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or a year, that the cloud tarried upon the | 23 At the commandment of the LORD they tabernacle, remaining thereon, the children of rested in the tents, and at the commandment Israel 'abode in their tents, and journeyed of the LORD they journeyed: they kept the not: but when it was taken up, they jour- charge of the LORD, at the commandment of neyed.

the LORD by the hand of Moses. 9 Exod. 40. 36, 37.

CHAPTER X.

12 And the children of Israel took their 1 The use of the silver trumpets. 11 The Israelites

journeys out of the wilderness of Sinai ; and remove from Sinai to Paran. 14 The order of their

the cloud rested in the wilderness of Paran. march. 29 Hobab is intreated by Moses not to | 13 And they first took their journey accordleave them. 33 The blessing of Moses at the re- ling to the commandment of the LORD by the moving and resting of the ark.

hand of Moses. And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 14 | 'In the first place went the standard

2 Make thee two trumpets of silver ; of a of the camp of the children of Judah accordwhole piece shalt thou make them : that thou ing to their armies : and over his host was mayest use them for the calling of the assem | Nahshon the son of Amminadab. bly, and for the journeying of the camps.

15 And over the host of the tribe of the 3 And when they shall blow with them, all children of Issachar was Nethaneel the son of the assembly shall assemble themselves to thee Zuar. at the door of the tabernacle of the congre 16 And over the host of the tribe of the gation.

children of Zebulun was Eliab the son of 4 And if they blow but with one trumpet, | Helon. then the princes, which are heads of the thou- || 17 And the tabernacle was taken down; sands of Israel, shall gather themselves unto and the sons of Gershon and the sons of Methee.

rari set forward, bearing the tabernacle. 5 When ye blow an alarm, then the camps 18 | And the standard of the camp of that lie on the east parts shall go forward. Reuben set forward according to their armies :

6 When ye blow an alarm the second time, | and over his host was Elizur the son of then the camps that lie on the south side shall Shedeur. take their journey : they shall blow an alarm 19 And over the host of the tribe of the for their journeys.

children of Simeon was Shelumiel the son of 7 But when the congregation is to be ga Zurishaddai. thered together, ye shall blow, but ye shall 20 And over the host of the tribe of the not sound an alarm.

children of Gad was Eliasaph the son of 8 And the sons of Aaron, the priests, shall Deuel. blow with the trumpets; and they shall be to 21 And the Kohathites set forward, bearyou for an ordinance for ever throughout your ing the sanctuary: and 'the other did set up generations.

the tabernacle against they came. 9 And if ye go to war in your land against 22 | And the standard of the camp of the the enemy that oppresseth you, then ye shall children of Ephraim set forward according to blow an alarm with the trumpets; and ye shall their armies : and over his host was Elishama be remembered before the LORD your God, the son of Ammihud. and ye shall be saved from your enemies. 23 And over the host of the tribe of the

10 Also in the day of your gladness, and children of Manasseh was Gamaliel the son of in your solemn days, and in the beginnings of Pedahzur. your months, ye shall blow with the trumpets 24 And over the host of the tribe of the over your burnt offerings, and over the sacri children of Benjamin was Abidan the son of fices of your peace offerings ; that they may Gideoni. be to you for a memorial before your God: I 25 | And the standard of the camp of the am the LORD your God.

children of Dan set forward, which was the 11 | And it came to pass on the twentieth rearward of all the camps throughout their day of the second month, in the second year, hosts : and over his host was Ahiezer the son that the cloud was taken up from off the taber of Ammishaddai. nacle of the testimony.

26 And over the host of the tribe of the 1 Chap. 2. 3. 2 Chap. 1. 7. 8 Chap. 1. 4. • That is, the Gershonites and the Merarites. See verse 17.

children of Asher was Pagiel the son of camp in the wilderness, and thou mayest be Ocran.

to us instead of eyes. 27 And over the host of the tribe of the 32 And it shall be, if thou go with us, yea, children of Naphtali was Ahira the son of it shall be, that what goodness the LORD Enan.

shall do unto us, the same will we do unto 28 "Thus were the journeyings of the chil thee. dren of Israel according to their armies, when 33 | And they departed from the mount they set forward.

of the LORD three days' journey: and the ark 29 And Moses said unto Hobab, the son of the covenant of the LORD went before them of Raguel the Midianite, Moses' father in law, in the three days' journey, to search out a We are journeying unto the place of which resting place for them. the LORD said, I will give it you : come thou 34 And the cloud of the Lord was upon with us, and we will do thee good : for the them by day, when they went out of the camp. LORD hath spoken good concerning Israel. L 35 And it came to pass, when the ark set - 30 And he said unto him, I will not go; forward, that Moses said, 'Rise up, Lord, and but I will depart to mine own land, and to my let thine enemies be scattered ; and let them kindred.

that hate thee flee before thee. 31 And he said, Leave us not, I pray thee; L 36 And when it rested, he said, Return, forasmuch as thou knowest how we are to en- | O LORD, unto the 'many thousands of Israel.

