Obrazy na stronie

tooth : as he hath caused a blemish in a man, own country: for I am the LORD your so shall it be done to him again.

God. 21 And he that killeth a beast, he shall 23 | And Moses spake to the children of restore it: and he that killeth a man, he shall Israel, that they should bring forth him that be put to death.

had cursed out of the camp, and stone him 22 Ye shall have one manner of law, with stones. And the children of Israel did as well for the stranger, as for one of your | as the Lord commanded Moses.

12 Exod. 12. 49.

Verse 10. · Whose father was an Egyptian.'—This, no | his tent in the tribe of Dan, and that this claim was dis. doubt, was not the only connection of the kind ; and it puted and disallowed. This inference seems to be built seems to us very probable that a considerable portion of the upon the particular manner in which the man's descent • mixed multitude' which went up with the Israelites was and the tribe of his mother are mentioned. As to the chiefly composed of men and women connected with the blasphemy, the Jewish writers are disposed to think it congreat Hebrew family by marriage. It seems doubtful sisted in pronouncing the unutterable name of Jehovah. whether the blasphemer was an avowed idolater, or a pro- | But this gloss deserves little attention, being founded on fessed believer in Jehovah. At least, it would seem that those views of superstitious respect to the mere name, which his mind was Egyptian; for we know that the Egyptians do not appear to have existed in the time of Moses, nor, counted it a light matter to abuse and curse their own gods indeed, in common with many other of their superstitions, when they failed to obtain any object for which they had until long after the Captivity. We shall probably be more prayed: much the more ready would such a person, there correct in believing that he spoke disrespectfully or refore, be to speak disrespectfully of a God whom he had not proachingly of God, uuder whatever name mentioned ; been accustomed to reverence, in order to irritate an adver and, in estimating the enormity of the offence, we must not sary who held the name of that God in deep veneration. overlook the circumstance of aggravation, that the act of It is well said by Hengstenberg, with reference to this blasphemy against Jehovah was both a religious and polipassage: "The account of the son of “ the Israelitish tical crime, ře being not only the God but the King of the woman whose father was an Egyptian," transfers us in a Hebrew nation. As such a crime as this had not before manner peculiar, and inimitable by a later writer, into the occurred, and as no punishment had yet been annexed to it, very heart of things as they must have existed at the time it was necessary that the man should be secured until the of the departure of the people from Egypt. If any narra Lord was consulted. And here we may observe, that in tive carries the proof of its authenticity along with it, this the books of Moses, and in the early historical books, imdoes. The name of the mother and of her father are given; prisonment no where occurs as a punishment, but only for and the name of the tribe of the latter is also stated. That the purpose of keeping a criminal in safe custody until the the father is an Egyptian and the mother an Israelite is in time of trial. entire accordance with the common relation of the Egyp 14. Bring forth him that hath cursed without the camp.' tians to the Israelites, while the opposite case, an Israelitish -All capital executions seem to have been outside the father and an Egyptian mother, is hardly supposable. It towns or camps — the criminal, particularly in crimes is entirely natural that in the son of an Egyptian father against God, being, as it were, cast forth from the comthe heathenish blood should shew itself, so that he curses munity as one unclean (Num. v. 2, 3) and accursed (Josh. the God of Israel.' — Egypt and the Books of Moses, vii. 24). P. 220,

- Let all that heard him lay their hands upon his head.' 11. Biasphemed the name of the LORD.'—The words -This became the established practice for those who gave of the Lord,' being in italics, are of course not in the text, evidence in a case of blasphemy; and, by reference to a which reads simply .blasphemed THE NAME.' The omission similar act in the altar sacrifices, is not improbably exalso occurs in the icth verse, and must be of great antiquity, plained to mean, that he was treated as an expiatory victim, as the words supplied are not found in either the Samaritan laden by this act with the entire burden of the crime for or Syriac versious. The Jewish, and some Christian ex which he was executed. This act of the witnesses was positors, draw many recondite inferences from the reading accompanied by the words, “Let thy blood be upon thy owa which the omission produces. But that there is no founda hcad : it is thou thyself who hast brought this evil upon tion for them, appears from the fact, that the phrase, “blas thee.' Maimonides states that this ceremony only look phemed the name of the Lord,' actually does occur in the place in cases of blasphemy. These remarks will be found first clause of v. 16. Moses does not mention the cause of to illustrate the account given in the New Testament of the dispute, or the nature of the blasphemy of which the man deaths of our Lord and of St. Stephen, who were both dewas guilty. The Jewish writers, as usual, take the oppor stroyed under a false charge of blasphemy. The crime of tunity of giving their own account of the matter. The the judges and witnesses in these cases lay in declaring them opinion which is most common among them is, that the to be guilty of blasphemy, not in pronouncing blasphemy man claimed, iu right of his mother, to have a place for to deserve death.


