« PoprzedniaDalej »
sister car their iman shall lience's nak
uncovered his sister's nakedness ; he shall bear | 23 And ye shall not walk in the manners his iniquity.
of the nation, which I cast out before you : for 18 | 'And if a man shall lie with a woman they committed all these things, and "therehaving her sickness, and shall uncover her fore I abhorred them. nakedness ; he hath ''discovered her fountain, | 24 But I have said unto you, Ye shall inand she hath uncovered the fountain of her | herit their land, and I will give it unto you to blood : and both of them shall be cut off from possess it, a land that floweth with milk and among their people.
honey: I am the LORD your God, which have 19 | And thou shalt not uncover the naked separated you from other people. ness of thy mother's sister, nor of thy father's 25 'Ye shall therefore put difference besister : for he uncovereth his near kin: they |tween clean beasts and unclean, and between
unclean fowls and clean: and ye shall not 20 And if a man shall lie with his uncle's make your souls abominable by beast, or by wife, he hath uncovered his uncle's nakedness : fowl, or by any manner of living thing that they shall bear their sin; they shall die creepeth on the ground, which I have sepachildless.
rated from you as unclean. 21 And if a man shall take his brother's wife, L 26 And ye shall be holy unto me: 17 for I it is an unclean thing: he hath uncovered his | the LORD am holy, and have severed you brother's nakedness; they shall be childless. from other people, that ye should be mine.
22 | Ye shall therefore keep all my ''sta 27 T'A man also or woman that hath a tutes, and all my judgments, and do them : familiar spirit, or that is a wizard, shall surely that the land, whither I bring you to dwell be put to death: they shall stone them with therein, 'spue you not out.
stones : their blood shall be upon them. 9 Chap. 18. 19. 10 Heb. made naked. 11 Heb. a separation. 12 Chap. 18. 26. 13 Chap. 18. 25. 14 Deut, 9. 5.
15 Chap. 11.2. Deut. 14.4. 16 Or, moveth. 17 Verse 7. Chap. 19. 2. 1 Pet. 1. 16. 18 Deat, 18. 11. 1 Sam. 28. 7.
e grounds of living beast, or by
Verse 2. · Stone him with stones.' - This was the ordinary | view in which the crime is usually regarded by Orientals, capital punishment among the Hebrews, and is always to and was regarded by the Hebrews, no punishment short of be understood when the legal infliction of death is men death would have been effectual in preventing the introtioned in Scripture, without the form being specified. In duction and prevalence of a practice of self-avengement by later times punishment inflicted by or upon military men assassination. was by the sword, as also when a person was put to death Michaelis, in a subsequent article, examines the Moham. by the direct order of the king-- just as with us the ordi medan law on the subject, and we observe, with surprise, nary legal punishment is hanging, while military offenders that he does not find any other punishment than stripes, are shot. The common ideas of this punishment differ It is true that the Koran is not very distinct on the subject; considerably from the accounts left of it by the Jewish but the traditions also should have been examined-the writers, who state that when the criminal arrived within decisions in which are regarded as of equal authority with four cubits of the place of execution, he was stripped naked, the Koran. We have looked into the Mischatexcept a slight covering about the loins; and, his hands and find the law concerning adultery perfectly clear. It being bound, he was led up to the fatal spot, which was there appears that Mohammed was at all times reluctant to usually an eminence about twice the height of a man. | adjudicate on cases of adultery; but whenever he did so, he The first executioners of the sentence were the witnesses, | in all instances directed the woman to be stoned, and the man who generally pulled off their clothes for the purpose also, if he were married; but, if single, he was punished (Acts vii. 50). One of them threw him down with great with eighty stripes. Accordingly we find that adultery violence upon his loins; and if he rolled over upon his | is at this day almost invariably punished with death in breast, he was turned upon his loins again. If he hap. Mohammedan countries. The crime is seldom made a pened to die by the fall, the sentence of the law was exe- matter of judicial enquiry and conviction, but the injured cuted; but if not, the other witness took a great stone and person avenges himself with his own hand. A woman dashed it in his breast, as he lay upon his back: and then, almost never escapes, Among the Bedouin Arabs and the if he still lived, all the people who stood by threw stones Eelauts of Persia, her paternal family is considered more upon him till he died. In this way the execution was dishonoured by her conduct than her husband; and hence quickly over, and with fewer revolting circumstances she usually receives her death from the hand of her father than must occasionally have arisen had it been accom or brother, although her husband, or even her son, may plished by the indiscriminate pelting which is usually inflict it. The Eelauts exact the penalty of death rather supposed to have constituted this mode of capital punish more inexorably than the Bedouins, who sometimes, when ment.