5 Heb. These. Psal. 68. 1, 2. Heb. ten thousand thousands.

Verse 2. Two trumpets of silver.'—The number two is 1 of march; and on their arrival at the new camp they found mentioned, probably, because there were at this time but that the tabernacle was set up and properly prepared to two priests to blow trumpets. The number seems to have receive the precious charge entrusted to them. After been enlarged as the priests increased, so that in Solomon's them, the western division began its march, composed of time we read of a hundred and twenty priests sounding Ephraim, followed by Manasseh and Benjamin, under their with trumpets. Josephus gives a particular description of respective chiefs; and lastly the northern division moved them. He says they were little less than a cubit and a from the ground, Dan, being followed by Asher and Naphhalf long; and were composed of a narrow tube somewhat tali, bringing up the rear of the whole host. Nothing thicker than a flute, and ending in the form of a bell. He could be better contrived tban this order of march, reguadds that they were like the common trumpets of his time; lated by sound of trumpet, to prevent confusion and faciand, from his description and the concurrent testimony of litate the movements of so vast a body. There is nothing those represented on the arch of Titus, they seem to have in the world resembling this march of the Israelites so been also not unlike our own common trumpets. Josephus much as that of the pilgrim caravans which at this day claims for Moses the invention of this form of the trumpet. annually traverse nearly the same region in their way to The occasions on which these sacred trumpets were to be Mecca, the holy city of the Mohammedans. We may quote sounded, are particularly specified in the ensuing verses. the description given by Pitts as the best that has fallen They were to be blown softly when the congregation was under our notice. It describes the return from Mecca to to be assembled; but were sounded with a deeper note as Cairo :- The first day we set out from Mecca it was witha sigual for the camps to move forward, or when employed out any order at all, all hurly-burly; but the next day to animate the army as it went out to battle.

every one laboured to get forward, and in order to do it 6. • When ye blow an alarm the second time, then the there was many times much quarrelling and figbting. But camps that lie on the south side shall take their journey,' after every one had taken his place in the caravan, they etc.—The text gives an account of the movement of only orderly and peaceably kept the same pace till they came two of the grand divisions; but the Septuagint thus gives to Grand Cairo. They travel four camels in a breast, the account for the two other divisions :- When ye blow | which are all tied one after another, like as in teams. The a third alarm, the camps which lie on the west side shall whole body is called a caravan, which is divided into march; and when ye blow a fourth alarm, the camps which several cotlors or companies, each of which has its name, lie on the north side shall march.' In a note to chap. i. we and consists, it may be, of several thousand camels; and have called attention to the admirable order and arrange they move, one cottor after another, like distinct troops. ment of the Hebrew camp; and the order observed in the At the head of each cottor is some great gentleman or march of this vast host deserves no less attention, and is officer, who is carried in a thing like a horse-litter, borne not exceeded by any of those practices of the Greeks and by two camels, one before and the other behind....At the Romans, in their military tactics, which have obtained a head of every cottor there goes likewise a sum pter camel, much larger measure of admiration. They marched by which carries his treasure, etc. This camel hath two bells, sound of trumpet, always in the same order, and quartered about the bigness of our market-bells, hanging one on each themselves always in the same situation about the taber side, the sound of which may be heard a great way off. nacle, which was in the centre of the camp. Every division Some other of the camels have bells round about their necks, was placed under the command of its own prince, and fol- some about their necks like those which our carriers put lowed its own standard. We observe that, in the first about their fore horse's neck; which, together with the place, the eastern grand division commenced its march, | servants (who belong to the camels, and travel on foot) consisting of the tribe of Judah, followed by those of Issa singing all night, make a pleasant noise, and the journey char and Zebulun. Then the tabernacle was taken down, | passes away delightfully. They say this music makes the and the Gershonites and Merarites set forward with it. camels brisk and lively. Thus they travel in good order, The southern grand division then commenced its march, every day, till they come to Grand Cairo: and were it not consisting of Reuben, followed by Simeon and Gad; after for this order, you may guess what confusion would be whom, the Kobathites set forward with the sanctuary and among such a vast multitude. · They have lights by night sacred utensils-thus occupying the very centre of the line (which is the chief time of travelling, because of the ex