CHAPTER XXV. 1 The sabbath of the seventh year. 8 The jubile in the

fiftieth year. 14 Of oppression. 18 Å blessing of obedience. 23 The redemption of land. 29° Of houses. 35 Compassion on the poor. 39 The usage

of bondmen. 47 The redemption of serrants. And the Lord spake unto Moses in mount Sinai, saying,

1 Heb. rest.

2 Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, When ye come into the land which I give you, then shall the land 'keep 'a sabbath unto the Lord.

3 Six years thou shalt sow thy field, and six years thou shalt prune thy vineyard, and gather in the fruit thereof; 4 But in the seventh year shall be a sabbath

8 Exod. 23. 10.

of rest unto the land, a sabbath for the LORD: and keep my judgments, and do them; and thou shalt neither sow thy field, nor prune thy ye shall dwell in the land in safety. vineyard.

19 And the land shall yield her fruit, 5 That which groweth of its own accord of and ye shall eat your fill, and dwell therein thy harvest thou shalt not reap, neither gather in safety. the grapes of thy vine undressed : for it is a ! 20 And if ye shall say, What shall we eat year of rest unto the land.

the seventh year? behold, we shall not sow, 6 And the sabbath of the land shall be nor gather in our increase : meat for you; for thee, and for thy servant, 21 Then I will command my blessing upon and for thy maid, and for thy hired servant, you in the sixth year, and it shall bring forth and for thy stranger that sojourneth with | fruit for three years. thee,

22 And ye shall sow the eighth year, and 7 And for thy cattle, and for the beast that eat yet of old fruit until the ninth year ; are in thy land, shall all the increase thereof | until her fruits come in ye shall eat of the be meat.

old store. 8 9 And thou shalt number seven sabbaths 1 23 9 The land shall not be sold 5°for ever : of years unto thee, seven times seven years; for the land is mine; for ye are strangers and and the space of the seven sabbaths of years sojourners with me. shall be unto thee forty and nine years.

24 And in all the land of your possession 9 Then shalt thou cause the trumpet *of the ye shall grant a redemption for the land. jubile to sound, on the tenth day of the seventh 25 If thy brother be waxen poor, and hath month, in the day of atonement shall ye make sold away some of his possession, and if any the trumpet sound throughout all your land. of his kin come to redeem it, then shall he

10 And ye shall hallow the fiftieth year, redeem that which his brother sold. and proclaim liberty throughout all the land 26 And if the man have none to redeem it, unto all the inhabitants thereof: it shall be a | and 'himself be able to redeem it; jubile unto you; and ye shall return every 27 Then let him count the years of the sale man unto his possession, and ye shall return thereof, and restore the overplus unto the man every man unto his family.

to whom he sold it; that he may return unto 11 A jubile shall that fiftieth year be unto his possession. you: ye shall not sow, neither reap that which 28 But if he be not able to restore it to groweth of itself in it, nor gather the grapes in him, then that which is sold shall remain in it of thy vine undressed.

the hand of him that hath bought it until the 12 For it is the jubile; it shall be holy unto 1 year of jubile: and in the jubile it shall go out, you: ye shall eat the increase thereof out of and he shall return unto his possession. the field.

29 | And if a man sell a dwelling house in 13 In the year of this jubile ye shall return a walled city, then he may redeem it within a every man unto his possession.

whole year after it is sold; within a full year 14 1 And if thou sell ought unto thy neigh- | may he redeem it. bour, or buyest ought of thy neighbour's hand, 30 And if it be not redeemed within the ye shall not oppress one another :

space of a full year, then the house that is in 15 According to the number of ycars after the walled city shall be established for ever to the jubile thou shalt buy of thy neighbour, him that bought it throughout his generations : and according unto the number of years of the it shall not go out in the jubile. fruits he shall sell unto thee:

31 But the houses of the villages which have 16 According to the multitude of years | no wall round about them shall be counted as thou shalt increase the price thereof, and the fields of the country: Othey may be reaccording to the fewness of years thou shalt | deemed, and they shall go out in the jubile. diminish the price of it: for according to the 32 Notwithstanding the cities of the Levites, number of the years of the fruits doth he sell and the houses of the cities of their possession, unto thee.

may the Levites redeem at any time. 17 Ye shall not therefore oppress one 33 And if 'a man purchase of the Levites, another ; but thou shalt fear thy God : for then the house that was sold, and the city of I am the LORD your God.

his possession, shall go out in the year of 18 | Wherefore ye shall do my statutes, jubile: for the houses of the cities of the Levites are their possession among the children 46 And ye shall take them as an inheritance of Israel.