the guilty parties succeed in eloping to another camp or 10. “The adulterer and the adulteress shall surely be tribe, are prevailed upon to forego their claim for blood, in put to death.'—The law of Moses is by no means peculiar consideration of certain payments, which are generally so in the award of capital punishment to a breach of the heavy as to be ruinous to the seducer. The punishment of matrimonial contract. We see indeed from the instance death for this crime is not confined to the Mohammedan of Thamar (Gen. xxxviii.) that the present law was in countries, but generally prevails throughout Asia. operation among the forefathers of the Hebrews long In the present text the capital punishment is denounced before it thus received the Divine sanction. Those who without its form being mentioned; and the Rabbids say, are disposed to consider the law exceedingly severe, will that in all such cases the punishment was that of stran. do well to consult the vindication of it which Michaelis gling, as the mildest sort of death. Their authority, howgives in Art. cclx. of his Commentaries. His leading, but ever, does not in this instance deserve the least attention. by no means his only, argument is, that in the point of | No such punishment for any crime is mentioned in the
law of Moses, or indeed in all the Bible, nor even in it is declared that the unknown person who had taken of Josephus. Stoning was the general capital punishment; the accursed thing should be burnt with fire;' and when and we may always understand it as the punishment in the man was discovered, we find that this intention was flicted, where no particular form of death is specified ; just executed, not by burning him alive, but by stoning him as we, when a man is condemned to death, understand, first, and then burning his remains (v. 15). We therefore without any explanation, that he will be hanged. Besides, | lean to the opinion that stoning, being the common and wellwe see, in other cases, that crimes which the law, in the known punishment, is understood in these texts, and that only same form of words, punishes with death, were in practice the additional punishment of burning the body is expressed. punished with stoning in the lifetime of Moses. (Com Michaelis thinks that burning alive was not sanctioned by pare Exod. xxi. 14; XXXV. 2, with Num. xv. 32.) Other the Mosaic law : but Horne, who generally follows him, crimes, such as unchastity, not amounting to adultery, seems to consider that both burning alive and burning after were punished with stoning (Deut. xxii. 20-24), and it is death are among the punishments mentioned by Moses ; not therefore likely that the greater crime received the and it is rather odd that he cites the same texts in proof of milder punishment. Indeed, it seems from John viii. 7, both--namely, that before us and the one in the next that stoning was still considered the proper punishment of chapter. The testimony of the Rabbins is worth very little adultery so late as the time of our Saviour. To this we in this matter, as many capital punishments were in later may add, that Mohammed distinctly understood that times introduced, of which the law of Moses takes no stoning was the punishment which the Pentateuch assigned, notice. They say, that because the bodies of Nadab and and thought that, in prescribing a similar punishment, he Abihu were not consumed by the fire which slew them, was following its authority. The Jews of his time had it was thought unlawful to burn a criminal alivc; but abolished capital punishment for adultery altogether, sub that he was put to death by melted lead being poured down stituting stripes; and in this Mohammed was so far from his throat. We may accept this so far as to shew that concurring, as Michaelis seems to think he was, that he persons were not consumed alive in the fire; but we are reproached them with the neglect of their law. The fol bound to reject the other part, as wholly unsanctioned by lowing anecdote, which forms one of the traditions which the law of Moses. It is possible that they may have had the Mohammedans consider most authentic, will illustrate this punishment in after times, when the meaning of the this subject :- A Jew came to the Prophet, and said. “ A law had been greatly perverted by absurd glosses and man and woman of ours have committed adultery:" and inferences. the Prophet said, “ What do you meet with in the Bible 21. · They shall be childless.'