateth up the inhabitants thereof; and Eshcol, and cut down from thence a branch all the people that we saw in it are ®men of a with one cluster of grapes, and they bare it great stature. between two upon a staff; and they brought 33 And there we saw the giants, the sons of the pomegranates, and of the figs.

of Anak, which come of the giants : and we 24 The place was called the brook were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so 'Eshcol, because of the cluster of grapes we were in their sight.

1 Deut. 1. 24. 2 Or, valley. 8 Or, valley. That is, a cluster of grapes. 3 Exod. 33. 3. Heb. men of statures.

Verses 1-2. The Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Send clusters which they gathered at Eshcol, on their return, thou men,' etc.--It has been urged that this does not agree must have been of the second gathering. with Deut. i. 22, where the proposal to send men to survey 21. So they went up,' etc.- From the description of their the land is described as emanating from the people them. route here given, it seems that the spies took a survey of selves. But the explanation is easy :- In the one case, the whole land from south to north; proceeding, apparently, Moses relates the authority which he had for sending the near the course of the Jordan in their way out, and returnspies; but in Deuteronomy, as he is directing his address ing through the midst of the country along the borders of to the people, he reminds them of their share in the mea the Sidonians and Philistines. No course could be better sure. They were responsible for it. They suggested it calculated to make them acquainted with the character and themselves. God sanctioned the proposal they made. resources of the country. Thus it is true both that the Lord directed Moses to send • Wilderness of Zin.'-We have already indicated the spies, and that the people earnestly urged the proposal.' generally, what we must now more precisely state, that the -See Davidson's Sacred Hermeneutics, p. 536.

Desert of Zin must be identified with the low sandy plain 20. The time of the firstripe grapes.'_ This was in or valley which extends from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of August: the first clusters then come to maturity and are Akaba. This valley is through its whole extent bounded gathered; the second clusters in September, and the third on the east by the mountains of Seir, which rise abruptly and last in October. As the spies departed at the season from it, and almost shut it in on that side, being ouly traof the first ripe grapes, and were forty days absent, the | versed by a few varrow wadys, one of which only (that of

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