8 Hleb, of thy separation.

Jeb. loud of sound.

5 Or, to be quite cut off. 7 Heb. his hand hath attained and found suficiency.

Heb, redemption belongeth unto it.

6 Heb. for cutting off Or, one of the Levites redeem them.

for your children after you, to inherit them for 34 But the field of the suburbs of their , a possession ; ''they shall be your bondmen cities may not be sold; for it is their perpetual for ever : but over your brethren the children possession.

of Israel, ye shall not rule one over another 35 1 And if thy brother be waxen poor, with rigour. and ''fallen in decay with thee; then thou shalt 47 | And if a sojourner or stranger "swax "relieve him: yea, though he be a stranger, or rich by thee, and thy brother that dwelleth by a sojourner ; that he may live with thee. him wax poor, and sell himself unto the stranger

36 12Take thou no usury of him, or increase : | or sojourner by thee, or to the stock of the but fear thy God; that thy brother may live stranger's family: with thee.

48 After that he is sold he may be re37 Thou shalt not give him thy money deemed again; one of his brethren may reupon usury, nor lend him thy victuals for deem him: increase.

49 Either his uncle, or his uncle's son, 38 I am the LORD your God, which brought may redeem him, or any that is nigh of kin you forth out of the land of Egypt, to give you | unto him of his family may redeem him; or the land of Canaan, and to be your God. if he be able, he may redeem himself.

39 | And ''if thy brother that dwelleth by 50 And he shall reckon with him that thee be waxen poor, and be sold unto thee; bought him from the year that he was sold thou shalt not compel him to serve as a to him unto the year of jubile: and the price bondservant :

of his sale shall be according unto the number 40 But as an hired servant, and as a so of years, according to the time of an hired journer, he shall be with thee, and shall serve servant shall it be with him. thee unto the year of jubile:

51 If there be yet many years behind, accord41 And then shall he depart from thee, ing unto them he shall give again the price of both he and his children with him, and shall | his redemption out of the money that he was return unto his own family, and unto the pos bought for. session of his fathers shall he return.

52 And if there remain but few years unto 42 For they are my servants, which I brought the year of jubile, then he shall count with him, forth out of the land of Egypt: they shall not and according unto his years shall he give him be sold as ''bondmen.

again the price of his redemption. 43 Thou shalt not rule over him with 53 And as a yearly hired servant shall he rigour ; but shalt fear thy God.

be with him: and the other shall not rule with 44 Both thy bondmen, and thy bondmaids, | rigour over him in thy sight. which thou shalt have, shall be of the heathen 54 And if he be not redeemed ''in these that are round about you; of them shall ye years, then he shall go out in the year of buy bondmen and bondmaids.

jubile, both he, and his children with him. 45 Moreover of the children of the strangers 55 For unto me the children of Israel are that do sojourn among you, of them shall ye servants; they are my servants whom I brought buy, and of their families that are with you, forth out of the land of Egypt: I am the LORD which they begat in your land : and they shall your God. be your possession. 10 Heb. his hand faile!h.

12 Exod. 22. 25. Deut. 23. 19. Prov. 28. 8. Ezek. 18. 8, and 22. 18. 11 Heb. serve thyself with him with the service, &e.

17 Heb. ye shall serve yourselves arith them, 19 Or, by these means.

11 Heb, strengthen. 13 Exod. 21. 2. Deut. 15. 12. Jer. 34. 14. 15 Heb. with the sale of a bondman.

16 Ephes, 6. 9. 18 Heb, his hand obtain, &c.

Colos, 4. 1.

