Obrazy na stronie

The just and wise regulations which this chapter con would seem that Molech and Baal are to be regarded as tains, forbidding the marriages of near relations, form the personifications of the powers which give and which debasis of the laws on this subject now in operation in most stroy life. Yet even under this point of view, the two need Christian states; for it has justly been conceived that what not be regarded as absolutely severed : for the early reliGod so abhorred in the practice of the Canaanites, could gions regarded them as not incompatible phases of the saine not, under any circumstances, bo proper or lawful. The one God of nature. This idea of Molech as a personification modifications which these laws have received, in the pro of the destroying power of Nature, throws light upon the cess of adoption by Christian states, have rather tended to human sacrifices which formed the characteristic, although increase than to diminish the number of prohibitions. not peculiar, rite of his worship. It has indeed been The reasoning on which the additional interdictions have disputed whether the phrase 'causing children to pass been founded is, by a consequential inference, that these through the fire to Molech' denotes the actual sacrifice of relationships are equally near with some which are ex children or not. It has been alleged to mean no more pressly forbidden, and that they are therefore to be un than that they were made to pass between two fires without derstood as included in the latter.

danger to life, for the purpose of purification. But this, The subject of this chapter has excited a vast deal of atten without some other tender interpretations of the enormities tion and discussion in the United States, from causes of ancient worship, owes its origin to a desire in some peculiar to the social and religious condition of that country. | Rabbins to lessen the mass of evidence which their own Professor Bush, in his Notes on Leviticus, gives twenty history offers, of the perverse idolatries of the Jews, and is eight pages to the consideration of this chapter, and enu- || convincingly shewn to be untenable by such passages as merates a host of treaties which bear upon it. It does Ps. cvi. 38; Jer. vii. 31; Ezek. xvi. 20, xxiii. 37; the not with us seem to demand such absorbing attention : last two of which might also be adduced to shew that the but those who may wish to study it minutely, will find victims were slaughtered before they were burnt. The ample materials in the quarters indicated.

scanty notices in Scripture of the Phænician idols may be 9. Thy sister.'-A laxity respecting marriages among in part supplied from the Greek and Roman writers ; but relatives distinguished the Egyptians, whose doings in this as they for the most part describe the later modifications respect the Israelites are in v.3 forbidden to imitate. The | of the early rites and forms of worship as they existed in marriage with a sister, in particular, so strongly forbidden the Phænician colonies, considerable uncertainty ought to by Moses, was considered among them as unconditionally be felt in applying their accounts to the illustration of allowable. Diodorus (Hist. i. 27) says:- It is, contrary Scripture. Thus Diodorus Siculus describes the image of to the common custom, lawful among the Egyptians to Chronon (whom the Greeks and Romans identified with marry a sister, since such a union was, in the case of Isis, their Saturn) as a brazen statue, which, on occasion of so fortunate in its consequences.' Pausanias (Attica, i. 7) sacrifice, was heated red-hot, and in the outstretched arms says of Philadelphus, who married his sister by birth : of which the victim (a child) was laid, so that it fell down • He in this did that which is by no means lawful among

into the flaming furnace beneath-has been transferred to the Macedonians, but entirely in accordance with the law Molech, solely on account of the analogy which the sacri. of the Egyptians over whom he ruled.' Philo (De Spec.

fice of children by fire offers; but is not allowed by the Legg. p. 780) relates of the Egyptian lawgiver, that he scholar who has the most elaborately investigated the gave permission to all to marry their sisters, those who

question, to be correctly applicable to the Molech of Scripwere sisters by birth not less than step-sisters, those of

ture (Movers, Die Phönizier). It is chiefly as the nalike age and older not less than younger.' And Wilkinson tional God of the Ammonites, that Molech comes before us says that by the sculptures in Upper and Lower Egypt it in Scripture: yet he is also indicated as a principal idol of is a fact fally authenticated, that this law was in force in

the Canaanites and Phænicians, if not often under the the earliest times. Act. Egyptians, ii. 63.

name, at least under the notion which we attach to it. It 21. Thou shalt not let any of thy seed pass through the

appears from the present text, that his idolatrous worship fire to Molech.' - This is the first place in which the name

was known to the Israelites even in the wilderness; and of this Phænician idol occurs. The word means “ king'

there is reason to conclude, from Ezek. xx. 26 (comp.

