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usages on this point may throw light on those of the Hebrews. Each tribe has its hereditary chief or khan, whose influence in it is very great; and inviolable attachment to whom, under all circumstances, is regarded equally as a duty and a virtue. The people regard him as their only lawful leader, and can seldom be brought to obey any other person, although they are nominally subject to the king of the country. As it would be inconvenient, if not impossible, for a whole tribe to keep together while pasturing its flocks, it is divided into several branches, each of which encamps and wanders by itself. These branches have at their head inferior chiefs, called, as among the Hebrews, elders.' Their dignity is hereditary, like that of the chief, to whom they are more or less nearly related; and they form the officers of the tribe in time of war, and its magistrates in time of peace. In the latter capacity, it is their general endeavour to preserve the harmony of the tribe by effecting an accommodation of the differences which arise within it. Small matters are settled by the head of the branch in which the case arises, but affairs of somewhat more consequence, or which the elder cannot settle, are referred to the chief, or, in his absence, to his deputy, who is always one of the elders. When, however, a matter of some importance is in question, a council of the elders is called, and the result is determined by a majority of voices. The parallel may not perhaps be thought to hold good in the case of magisterial functions ; but it seems to us very probable that the chief of the magistrates whom Moses appointed, at the suggestion of Jethro, were those heads of tribes and of subdivisions, to whom the people were accustomed to look up with respect and confidence. The tribes still continued to have their own chiefs even under the kings—at least in the early periods of the monarchy. A list of such chiefs, referring to the time of David, is given in 1 Chron. xxvii. 16-22; and they probably subsisted, at least in name, until the Captivity." Their authority and influence in their respective tribes, while still possessed in any considerable degree, must have proved a strong restraint upon the power of the monarchs.

46. • Sir hundred thousand, and three thousand, and five hundred and fifty.'-So many objections have been started to this increase of the Hebrews in Egypt that some very sincere persons have been made willing to believe that, in some way or other, a cipher or two has been added, and would not be reluctant to read 60,000, or even 6,000, instead of 600,000; but they forget that the larger number is sustained throughout the narrative. Not only are there two enumerations, at intervals of thirty-nine years, sup- '

porting each other in their sums and particulars; but the losses which the Israelites sustained through the judgments of God were such as would have sufficed to ruin a less numerous people. As it is, the effect is naturally exhibited in a decrease rather than an increase of the population at the second census.

We have already touched slightly on that subject, and should not have returned to it here but for the sake of introducing the following extracts from Jahn's Biblische Archaeologie, by which it is made to appear that the as. signed increase was possible, even without reference to that divine blessing through which their great increase in Egypt had been promised and foretold.

The increase of the Hebrews in 430 years from seventy persons to 603,550 males and upwards, of twenty years of age, besides 22,000 males of a month old and upwards among the Levites, has appeared to many incredible. The number of 600,000 men capable of bearing arms necessarily makes the whole number of people amount to 2,400,000. An anonymous writer in the Literarischen Anzeiger, 1796, October 4, § 311, has demonstrated that the Hebrews, in 430 years, might have increased from seventy persons to 977,280 males above twenty years old. He supposes that of those seventy persons who went down to Egypt, only forty remained alive after a space of twenty years, each one of whom had two sons. In like manner, at the close of every succeeding period of twenty years, he supposes one-fourth part of those who were alive at the commencement of that period to have died, while the remaining three-fourths are doubled by natural increase. Hence arises the following geometrical progression.

After twenty years, of the seventy there are forty living, each having two sons :

Consequently == 80 80 . . . . $ = GO = 120 120 . . . * = 90 == 180

180 . . . . = 135 = 270 and so on. Thus the first term of the progression is 80 = u The denominator

= b The number of terms 96 = n Therefore the expression of the whole sum will be

ab - a Or

80 X 1980 80 X 6109 – 80 – 977.280

3-1

SI

CHAPTER II.

shall be the tribe of Issachar : and Nethaneel

the son of Zuar shall be captain of the children The order of the tribes in their tents.

of Issachar. AND the LORD spake unto Moses and unto 6 And his host, and those that were numAaron, saying,

bered thereof, were fifty and four thousand and 2 Every man of the children of Israel shall | four hundred. pitch by his own standard, with the ensign of 1 7 Then the tribe of Zebulun: and Eliab their father's house : 'far off about the taber- the son of Helon shall be captain of the chilnacle of the congregation shall they pitch. dren of Zebulun.

3 [ And on the east side toward the rising | 8 And his host, and those that were numof the sun shall they of the standard of the bered thereof, were fifty and seven thousand camp of Judah pitch throughout their armies : and four hundred. and Nahshon the son of Amminadab shall be 9 All that were numbered in the camp of captain of the children of Judah.