Verse 4. A sabbath of rest unto the land. —This year of , and the stranger, to the domestic cattle and the game; for rest to the land is a very prominent feature of the sabbatic the proprietor of land not only ceased to cultivate it, but system, which formed so remarkable and distinguishing a had no exclusive right to its spontaneous produce, although part of the Hebrew polity. First there was the seventh he might share in it. 2. Every Hebrew slave had the day, now the seventh year, and then a year at the end of option of being released this year from his servitude. At the seventh septennial period—all founded on analogous least, this is inferred from Exod. xxi. 2; but it is doubtful principles, but each possessing its own distinguishing details. whether that passage does not require us to understand that The prominent circumstances which distinguished the sab the seventh year, on which such a person was to be released, batic year from common years may thus be enumerated : was rather the seventh year of his actual servitude than the 1. All agricultural processes were to be intermitted, and the | sabbatic year. It is there said, that he should serve six land was to lie fallow. The whole country must, in fact, years, and be free on the seventh; and no mention is there have been thrown into one vast common, free to the poor made of the sabbatic year. It is obvious, that unless a man's period of servitude commenced immediately after the reasons for the forty-ninth year, are, the greater probacompletion of the previous sabbatic year, he could not have bility that it was a part of, rather than a supplement to, served six years when the next arrived. The best autho the institution of sabbatic years; and because, if it were the rities therefore differ on this point, which must be allowed fiftieth, the land must then have had two consecutive sab. to be doubtful. 3. Debts due from one Israelite to another baths, or must have lain fallow two years together, since were to be remitted; but not those due by foreigners to all cultivation was forbidden as well in the jubilee as in Israelites. On this point, see Deut. xv. 1, where the note the sabbatical year. In this case, and in order to prevent describes the doubt which is entertained as to whether debts a dearth, it seems that an additional miracle, which is not were then wholly cancelled, or the claim only for that year promised, would have been necessary. If this had been intermitted. 4. The produce of every sixth year was pro the intention of the law, it would appear that since produce inised to be such as should support them to the harvest of sufficient for three years was promised on the sixth year to the ninth year; a circumstance which would clearly de compensate for the cessation of agriculture on the seventh monstrate a particular providence with respect to the insti year, so produce sufficient for four years would have been tution. 5. When all Israel assembled in this year (as they promised on the forty-eighth year to compensate for the did in other years) at the Feast of Tabernacles, the whole neglect of cultivation on the forty-ninth and fiftieth years. law was directed to be read publicly to them (Deut. xxxi. But, instead of this, the promise concerning the sixth year 10, 11). The various objects which seem to have been immediately follows the command for the jubilee, in such combined in the institution of the sabbatic year-religious, a manner as to seem to shew that the iubilee vear reguir economical, civil, and political --would lead too much into the same extraordinary abundance in the sixth year, but no detail to be stated in this place.

more, as was in the other case provided. Such considera9. • Cause the trumpet of the jubile to sound.'—The de- | tions have led many eminent interpreters to conceive that rivation of the word “jubile' (2) jobel) is very doubtful.

the year of jubilee was the forty-ninth year. But others, Some think that it comes from the verb sa jabal, which

at least equal in number and authority-including gene

rally the Jews themselves-believe it to have been the iu hiphil is Sain hobil, and signifies to recal, restore, bring

fiftieth year, the directions of Moses on the subject being back; because this year restored liberty to the slaves, and in their opinion too clear to be taken in any other sense. brought back alienated estates to their original possessors. Some, however, attempt to reconcile the two opinions. This would seem to be the view which the Septuagint takes Thus Calmet supposes the possibility that Moses uses of the word by rendering it operis, a remission, and also • fiftieth' as a round number for forty-ninth. This is Josephus, who renders it nevdepía, liberty. In Syriac the certainly a very common practice in the Hebrew Scriptures, same word (jabal) means to succeed,' and hence jubal, and is exemplified by a similar usage among ourselves ; as,