v. 31) that the horrid rites which signalized his worship or · Jord,' and as it is always with the article 72977 ham

were not unknown to them even there. It is, however, for molech (except in Kings xi. 7), some have doubted whether the first time directly stated, that Solomon erected a high it should be rendered as a proper name. The Septuagint place for Molech on the Mount of Olives (1 Kings xi. 7); generally renders it as an appellative, ο άρχων or βασιλεύς. and from that period his worship continued uninterrupta It does not much signify, as there is no doubt that a par edly there or in Tophet, in the valley of Hinnom, till both ticular idol is intended by this designation, whether treated places were defiled by Josiah (2 Kings xxiii, 10). This as an appellative or a proper name. Baal is in the same worship seems, however, to have been among the abomicase. That word means . lord,' though usually treated as nations restored by his son Jehoahaz, and maintained by a proper name: and as this was also a Phænician idol, his successors; and Ezekiel, writing during the captivity, some are inclined to think that Molech and Baal are but speaks of it as subsisting to his day. But after the restodifferent names for the same god. There are some grounds ration all traces of this idolatry disappear. See Witisius, for this opinion; but as many of the reasons on which it De Cultu Molochi, in his Miscell. "Sacra ; Cramer, De is founded arise out of that great source of error, the at Molocho; Movers, Die Phönizier; Munter, Religion der tempt to identify the idols of the East with those of the Karthager; and Art. Moloch in Cyclop. Bibl. LiteraWest, it is better to regard them as distinct, and as such it | ture.


and his father, and keep my sabbaths: I am

the LORD your God. A repetition of sundry laws.

4 Turn ye not unto idols, nor make to And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, yourselves molten gods: I am the Lord your

2 Speak unto all the congregation of the | God. children of Israel, and say unto them, 'Ye shall 5 And if ye offer a sacrifice of peace be holy : for I the LORD your God am holy offerings unto the Lori), ye shall offer it at 3 Ye shall fear every man his mother, your own will. Chap. 11. 44, and 20.7. 1 Pet. 1. 16.

6 It shall be eaten the same day ye offer freedom given her; " ishe shall be scourged ; it, and on the morrow : and if ought remain they shall not be put to death, because she until the third day, it shall be burnt in the fire. was not free.

7 And if it be eaten at all on the third day, 21 And he shall bring his trespass offering it is abominable ; it shall not be accepted. unto the LORD, unto the door of the taber

8 Therefore every one that eateth it shall nacle of the congregation, even a ram for a bear his iniquity, because he hath profaned | trespass offering. the hallowed thing of the Lord: and that | 22 And the priest shall make an atonement soul shall be cut off from among his people. for him with the ram of the trespass offering

9 And when ye reap the harvest of | before the LORD for his sin which he hath your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the done: and the sin which he hath done shall corners of thy field, neither shalt thou gather be forgiven him. the gleanings of thy harvest.

23 And when ye shall come into the 10 And thou shalt not glean thy vineyard, land, and shall have planted all manner of neither shalt thou gather every grape of thy trees for food, then ye shall count the fruit vineyard ; thou shalt leave them for the poor thereof as uncircumcised : three years shall it and stranger: I am the LORD your God. be as uncircumcised unto you: it shall not be

11 Ye shall not steal, neither deal falsely, eaten of. neither lie one to another.

24 But in the fourth year all the fruit 12 And ye shall not %swear by my name thereof shall be holy to praise the LORD falsely, neither shalt thou profane the name withal. of thy God: I am the LORD.

25 And in the fifth year shall ye eat of the 13 "Thou shalt not defraud thy neigh- fruit thereof, that it may yield unto you bour, neither rob him: 'the wages of him that the increase thereof: I am the Lord your is hired shall not abide with thee all night | God. until the morning.

26 Ye shall not eat any thing with the 14 Thou shalt not curse the deaf, 'nor put blood : neither shall ye use enchantment, nor a stumblingblock before the blind, but shalt observe times. fear thy God: I am the LORD.