--It is doubtful whether in the matter of stoning?" The Jew said, “ We do not this is to be regarded as a prediction or an ini find stoning in the Bible, but we disgrace adulterers and that is, whether the punishment was to be inflicted by the whip them." Abdullah-bin-Salam, who was a learned hand of God or of man. The idiom of the original seems man among the Jews, and had embraced Islam, said, “You to favour the latter conclusion, which has also the sanction lie, 0 Jewish tribe! verily the order for stoning is in the of the scholiast in the Vatican Septuagint, of Augustin Bible." Then the Bible was brought and opened; and a (Quæst. 76 in Levit.), of Eben Ezra, and others. It is Jew put his hand over the revelation for stoning, and read also advocated, perhaps rather too positively, by Michaelis. the one above and below it; and Abdullah said, “ Lift up This does not mean, he says, that God would miraculously your hand;" and he did so; and behold the revelation for prevent the procreation of children from such a marriage; stoning was produced in the Bible: and the Jews said, for God no where promises any continual miracle of this “ Abdullah spoke true, O Mohammed! the stoning is in nature: but only that the children proceeding from it the Bible.” Then his highness ordered the man and should not be put to their account in the public registers; woman to be stoned: and they were so." Mischat-ul so that in a civil sense they would be childless. The Masabih.
Hebrew word ny ariri, unfruitful,' has this mean14. · Burnt with fire.'-See the note on Gen. xxxviii. ing, and is applied to the case of a man who has children, 24. There is only one other crime against which this but will not be heired by them. Thus in Jer. xxii. 30, it punishment is denounced in the law (chap. xxi. 9). It is said of a king, who certainly had children, though they seems, upon the whole, very doubtful whether these and did not receive his inheritance, Inscribe this man as child. other texts of the same import in the early books of the less; for of his posterity none shall prosper, nor any sit Old Testament express the punishment of burning alive, upon the throne of David.' The children of such a maror of the ignominious burning of the body after execution. riage would be ascribed to the deceased brother; and that, It is certain that we have no example of the former punish- | among the Israelites, where a man made so much of the ment; but we have of the latter, as resulting from such a honour of being called father, was a very sensible punishlaw as that expressed in the text. Thus, in Josh. vii, 15, ment.
| unto him, which hath had no husband; for 1 of the priests' mourning. 6 Of their holiness. 8 of her may he be defiled.
their estimation. 7, 13 of their marriages. 17 The 4 But 'he shall not defile himself, being a priests that have blemishes must not minister in the chief man among his people, to profane himsanctuary.
self. And the LORD said unto Moses, Speak unto | 5 They shall not make baldness upon the priests the sons of Aaron, and say unto their head, neither shall they shave off the them, There shall none be defiled for the dead corner of their beard, nor make any cuttings among his people :
in their flesh. 2 But for his kin, that is near unto him, | 6 | They shall be holy unto their God, and that is, for his mother, and for his father, and not profane the name of their God: for the for his son, and for his daughter, and for his offerings of the LORD made by fire, and the brother,
bread of their God, they do offer : therefore 3 And for his sister a virgin, that is nigh | they shall be holy. 10r, being an husband among his people, he shall not defile himself for his wife, &c.
| 9 Chap. 19.27.