succession, and might be here applicable, because every for instance, we say a century' or a hundred years,' when one now succeeded to the land of his fathers. But the the period may be actually two or three years less. The majority of interpreters consider that the word denotes the authors of the Universal History also attempt to reconcile musical instrument, or the sound of the instrument, em the conflicting hypotheses, by observing that, as the jubilee ployed in proclaiming the jubilee. With this we are dis year commenced in the first month of the civil year and posed to agree, though not without some doubt. The the seventh of the ecclesiastical year, it would be either in rabbins generally speak definitely, and say that the word the forty-ninth or fiftieth year according to the computation points out rams' horns, which they agree to have been em which was followed. ployed on this occasion. Bochart and others, however, 21. The sixth year .... shall bring forth fruit for three doubt whether ‘rams' horns' were ever employed as years.'— The distribution of these three years depends upon trumpets, but think that the horns,' cornets,' etc., of the the disputed question-whether the sabbatical year began Scripture were either the horns of oxen, or brazen trum- | with the ecclesiastical year, in the spring, or with the civil pets in the form of rams' horns. We however believe that year, in the autumn. Those who prefer the latter alterthe horns both of oxen and rams were in use as instru- | native, are obliged to explain that the three years' in the ments of sound; but would not undertake to say that the text do not mean three whole years, but only one whole latter were exclusively employed in proclaiming the year and two parts of years. We, however, prefer the jubilee. We the rather incline to this opinion, because it former account, because it gives a complete three years, is generally believed that at the proper time trumpets were and because it makes the account reach into the ninth year, sounded through all the land, whereas only two silver as the text expressly states, whereas the other makes it cease trumpets were made for the use of the priests (Num. X. 2) in the eighth year. It is agreed that the period to which to blow for purposes of direction or proclamation ; and al | the promise extends comprehends the remainder of the though these may have been adequate for collective and sixth year, after the harvest, the whole seventh year, and local purposes, they could not have been solely available the period till the harvest arrived from the seed sown in for the general uses of this season, even if we do not go the eighth year. This makes exactly three years, and quite so far as the rabbins, who believe that every private reaches into the ninth year, if the sabbatical year began in man was obliged to blow nine times with a trumpet on this March ; but it makes scarcely more than two years, and great occasion.

does not extend beyond the eighth year if the account began The jubilee began on the first day of the month Tishri, in September. We are quite aware that a part of a year that is, on the civil new year's day. The real object of the | is frequently given for the whole in Hebrew; but the meninstitution was not developed till the tenth day, which was | tion of the ninth year, when considered with reference to the great day of atonement. But the previous nine days the season of harvest in Palestine, seems to us to render the were spent in great festivity and joy, resembling in some reference of the sabbatical year to the sacred rather than respects the Roman Saturnalia. The slaves did no work to the civil account, perfectly definite and lucid. To render for their masters, but crowned themselves with garlands, this evident, the following comparison may be useful, as and ate, drank, and made merry. On the tenth day, the offering considerations which have not hitherto been brought proper authorities directed the trumpets to be sounded; to bear on the subject. We assume an arbitrary number, and at that instant of time, the bondmen became free, and in the form of a date, according to our own computation of a the lands reverted to their original owners.

year, in order to render the distinction more intelligible. 10. ·Hallow the fiftieth year.'-Opinions differ as much about the time of the jubilee, as they do even about the

SACRED YEAR. meaning of the name. The question mooted is, whether Part of Sixth year.- From May (harvest month) in 1406 the jubilee year was the seventh sabbatical year, that is,

to March in 1407. the forty-ninth year, celebrated with more peculiar so Seventh year.-From March 1407, to March 1408. lemnity than the other six sabbatical years; or whether it Eighth year.- Beginning in March, 1408. was the fiftieth year, that is, another year of rest added to May, no harvest. the forty-ninth, or seventh sabbatical year. The principal · November, sowing.

Part of Ninth year.-Beginning in March, 1409.

blished, its operation did not preclude a person who fell May, harvest.

into distress from selling his land for a term of years, the Three complete years, ending in the ninth year; agreeing

price he received being regulated according to the distance with the text.

or nearness of the jubilee year (v. 15), when the property

thus sold must revert again to the seller or to his heirs. CIVIL YEAR.

In the mean time he had a right to recover his land, on Part of Sixth year.–From May (harvest month) in 1406 returning to the purchaser a sum proportionate to the numto September in 1406.

ber of years which remained unexpired: it was also within Seventh year.–From September, 1406, to September, 1407. the power of a near relative of the seller to exercise the Part of Eighth year.---Beginning in September, 1407. same right if he had the means. The houses that were on November, sowing.

the lands, and also the houses in the Levitical cities, were May, harvest.

placed on the same footing with the lands themselves: the Two complete years, ending in the eighth year; in neither

latter because they formed the sole inheritance of the point agreeing with the text.