27 "Ye shall not round the corners of your 15 Ye shall do no unrighteousness in heads, neither shalt thou mar the corners of judgment: thou shalt not "respect the person thy beard. of the poor, nor honour the person of the 28 Ye shall not make any cuttings in mighty : but in righteousness shalt thou judge your flesh for the dead, nor print any marks thy neighbour.

upon you: I am the LORD. 16 Thou shalt not go up and down as a 29 Do not "prostitute thy daughter, to talebearer among thy people: neither shalt cause her to be a whore ; lest the land fall thou stand against the blood of thy neighbour: to whoredom, and the land become full of I am the LORD.

wickedness. 17 Thou shalt not hate thy brother in 30 Ye shall keep my sabbaths, and revethine heart: thou shalt in any wise rebuke rence my sanctuary: I am the LORD. thy neighbour, ''and not suffer sin upon him. 31 Regard not them that have familiar

18 Thou shalt not avenge, nor bear any spirits, neither seek after wizards, to be degrudge against the children of thy people, filed by them: I am the Lord your God.

but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: 32 Thou shalt rise up before the hoary I am the LORD.

head, and honour the face of the old man, 19 Ye shall keep my statutes. Thou and fear thy God: I am the LORD. shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse 33 And if a stranger sojourn with thee kind : thou shalt not sow thy field with in your land, ye shall not vex him. mingled seed: neither shall a garment 34 ? But the stranger that dwelleth with mingled of linen and woollen come upon thee. you shall be unto you as one born among

20 And whosoever lieth carnally with a you, and thou shalt love him as thyself; for woman, that is a bondmaid, 13 betrothed to ye were strangers in the land of Egypt: I am an husband, and not at all redeemed, nor the LORD your God.

9 Chap. 23. 22.
3 Exod. 20. 7. Dent. 5. 11. Matt. 5. 34. Jam. 6. 12.

4 Ecclus. 10. 6. 5 Deut. 24. 14. 15. Tob. 4. 14. 6 Deut. 27. 18. 7 Exod. 23. 3. Deut. 1. 17, and 16. 19. Prov. 24. 23. Jam, 2. 9. 8 1 John 2. 11, 9 Ecclus. 19. 13. Matt. 18. 15 10 Or, that thou bear not sin for him. 11 Matt, 5, 43, and 22. 39. Rom. 13. 9. Galat. 5. 14. Jam. 2.8.

19 Or, abused by any. 13 Heb. rcproached by, or, for man.

14 Or, they.

15 Heb. there shall be a scourging. 16 Heb. holiness of praises to the LORD, 17 Chap. 21. 5.

18 Deut. 14. 1.
19 Heb. profane.

20 Exod. 29. 91. 21 Or, oppress.

22 Exod. 23. 9.

35 Ye shall do no unrighteousness in the LORD your God, which brought you out judgment, in meteyard, in weight, or in of the land of Egypt. measure.

37 Therefore shall ye observe all my sta36 23 Just balances, just **weights, a just tutes, and all my judgments, and do them: ephah, and a just hin, shall ye have: I am | I am the LORD.

23 Prov, 11, 1, and 16. 11, and 20. 10.

24 Heb. stones.

Verse 9. • Thou shalt not wholly reap the corners of thy I Christianity, and of civilization, its handmaid- those who field,' etc.--The minor laws, which direct that trees shall walk through life in darkness or in silence, do generally not be beaten (to make the fruit fall) by the owners; that experience, from all classes of a Christian and civilized the corners of fields shall not be reaped ; that dropped ears community, a degree of indulgence for their errors and of corn shall not be gathered; and that the forgotten sheaf mistakes, of exemption from insult and contumely, of asshould not be returned for-but that all should be left for