7. They shall not take a wife that is a' 15 Neither shall he profane his seed among whore, or profane ; neither shall they take a his people: for I the Lord do sanctify him. woman put away from her husband : for he is | 16 4 And the LORD spake unto Moses, holy unto his God.
saying, 8 Thou shalt sanctify him therefore ; for 17 Speak unto Aaron, saying, Whosoever he offereth the bread of thy God: he shall be he be of thy seed in their generations that hath holy unto thee: for I the Lord, which sanc any blemish, let him not approach to offer the tify you, am holy.
bread of his God. 9° And the daughter of any priest, if she 18 For whatsoever man he be that hath a profane herself by playing the whore, she pro blemish, he shall not approach: a blind man, faneth her father: she shall be burnt with or a lame, or he that hath a flat nose, or any fire.
thing ‘superfluous, 10 | And he that is the high priest among 19 Or a man that is brokenfooted, or his brethren, upon whose head the anointing oil brokenhanded, was poured, and that is consecrated to put on 20 Or crookbackt, or 'a dwarf, or that hath the garments, shall not uncover his head, nor | a blemish in his eye, or be scurvy, or scabbed, rend his clothes ;
or hath his stones broken; 11 Neither shall he go in to any dead body, 21 No man that hath a blemish of the seed nor defile himself for his father, or for his of Aaron the priest shall come nigh to offer mother;
the offerings of the Lord made by fire: he 12 Neither shall he go out of the sanctuary, hath a blemish; he shall not come nigh to nor profane the sanctuary of his God; for the offer the bread of his God. crown of the anointing oil of his God is upon 22 Ile shall eat the bread of his God, both him; I am the Lord.
of the most holy, and of the holy. 13 1 And he shall take a wife in her vir- 23 Only he shall not go in unto the vail, ginity.
nor come nigh unto the altar, because he hath 14 A widow, or a divorced woman, or pro- | a blemish; that he profane not my sancfane, or an harlot, these shall he not take : but tuaries : for I the LORD do sanctify them. he shall take a virgin of his own people to 24 And Moses told it unto Aaron, and to wife.
This sons, and unto all the children of Israel. 8 Or, food. • Chap 32. 23.
50r, too slender.
20 Oih in his es broken å blemish
Verse 5. • Neither shall they shave off the corner of their 1 -and strictly enjoined that it should be kept up. Ac. beard.'- In chap. xix, 28, this is made a general law, not cording to the traditions, he used to clip his own whiskers; peculiar to the priests. They are here forbidden to do that and frequently said, “He who does not lessen his whiskers which had already been prohibited to the people in general. is not of our ways:' and he expressly said, that he inculThere is a difference of opinion as to the interpretation of cated this practice in opposition to the Jews, who were not the text. Some think that it is to be understood generally, | accustomed to clip either their beards or whiskers. In as interdicting the shaving of the beard. If thus under these counter regulations we seem here to perceive the stood, there seems an adequate reason for it in the contrary object of the apparently trivial injuuction of the Hebrew practice of the Egyptians, who did shave their beards (see legislator. Some ideas in illustration of this subject may note on Gen. xli. 14); and its repetition to the priests may be obtained from the inspection of the different forms in have been to shew them that they were not exempted from which the beard is worn at present in Western Asia, as the general law, as they might have been led to conclude represented in the annexed engraving. from having observed the peculiar scrupulosity of the 13. He shall take a wife in her virginity,' etc.--Compare Egyptian priests on this point, who, as we are informed by this and the following verse with verse 7. where the proHerodotus, were particularly careful to shave all the hair hibited marriages of common priests are mentioned. The off their bodies every third day. The other alternative is difference is, that widows are included among those that which has the sanction of our translation, and by whom the high- priest might not marry, but not among which it appears we are to understaud the whiskers, or those with whom the common priest is forbidden to conupper extremities of the beard. The object would then tract alliance. It would therefore seem that the common appear to be to keep them a distinct people from the priest was allowed to marry a widow, as Joséphus deArabs, who either shaved their whiskers or cropped them clares; Grotius and others, however, think that a priest short. We must not forget that