Judah were an hundred thousand and four4 And his host, and those that were num score thousand and six thousand and four bered of them, were threescore and fourteen hundred, throughout their armies. These shall thousand and six hundred.

first set forth. 5 And those that do pitch next unto him 10 On the south side shall be the stand

1 Heb. over against.

ard of the camp of Reuben according to their 23 And his host, and those that were numarmies : and the captain of the children of bered of them, were thirty and five thousand Reuben shall be Elizur the son of Shedeur. I and four hundred.

11 And his host, and those that were num | 24 All that were numbered of the camp bered thereof, were forty and six thousand and | of Ephraim were an hundred thousand and five hundred.

eight thousand and an hundred, throughout 12 And those which pitch by him shall be their armies. And they shall go forward in the tribe of Simeon: and the captain of the the third rank. children of Simeon shall be Shelumiel the son 25 | The standard of the camp of Dan of Zurishaddai.

shall be on the north side by their armies : 13 And his host, and those that were num and the captain of the children of Dan shall bered of them, were fifty and nine thousand be Ahiezer the son of Ammishaddai. and three hundred.

26 And his host, and those that were num14 Then the tribe of Gad: and the cap- | bered of them, were threescore and two thoutain of the sons of Gad shall be Eliasaph the sand and seven hundred. son of Reuel.

27 And those that encamp by him shall be 15 And his host, and those that were num the tribe of Asher : and the captain of the bered of them, were forty and five thousand children of Asher shall be Pagiel the son of and six hundred and fifty.

Ocran. 16 All that were numbered in the camp of | 28 And his host, and those that were numReuben were an hundred thousand and fifty bered of them, were forty and one thousand and one thousand and four hundred and fifty, and five hundred. throughout their armies. And they shall set 29 Then the tribe of Naphtali : and the forth in the second rank.

captain of the children of Naphtali shall be 17 | Then the tabernacle of the congrega Ahira the son of Enan. tion shall set forward with the camp of the 30 And his host, and those that were numLevites in the midst of the camp: as they bered of them, were fifty and three thousand encamp, so shall they set forward, every man and four hundred. in his place by their standards.

31 All they that were numbered in the 18 On the west side shall be the stand-camp of Dan were an hundred thousand and ard of the camp of Ephraim according to their fifty and seven thousand and six hundred. They armies : and the captain of the sons of Ephraim shall go hindmost with their standards. shall be Elishama the son of Ammihud. | 32 | These are those which were numbered

19 And his host, and those that were num of the children of Israel by the house of their bered of them, were forty thousand and five fathers : all those that were numbered of the hundred.

camps throughout their hosts were six hundred 20 And by him shall be the tribe of Ma- | thousand and three thousand and five hundred nasseh : and the captain of the children of and fifty. Manasseh shall be Gamaliel the son of Pe 33 But the Levites were not numbered dahzur.

among the children of Israel; as the LORD 21 And his host, and those that were num cominanded Moses. bered of them, were thirty and two thousand 34 And the children of Israel did accordand two hundred.

ing to all that the LORD commanded Moses : 22 Then the tribe of Benjamin : and the so they pitched by their standards, and so captain of the sons of Benjamin shall be Abidan they set forward, every one after their famithe son of Gideoni.

lies, according to the house of their fathers.

i

Verse 2. Every man. . . shall pitch by his own standard, sion for them, they would naturally adopt something similar with the ensign of his father's house.' This mention of to that which they had seen constantly in use in that standards and ensigns suggests many matters of interesting country. Now, from an examination of the standards reenquiry, into which we can but very partially enter. We presented in the religious, military, and battle pictures of must regard the Israelites as a people fresh from Egypt, that country, it becomes evident that the Israelites on and acquainted with, and probably adopting, the modes leaving Egypt must have been acquainted with ensigns of employed in that country for maintaining a proper order at least three kinds, namely-1. The great standards of and distribution among large bodies of men. We are the the tribes, serving as rallying signals for marching, formrather led to this conclusion by the knowledge that when ing in battle array, and for encamping; 2. the divisional the Israelites went down into Egypt they were too few to standards of clans; and 3. those of houses or families; need such instruments of order; and when they had occa- ! which, after the occupation of the Promised Land, may