sistance under difficulty, and of general sympathy and the poor, are exceedingly amiable traits of the Mosaical kindness, which no one who enjoys the full physical benelaw, and should modify the considerations of those who fits of existence can ever hope to obtain. On this subiect. are disposed to look upon that code as one of unmitigated see fully in The Lost Senses of the present writer. austerity. Since, however, as might be expected, much 19. • Not let thu cattle cender with a diverse kind.' stress has been laid upon the Mosaical laws with respect to This interdiction was probably intended for the purpose the poor, as if they were matters of eternal obligation, it that no example might exist of the unnatural commixtures may be well to point out that these agricultural privileges, which were among the abominations of the ancient oriand a few others of the same kind, together with the right ental nations. Some, however, think that this and the of the poor to share the offering feasts of their wealthier other similar interdictions were only typical, and intended brethren, formed the only legal provision for the poor in to teach the Israelites that they were not to intermingle Israel, and were not in addition to, but in the place of, with other nations. It does not appear, however, that this such a fixed obligation as the community incurs in Eng law was so understood by the Hebrews as to preclude them land, to defray whatever expenses may be necessary to from the use of animals thus produced, but only from provide for the destitute poor. The sort of provision which taking measures to produce them. Mules are frequently the law of Moses made for the poor, was very practicable mentioned as being used for riding, at least after the time in, and well suited to, an agricultural community, and in of David; and, if otherwise understood, an Israelite who one so peculiarly organized as that of the Hebrews; but kept his herds in the wilderness must often have felt pertheir operation would not be very practicable, nor con plexed by the doubt whether his sheep-dog might not have venient if practicable, in any other; and a large portion of littered him a half-fox or wolf. As, however, mules do not this provision arose from, or was connected with the cere appear to have been in common use till about the time of monial law, which is no longer observed even by the Jews. David, it would seem as if the earlier Israelites did underThus the application of the Mosaical laws would be wholly stand that their law prohibited the use of mixed breeds. inadequate to meet the wants of the poor in a country like - Not sow thy field with mingled seed: - It is perhaps ours; and it is proper to add that the Hebrew had the scarcely necessary to observe that this law implies no proright to choose the objects of his bounty, and to apportion hibition against dividing a field into small parcels, in each that bounty as he pleased. Even gleaning, which had of which a different kind of seed might be sown; but most the appearance of a public right, could not be exer merely against sowing two different kinds at once in one cised without the previous permission of the owner of the and the same spot; barley, for instance, along with wheat. field. The matter is thus understood by most of the The object of this law has been variously understood. MiJewish writers; and their interpretation seems to be borne chaelis thinks that its design was to secure the best qualiout by Rath ii. 2, 7.

ties of agricultural produce, by providing for such a careful 14. Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a stumbling separation of seed, that the higher qualities should not be block before the blind.'-Does not this law seem to imply deteriorated by being mixed with the inferior. Whether that the Israelites, or perhaps the people generally of those | his view be right or not, he certainly succeeds in shewing early times, were much in the habit of extracting a ma- | the injury which arises from the want of such attention to licious sport from the bodily defects and deprivations of the securing of a clean crop. He instances Hanover, which others? This seems very probable; and perhaps it may is most advantageously situated for agriculture, but which have arisen from a disposition, which appears to have yet, from neglect on this point, was, in his time, in a worse prevailed in those early times, when diseases and deform | condition than some other German countries less favourities seem to have been comparatively rare, to regard such ably situated. He mentions a scarcity in England-he calamities less as misfortunes than as evidences of the does not say when, but we infer it was that which occaDivine indignation against some hidden crime, either in sioned such general tumults in 1766-1767—when some the sufferer himself or in his parents. The existence of other German corn growing states found there an advanthe injunction intimates the prevalence of the offence it tageous market for their superabundant grain; but no was designed to remove. So the Hindoos have, as Mr. Ro- merchant would purchase the superfluous store of Hanoberts informs us, a saying (if not a law),- Abuse not the | verian produce, because it was so unclean as to be unfit for deaf, make not a hole before the blind, nor exasperate the exportation. Mr. Roberts, in his very valuable Oriental dumb. Yet this very people take great pleasure in the Illustrations, has offered another reason, which does not malicious and heartless practices which their common seem less probable than this. He observes, that large saying reprobates. Europe has no law or saying on the fields are seen in India sown with two kinds of seeds; subject; and the silence of the law and of the popular that is, mixed and sown together. One kind requires much voice, is an eloquent and beautiful testimony of reliance in water, the other but little; so that, whether there be a the right feelings of commiseration and kindness, with scarcity or abundance of rain, the farmer is sure of his which all but barbarians and savages have learned to re crop. Sometimes also a doubt is entertained as to what gard those who walk in affliction. We are persuaded that kind of produce the land is best adapted, and then recourse most people would now turn with loathing and indignation is had to this plan. From these, or at least the first of from any represented or written fiction, the interest or these facts, Mr. Roberts is disposed to infer, that the object mirth of which turned upon the awkward situations into of the prohibition to the Israelites may have been to inwhich a blind or deaf person might be led by the mis duce them fully to trust in the providence of God, and not chievous. Indeed, we have had abundant reason to be to make provision for a dry or wet season by sowing their convinced that-thanks to the humanizing influences of fields with mingled seed.' 'Others think that the law was to prevent the land from being over-cropped. Finally, in the conjugation Poel takes the metaphorical sense of 'to Professor Paxton seems disposed to follow Maimonides, act covertly, or as under a cloud, to use covert acts, to who finds a reason for this precept in the idolatrous cus practise magic, sorcery,' etc.; and this is a very good toms of the ancient Zabii, who not only sowed different sense, unless that it seems too general for the place, seeing seeds, but grafted trees of different kinds upon each other, that it would comprehend every secret and unlawful act, in certain aspects of the planets, and with certain fumiga ---even that which in the preceding clause is specially mentions, but also used abominable practices at the moment of tioned. Others derive the word from y ayin, 'the eye,' incision: and he doubts not that God forbade the people to