it was one great object of could not marry any widow, but one whose deceased husmany of the Mosaical laws to keep the Israelites separate band had also been a priest. This is inferred from Ezek. from all the neighbouring nations; and whether the xliv. 22. The high-priest, being precluded from marrying Egyptians or the Arabs were in view, it is certain that a a widow, was of course exempt from the common obligadifferent fashion of the beard would have a more marked tion of marrying the widow of a brother who died without effect, in assisting such a distinction, than can be readily children. It is possible that the real or apparent difcalculated by those who hold that appendage in light | ference between the regulation in this matter for the highesteein. That such a distinction as we have mentioned did priests and that for the common priests, suggested to the exist, is not only manifested by existing usages, but by an oriental Christian churches the establishment of a difcient accounts. Mohammed perceived the effect of this ference as to the marriages of their superior and inferior distinction,-for many Jews resided in Arabia in his time | dignitaries. The patriarchs and bishops are not married
at all; but the common priests usually are so that is, they | evil. Such persons were seldom admitted to the priestusually marry before they take orders, and afterwards hood, or allowed to remain in it. Candidates were exaretain their wives ; but if they become widowers, they are mined with great care; and if it happened that a priest, not in general allowed to marry again. Thus, although after consecration, suffered any bodily deprivation, he there are married priests, a priest may not marry. This was expected to lay down his office. Several instances we believe, is the common rule; but there may be varia
of this occur in the Roman history. Metellus, who lost tions in different sects. If the common priests were al his sight in preserving the Palladium from the flames lowed to marry widows-what happened when one who which destroyed the temple of Vesta, was obliged to resign had married a widow became high-priest? Probably, as his priestly office; as was also M. Sergius when he lost his in the case just stated, it was lawful for him to retain a right land in defence of his country. The most complete connection previously formed, which it would not have parallel to the present regulation is, however, perhaps to been lawful to contract after his elevation. The Moham be found in the state of things now existing in India. The medans have no regulations on this subject, being, in fact, illustration is furnished by Mr. Roberts, who observes: without any distinct priestly order. But in India it is not · The priesthood among the Hindoos is hereditary, but a lawful for the priests to marry any but virgins.
deformed person cannot perform a ceremony in the temple, 17. • Blemish.' - A similar regulation operated in most but he may prepare the flowers, fruits, oils, and cakes for ancient nations, excluding from the priesthood all persons the offerings, and also sprinkle the premises with holy labouring under any bodily defects or deformities. This water. The child of a priest deformed at the birth will appears to have arisen from the natural enough feeling, not be consecrated. A priest having lost an eye or a tooth, that it was a sort of indignity to the gods to consecrate a or being deficient in any member or organ, or who has not blemished or imperfect man to their service. A general a wise, cannot perform the ceremony called Teevasam, for opinion prevailed that the presence of a priest who was the manes of departed friends. Neither will his incantadefective in any member was to be avoided as ominous of | tions, or prayers, or magical ceremonies have any effect.'
2 Speak unto Aaron and to his sons, that I The priests in their uncleanness must abstain from
they separate themselves from the holy things the holy things. 6 How they shall be cleansed.
of the children of Israel, and that they profane 10. Who of the priest's house may eat of the holy not my holy name in those things which they things. 17 The sacrifices must be without blemish. | hallow unto me: I am the LORD. 26 The age of the sacrifice. 29 The law of eating the sacrifice of thanksgiving.
| 3 Say unto them, Whosoever he be of all
your seed among your generations, that goeth AND the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, | unto the holy things, which the children of
Israel hallow unto the LORD, having his un- oblation for all his vows, and for all his freecleanness upon him, that soul shall be cut off will offerings, which they will offer unto the from my presence: I am the LORD.