NET

EGYPTIAN STANDARDS,

gradually have been applied more immediately to corps terior to the first invasion of the Huns, except on some and companies, when the tribes, as such, no longer re naval medals of the empire, all are effigies spoília of anigularly took the field. That there were several standards mals or plants, tablets, globes, vexilla, or dragons. As may be inferred from the uniform practice of the East to early as the days of the Exode of Israel, the Egyptians had this day; from their being useful in manœuvres, as ensigns of different kinds. We observe on the monuments already explained, and as shewn in the Egyptian paint -1. Thrones or palanquins, indicating the great or sacred ings; and from being absolutely necessary; for had there centre of an army. 2. Royal fans attending the sacred been only one in each tribe, it would not have been suf centre; the one, the . Efthondehs of India,' always carried ficiently visible to crowds of people of all ages and both by princes, or sons of the Pharaoh, on the summit of long sexes, amounting in most cases to more than 100,000, ex poles, and therefore intended as signs of honour, not for clusive of their baggage. Whole bodies therefore, each use as umbrellas. 3. A long span borne on the shoulders under the guidance of the particular clan ensign, knew how of a row of men, surmounted by a globe, with an enormous to follow the tribal standard ; and the families offered the double feather, apparently twelve or fourteen feet high, same convenience to the smaller divisions. It may be and four or five broad, coloured green, white, and red. doubted whether even these three were enough for the This has been denominated the standard of Sesostris, and purpose ; and that there were others might be inferred was most likely the signal ensign of encampment, which (Isa. xiii. 2; Jer. li. 27) from the circumstance of their was fixed before the royal tent, and when set up must have being planted on the summit of some high place, to mark been visible high above all the other sigus. 4. Standards the point where to assemble: these last therefore were not of lower elevation, always with two great feathers issuing ensigns of particular bodies, but signals for an understood from a globe, and the foot set in a portable frame ; which purpose. But what the form, colours, materials, and seems to have been the signal of castrametation and of symbols of the Hebrew ensigns were, it is more difficult to direction, serving as temporary guiding posts, indications determine, chiefly because there has been a great quantity of wells, lines of front in camp, etc. 5. Tablets on poles of learned trifling among Rabbinical writers and more similarly set in frames, but with particular symbols above modern heralds, all equally bent upon fearless assertions, the tablet, and two, three, or four arms holding objects that and with so little true knowledge of the customs of an can be inserted or taken off, and the arms themselves aptiquity, that they have uniformly described these ensigns parently moveable, the whole having the appearance of a as flags in shape like modern banners a form not yet complete telegraph, 6. Besides these, there are very shewn to have existed in the west of Asia or Europe an- | many varieties of effigial ensigns, with and without shawls beneath them, ensigns of particular temples, idols, cities, Rustam, where it marks the presence of the king. It is nomes. 7. Square tablets on poles borne by the file-leader still the royal token throughout the East and Islam Africa; of a tribe. 8. Ostrich feather ensigns, carried as marks of and it appears that in the Macedonian æra it was adopted honour by princes, and sometimes seen stuck at the back by the Græco-Egyptian princes. See Col. C. H. Smith's in a broad belt. Ostrich feathers occur again as an ensign | Art. STANDARDS, in the Cyclop. of B. Literature; Meyrick, of the Lebanon people, or a nation of Palestine, which is on Ancient Armour; Henry, l'Egypte Pharaonique, 1846; represented submitting to Sesostris. These ensigns are not | Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians, necessarily made of plumes of the bird, and they occur The Rabbinical writers, to whose notioris on the subject white, wbite with a black bar, and barred red and white, we have already slightly referred, leave out of view the red, white, and black, and red, white, and green; so that ensigns which distinguished the subdivisions of a tribe, there were many belonging to different appropriations. and confine their attention to the tribe-standards; and in Indeed this ensign is still in use in Yemen and the southern

this it will be well to follow their example. They by no desert, where many sheiks have it borne on bamboo poles means agree among themselves; but the view which they as the cognizance of their clans. These details will shew m ost generally entertain is that the standards were flags, that at the time when Israel departed out of Egypt, most, bearing figures derived from the comparisons used by Jacob if not all of these kind of ensigns, were well known, and in his final prophetic blessing on his sons. Thus, they that, therefore, it is likely they were, under proper modi. have Judah represented by a lion, Dan by a serpent, Benfications, adopted by that people when about to become jamin by a wolf, etc. But, as long since observed by Sir wanderers over desert regions where order and discipline, Thomas Brown (Vulgar Errors, book v. ch. x.), the es. directing signals, telegraphs, and indications of water would cutcheons of the tribes, as determined by these ingenious be most useful; and as the Egyptians, in common with triflers, do not in every instance correspond with any posother organised nations, had a sacred centre for their gods sible interpretation of Jacob's prophecy, nor with the anaand the royal tent, so also had the chosen race a sacred logous prophecy of Moses, when about to die. The latter centre, the twelve tribes taking their well-known stations Jews were of opinion that, with respect to the four grand around it; that centre rendered the more awful and sub divisions, the standard of the camp of Judah reprelime by the cloud hovering at the light shining above it. sented a lion ; that of Reuben, a man; that of Joseph,