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MARCH OF TILE PILGRIM CARAVAN. ceeding heat of the sun), which are carried on the top of standard, and having portable fires to light them and serve high poles to direct the hagges (pilgrims) on their march. (See the note on John xviii. 3.) They are somewhat like iron stoves, into which they put short dry wood, which some of the camels were loaded with ; it is carried in great sacks, which have a hole near the bottom, where the servants take it out as they see the fire needs a recruit. Every cottor has one of these poles belonging to it, some of which have ten, some twelve of these lights on their tops, or more or less; they are likewise different in figures as well as in numbers: one perhaps oval way, like a gate; another, triangular, or like N or M, &c.; so that every one knows by them his respective cottor. They are carried in the front, and set up in the place where the caravan is to pitch, before that comes up, at some distance rom one another. They are also carried by day, not lighted; but yet, by the figure and number of them, the bagges are directed to what cottor they belong; as soldiers are, by their colours, where to rendezvous; and without such directions it would be impossible to avoid confusion in such a vast number of people. Here we have a vast body of pilgrims divided into parties, each headed by its leader, and under its own

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as banners by night. The Hebrews in their journeyings agreed in all this, except that when they travelled by night they had no need of the portable beacons, the pillar of fire furnishing a sufficient light to them. Overlooking this fact, Harmer conjectures that the standards' of the tribes were of the same description as the stoves for holding fires described by Pitts. Pitts' own account omits one circumstance which suggests another analogy. The Mohammedan hadj caravau has an object to which general attention is directed, and which is regarded with peculiar reverence, answering, in a humble degree, to the ark in the Hebrew host. Each of the great caravans from Damascus and from Cairo has its holy camel, carrying on its back the mahmil, with presents for the Kaaba at Mecca, and which also serves as a sign or banner to the caravan. The mahmil of Damascus is described by Maundrell as. A large pavilion of black silk, pitched upon the back of a very great camel, and spreading its curtains all round about the beast down to the ground. This camel wants not also his ornaments of large ropes of beads, fish-shells, fox-tails, and other such fantastic finery, hanged upon his head, neck, and legs. All this is designed for the Koran, which thus rides in state both to and from Mecca.' He then adds the usual story about the new carpet sent thus by the Sultan every year to cover the Prophet's tomb, the old one being brought back and treated as a most venerable relic. But this is known to be incorrect, as the mahmil contains nothing but two copies of the Koran, one on a scroll, and the other in the usual form of a little book, and each enclosed in a case of gilt silver, attached externally at the top. The mahmil is borne on a fine tall camel, which is generally indulged with exemption from every kind of labour during the remainder of its life. It is, in its true signification, an emblem of royalty; giving to the camp and procession the idea of the presence of the sovereign, and forming a central object of reverence and attention to both. In all these respects it offers some analogy to the ark in the great pilgrim march of the Hebrew host. There is no fixed pattern for the mahmil, and the form described by Maundrell, with long curtains to the ground, has given place to that represented in the opposite engraving.

31. · We are to encamp in the wilderness, anul thou mayest be to us instead of eyes.'-In answer to those who assign a mythical character to this book, attention has been directed to such passages as this, where Moses requests Hobab to aid the march of the Israelites through the wilderness by his knowledge of the country. Such passages must have been written by a conscientious reporter, whose

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oplained heard it

CHAPTER XI.

3 And he called the name of the place i The burning of Taberah quenched by Moses' prayer.

"Taberah : because the fire of the LORD burnt 4 The people lust for flesh, and loathe manna. 10 among them. Moses complaineth of his charge. 16 God divideth 4 T And the mixt multitude that was his burden unto seventy elders. 31 Quails are given in wrath at Kibroth-hattaavah.

among them "fell a lusting: and the children

of Israel also Swept again, and said, 'Who And when the people 'complained, "it dis- shall give us flesh to eat? pleased the LORD: and the LORD heard it ; | 5 We remember the fish, which we did eat and his anger was kindled; and the fire of the in Egypt freely; the cucumbers, and the meLORD burnt Samong them, and consumed lons, and the leeks, and the onions, and the them that were in the uttermost parts of the garlick: camp.

6 But now our soul is dried away: there is nd the people cried unto Moses; and nothing at all, beside this manna, before our when Moses prayed unto the LORD, the fire eyes. 'was quenched.