Lord for a burnt offering ; 4 What man soever of the seed of Aaron is ! 19 Ye shall offer at your own will a male a leper, or hath 'a *running issue ; he shall not without blemish, of the beeves, of the sheep, or eat of the holy things, until he be clean. And of the goats. whoso toucheth any thing that is unclean by the 1 20 But whatsoever hath a blemish, that dead, or a man whose seed goeth from him; shall ye not offer : for it shall not be accept
5 Or whosoever toucheth any creeping able for you. thing, whereby he may be made unclean, or a 21 And whosoever offereth a sacrifice of man of whom he may take uncleanness, what | peace offerings unto the LORD to accomplish soever uncleanness he hath;
his vow, or a freewill offering in beeves or 6 The soul which hath touched any such sheep, it shall be perfect to be accepted ; shall be unclean until even, and shall not eat there shall be no blemish therein. of the holy things, unless he wash his flesh with 22 Blind, or broken, or maimed, or having water.
a wen, or scurvy, or scabbed, ye shall not offer 7 And when the sun is down, he shall be these unto the LORD, nor make an offering by clean, and shall afterward eat of the holy fire of them upon the altar unto the LORD. things; because it is his food.
23 Either a bullock or a ''lamb that hath 8°That which dieth of itself, or is torn with any thing superfluous or lacking in his parts, beasts, he shall not eat to defile himself there- | that mayest thou offer for a freewill offering; with : I am the Lord.
but for a vow it shall not be accepted. 9 They shall therefore keep mine ordinance, 24 Ye shall not offer unto the Lord that lest they bear sin for it, and die therefore, if | which is bruised, or crushed, or broken, or they profane it: I the Lord do sanctify them. cut; neither shall ye make any offering thereof
10° There shall no stranger eat of the in your land. holy thing: a sojourner of the priest, or an 25 Neither from a stranger's hand shall ye hired servant, shall not eat of the holy thing. offer the bread of your God of any of these ;
11 But if the priest buy any soul 'with his because their corruption is in them, and blemoney, he shall eat of it, and he that is born mishes be in them : they shall not be accepted in his house : they shall eat of his meat. for you.
12 If the priest's daughter also be married | 26 | And the LORD spake unto Moses, unto 'a stranger, she may not eat of an offering saying, of the holy things.
| 27 When a bullock, or a sheep, or a goat, 13 But if the priest's daughter be a widow, is brought forth, then it shall be seven days or divorced, and have no child, and is returned under the dam ; and from the eighth day and unto her father's house, as in her youth, she thenceforth it shall be accepted for an offering shall eat of her father's meat: but there shall made by fire unto the LORD. no stranger eat thereof.
28 And whether it be cow or "ewe, ye 14 TAnd if a man eat of the holy thing shall not kill it ''and her young both in one unwittingly, then he shall put the fifth part | day. thereof unto it, and shall give it unto the priest 29 | And when ye will offer a sacrifice of with the holy thing.
thanksgiving unto the LORD, offer it at your 15 And they shall not profane the holy own will. things of the children of Israel, which they 30 On the same day it shall be eaten up; offer unto the LORD;
ye shall leave ''none of it until the morrow: I 16 Or Isuffer them to bear the iniquity of am the LORD. trespass, when they eat their holy things : for 31 Therefore shall ye keep my commandI the LORD do sanctify them.
ments, and do them: I am the LORD. 17 9 And the LORD spake unto Moses, 32 Neither shall ye profane my holy name; saying,
but ''I will be hallowed among the children '18 Speak unto Aaron, and to his sons, and of Israel: I am the LORD which hallow unto all the children of Israel, and say unto you, them, Whatsoever he be of the house of Israel, 33 That brought you out of the land of or of the strangers in Israel, that will offer his | Egypt, to be your God: I am the LORD.
Chap. 15. 2. Heb. running of the reins. 8 Exod. 22. 31. Ezek. 44. 31. 4 Heb. toith the purchase of his money. 5 Heb. a man a stranger. Chap. 10. 14. 7 Or, lade themselves with the iniquity of trespass in their eating. *8 Deut. 15, 21, and 17. 1. 9 Or, goats. 10 Or, kid. 11 Chap. 21. 18. 12 Or, she goat. is Deut. 22. 6. 14 Chap. 7. 15. 15 Chap. 10. 3.