From the kind of service which each class of ensign was an ox; and that of Dan, an eagle; but this was under the to render, we may take for granted that the tribal standard conception that the appearances in the cherubic vision of (27 deyhel) at all times required to be distinguishable

Ezekiel alluded to this division. The Targumists, how

ever, believe that the banners were distinguished by their * afar off,' would be elevated on high poles with con

colours, the colour for each tribe being analogous to that spicuously marked distinctions, and that therefore, although

of the precious stone, for that tribe, in the breastplate of the mottos ascribed to the twelve tribes by the Rabbinical

the high-priest; and that the great standard of each of the writers, and the symbolical effigies applied to them, may

four camps combined the three colours of the tribes which or may not have been adopted, something like the lofty

composed it. They add, that the names of the tribes apflabelliform signa of Egypt most likely constituted their

peared on the standards, together with a particular senparticular distinction; and this is the more probable, as

tence from the law; and were moreover charged with no fans or umbrellas were borne about the ark; and, being

appropriate representations, as of the lion for Judah, etc. royal, no chief, not even Moses himself, could assume

Aben Ezra and other Rabbins agree with the Targumists them; but a priest or Levite may have carried that of

in other respects, but put in other representations than the each tribe in the form of a fan, as the distinction of the

latter assign. Lastly, the Cabbalists have an opinion that highest dignity, and of service rendered to the Lord. They

the bearings of the twelve standards corresponded with the may have had beneath them vittæ, or shawls, of the par

months of the year and the signs of the zodiac-the supticular colour of the stone in the breastplate of the high

posed characters of the latter being represented thereon ; priest (although it must be observed that that ornament is

and that the distinction of the great standards was, that of later date than the standards); and they may have been

they bore the cardinal signs of Aries, Cancer, Libra, and embellished with inscriptions, or with figures, which at a

Capricorn, and were also charged with each one letter of time when every Hebrew knew that animal forms and

the tetragrammaton, or quadraliteral name of God. Thus other objects constituted parts of written hieroglyphic in

much for Rabbinical interpretation. scription, and even stood for sounds, could not be mistaken

3. • Camp,'-This is the only regular description of an for idols, the great lawgiver himself adopting effigies when

encampment which the Bible contains; but, from incihe shaped his cherubim for the ark, and Solomon when he

dental allusions, we may gather that the camps which the set his brazen sea on bulls of the same metal. In after

Hebrews in aftertimes formed in their military operations, ages we find typical figures admitted in the ships carved

differed in several respects from the present, the admirable on the monuments of the Maccabees, being the symbol of

arrangement of which is easily perceived, although some the tribe of Zebulon, and not even then prohibited because

difference of opinion exists as to a few of the details. The ships were inanimate objects. There is reason to believe

diagram below will exhibit the apparent order better than that the family ensigns, or clan ensigns, were, at least in the earlier ages, symbolical figures; and that the shekels

a verbal description, however minute. It is thus seen that

the camp was formed in a quadrangle, having on each side ascribed to David, bearing an olive or citron branch, to Nehemiah with three lilies, to Herod Agrippa with three

three tribes under one general standard. How these tribes

were placed with regard to each other is not very clear; ears of corn, and to Tryphon with a helmet and star, were

some fix the leading tribe in the centre, and the two others 50 many types of families, which may all have been borne

on each side ; but the description seems rather to indicate as sculptured figures, or, when the purism of later times demanded it, may have been painted upon tablets, like the

that the leading tribe extended along the whole exterior supposed family or clan motto, on the ensign of the Mac

line, and that the two other tribes pitched beside each

other, within. The only other alternative seems to be, to cabees (239). The practice was equally common among suppose that the two minor tribes also extended in full all the heathen Egyptians, Persians, and Greeks; and line, the last tribe mentioned in each division being the perhaps the figures of those actually used in Jerusalem are innermost. The collective encampment enclosed a large represented in the sculptured triumphal arch of Titus, when open square, in the centre of which stood the tabernacle. the golden candlesticks and other spoils of vanquished The position which the tabernacle thus occupied still reJudah are portrayed. A circumstance which confirms mains the place of honour in grand oriental camps, and is the meaning of the objects represented upon the Jewish usually occupied by the tent of the king or general. The shekels is, that on the reverse of those of Herod Agrippa is distance between it and the common camp was indicative seen another sovereign ensign of Asia, namely, the um- of respect; what the distance was we are not told, except brella (chattah, chutah of India), always attending by the Rabbins, who say that it was two thousand cubits, monarchs, and sculptured at Chehel Minar and at Nakshi- l and apparently ground this statement upon Josh. iii. 4.

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NORTH.–FOURTH DIVISION-CAMP OF DAN: 157,600.

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SOUTH.-SECOND DIVISION-CAMP OF REUBEN: 151,450.

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