7 And ''the manna was as coriander seed,

in Egypte

did eat

and theers, and

10r, were as it were complainers. Heb. it was evil in the ears of, &c. 3 Psal. 78. 21. Heb. sunk. 3 That is, Aburning. 6 As Exod. 12. 38. 7 Heb. lusted a lust. 8 Heb, returned and wept. 91 Cor. 10. 6. 10 Exod. 16, 14, 31.

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and the colour thereof as the colour of you : because that ye have despised the LORD bdellium.

which is among you, and have wept before 8 And the people went about, and gathered him, saying, Why came we forth out of it, and ground it in mills, or beat it in a | Egypt? mortar, and baked it in pans, and made cakes 21 [ And Moses said, The people, among of it: and the taste of it was as the taste of whom I am, are six hundred thousand footfresh oil.

men; and thou hast said, I will give them 9 And when the dew fell upon the camp in flesh, that they may eat a whole month. the night, the manna fell upon it.

22 Shall the flocks and the herds be slain 10 T Then Moses heard the people weep for them, to suffice them ? or shall all the fish throughout their families, every man in the of the sea be gathered together for them, to door of his tent: and the anger of the Lord suffice them? was kindled greatly; Moses also was dis | 23 And the Lord said unto Moses, ''Is the pleased.

LORD's hand waxed short ? thou shalt see now 11 And Moses said unto the LORD, Where- | whether my word shall come to pass unto thee fore hast thou afflicted thy servant ? and or not. wherefore have I not found favour in thy sight, 24 T And Moses went out, and told the that thou layest the burden of all this people people the words of the LORD, and gathered upon me?

the seventy men of the elders of the people, * 12 Have I conceived all this people? have and set them round about the tabernacle. I begotten them, that thou shouldest say unto 25 And the LORD came down in a cloud, me, Carry them in thy bosom, as a nursing and spake unto him, and took of the spirit father beareth the sucking child, unto the land that was upon him, and gave it unto the seventy which thou swarest unto their fathers ?

elders : and it came to pass, that, when the 13 Whence should I have flesh to give unto spirit rested upon them, they prophesied, and all this people? for they weep unto me, say-| did not cease. ing, Give us flesh, that we may eat.

26 But there remained two of the men in 14 I am not able to bear all this people the camp, the name of the one was Eldad, and alone, because it is too heavy for me.

the name of the other Medad : and the spirit 15 And if thou deal thus with me, kill me, rested upon them; and they were of them that I pray thee, out of hand, if I have found favour were written, but went not out unto the taberin thy sight; and let me not see my wretch nacle : and they prophesied in the camp. edness.

27 And there ran a young man, and told 16 | And the Lord said unto Moses, Moses, and said, Eldad and Medad do proGather unto me seventy men of the elders of phesy in the camp. Israel, whom thou knowest to be the elders of 28 And Joshua the son of Nun, the servant the people, and officers over them; and bring of Moses, one of his young men, answered and them unto the tabernacle of the congregation, | said, My lord Moses, forbid them. that they may stand there with thee.

29 And Moses said unto him, Enviest thou 17 And I will come down and talk with for my sake ? would God that all the LORD's thee there : and I will take of the spirit which people were prophets, and that the LORD is upon thee, and will put it upon them; and would put his spirit upon them! they shall bear the burden of the people with 30 Ånd Moses gat him into the camp, he thee, that thou bear it not thyself alone. and the elders of Israel.

18 And say thou unto the people, Sanctify 31 | And there went forth a 'wind from yourselves against to morrow, and ye shall eat the LORD, and brought quails from the sea, flesh: for ye have wept in the ears of the and let them fall by the camp, ''as it were a LORD, saying, Who shall give us flesh to eat ? day's journey on this side, and as it were a for it was well with us in Egypt: therefore the day's journey on the other side, round about LORD will give you flesh, and ye shall eat. the camp, and as it were two cubits high upon

19 Ye shall not eat one day, nor two days, the face of the earth. nor five days, neither ten days, nor twenty 32 And the people stood up all that day, days;

and all that night, and all the next day, and 20 But even a "whole month, until it come they gathered the quails: he that gathered out at your nostrils, and it be loathsome unto | least gathered ten homers : and they spread 11 Heb. eye of it as the eye of. 12 Heb. month of days. . 13 Isa. 50.2, and 59. 1. 14 Exod. 16. 13. Psal. 78. 26. 15 Heb. as it were the way of a day.

the car

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