Levites; and the former because they belonged to the lands

on which they were built. But houses in other than LeFrom the promise in the text, that the sixth year should vitical cities, being less connected with land, could only produce sufficient returns to last for three years, Warburton, be redeemed within the year after sale; and if not redeemed. and after him, Faber and others, deduce an important con did not, like land, revert at the jubilee to the persou who firmation of the truth of the Mosaic narrative. The people had sold them (v. 29-34). Hence, of course, foreigners are required to rely for their subsistence on a miracle which might purchase, and hold in perpetuity, houses in towns, the Lord pledged himself to work in their favour: and it though they could not permanently hold land. We confess, is asked whether any lawgiver would have ventured to however, that we do not, with some, view this law as in. propose such a law, unless he had the most perfect reliance

tended to encourage strangers to settle in the countryihat the promised miracle would be accomplished ; and which seems to have been far from an object of the Mowhether any people would have given such a law the least

saical policy-but rather to enable proselytes to acquire attention, unless they had the fullest conviction that it had

fixed property, which they could not otherwise do, unless been dictated by One, greater than Moses, of whose power they married heiresses, or brought under culture the waste to give it full effect they were quite assured ? Hence there

lands beyond the Jordan. was the most perfect confidence on both sides, and that

36. Take no usury.'— The original word, 799 neshek, confidence manifests the Divine authority under which the Hebrew legislator acted. In the present instance, we do

translated ' usury,' is from a verb which signifies to bite,' think this argument for the Divine mission of Moses de.

particularly to bite as a serpent, and properly signifies serves much attention, although it must be confessed that

biting usury or exaction, so called perhaps metaphorically arguments of this class are not generally satisfactory, aud

as resembling the bite of a serpent, with reference to the cannot always be used without danger.

ruinous effects of that which may in its beginnings seem i 23, 24. The land shall not be sold for ever ; for the land

but a small wound. As this law was ordained merely to is mine,' etc.-In this passage we have the principles of

prevent cruel exactions, it cannot be considered as applying those laws of property which were to be established in the

to that reasonable compensation for the use of money which Promised Land : and a short general statement on the sub

is known among us by the name of interest. As it is a fact ject will tend to the better understanding of this and other

that in later ages usury, in its proper and less creditable passages which refer to it. The principle of the law is, sense, has been more practised by the Jews than by any that the land to be conquered should be distributed by lot other people, it may be well to indicate that they underamong the Israelites; and should then become absolutely

stand the restriction of the present text as affecting only inalienable, continuing for ever the property of the des

their conduct towards one another, and as not extending to scendants of the original possessor. In order to render this their dealings with strangers. perpetual inalienability of lands the more secure and in 47. • Sell himself unto the stranger.'- It will be well, in violable, the principle was, in the first instance, adopted of reference to the laws concerning slavery in this chapter, that law which Joseph had introduced into Egypt, and to to recollect that Moses is not originating laws to give a which the Israelites had been accustomed from their youth sanction to slavery, but is interposing, under the Divine (see Gen. xlvii. 20-25). By this law all the land belonged command, to regulate for the better a system already in to the king; and the husbandmen were not the proprietors operation. We discover the existence of slavery in the of the ground they cultivated, but only farmers or tenants, book of Genesis, and are aware of its early prevalence in who had to pay to the king one-fifth of the produce in the all countries. Those who are acquainted with the condiway of rent. În like inanner, God, who had condescended tion of slaves in ancient nations, will not fail to recognise to become the Sovereign of Israel, was declared sole pro the wisdorn and mercy of the various regulations on the prietor of the soil, in that country wherein he was about to subject which are given here and elsewhere, and which, fix them by his most special Providence, while the people when carefully considered, will be found in all instances were to be merely his tenants, without any right to alienate to have an obvious tendency to protect a bondman, and to in perpetuity the domains which they held under him. In ameliorate his condition, whether a native or a foreigner. like manner, also, they were, as the Egyptians did, to pay The law of the present chapter is so clearly announced, as one-fifth of the produce in the form of two tenths; one of to require no particular exposition. On the above-cited which went to the Levites, in compensation for their having verse, we may, however, observe, that foreigners among no lands of their own, and for the many important services the Jews seem to have been in the enjoyment of more adwhich it became their duty to perform. This alone can be vantages than are at present allowed them in Palestine or called a tax; and it was a very fair one, considering the in any Mohammedan country. We see that a resident various capacities of useful service in which the Levites foreigner is even allowed to purchase any Hebrew whose acted, and considering also that the other tribes had the distressed circumstances make him wish to sell his freedom. more land because the Levites did not participate in the At present no Christian or Jew, in a Mohammedan coundivision. The other tithe was not paid to any persons, and try, is allowed to have a slave, we will not say, any native,

carcely a tax. the amount being to be consumed by but any Mohammedan of any country-nor, indeed, any the parties themselves in making entertainments during the other than Mohammedans, except negroes, who are the 1 great festivals. The principle of the law being thus esta- / only description of slaves they may possess.

was S

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