and if this were adopted it would be well to refer it to the sow with mingled seeds, that be might root out the detest

superstitions connected with the belief in the evil eye, able idolatries and unnatural lusts which abounded in those

which have been at all times very prevalent in the East. times. We do not know on what authority it is stated that

Others, with whom our own translators concur, consider flagellation was the punishment of transgressing this com

the law as levelled against the very common Oriental sumand. A very appropriate penalty seems to be mentioned perstition growing out of the belief in lucky and unlucky in the parallel text (Deut. xii. 9), where the word rendered

days. The Septuagint, by translating opviboo KOTÝO ETBE, defiled' equally means .consecrated;' that is to say, that declares it to be ornithomancy, meaning augury, or the produce of a field thus improperly sown would be for

omens drawn from the flight, etc. of birds. The Vulgate feited to God, and therefore belong to the priests--a penalty has Nec observabitis somnia, neither shall ye observe well calculated to secure attention to the injunction,

dreams, which is adopted by the versions which submit to - Neither shall a garment mingled of linen and woollen its authority. Which of all these interpretations is the come upon thee.'--Josephus assigns as a reason, that clothing

best, it is hard to say. of this sort was allowed only to the priests, and was therefore forbidden to the common people. Josephus, being

28. · Nor print any marks upon you.'--This is underhimself a priest, is a good authority for what the priests

stood to forbíd the practice of tattooing, that is, by means wore in later times; but there is nothing in the sacred text

of colours rubbed over minute punctures made in the skin, itself, to countenance the opinion that any of the priestly

to impress certain figures and characters on different parts garments were of linsey-woolsey in the time of Moses. In

of the body, and which in general remain indelible throughthis state of the case, perhaps the opinion of Maimonides

out life. The figures thus impressed on the arms and may be thought worthy of attention. This is, that the law

breasts of our sailors will serve in some degree to indicate was principally intended as a preservative from idolatry ;

the sort of ornament intended. The practice is well known for the heathen priests of those times wore such mixed

to be common amongst savages and barbarians, in almost garments of woollen and linen, in the superstitious hope of

all climates and countries—the aboriginal inbabitants of having the beneficial influence of some lucky conjunction

our own country not excepted, who, from having their of the planets or stars, to bring down a blessing upon their

naked bodies profusely ornamented, apparently in this sheep and their flax.

style, were described by the Romans as painted savages. 23. · Three years ... it shall not be eaten of.'"The

| It seems, in England, to be more commonly regarded as a economical object of this law is very striking. Every

custom of savage islanders, than as any thing more. Yet gardener will teach us not to let fruit-trees bear in their

it is also an oriental custom; and that too among people earliest years, but to pluck off the blossoms; and for this

whose proximity to the Hebrews affords a reason for the reason, that they will thus thrive the better, and bear more

interdiction. The Bedouin Arabs, and those inhabitants abundantly afterwards. Now, if we may not taste the of towns who are in any way allied to them, are scarcely fruit the first three years, we shall be the more disposed to

less fond of such decorations than any islanders of the pinch off the blossoms; and the son will learn to do this

Pacific Ocean. This is particularly the case among the from his father. The very expression, to regard them as

females, who, in general, have their legs and arms, their uncircumcised, suggests the propriety of pinching them off;

front from the neck to the waist, and even their chins, I do not say cutting them off, because it is generally the noses, lips, and other prominent parts of the face disfigured hand, and not a knife, that is employed in this operation.'

with blue stains in the form of flowers, circles, bands, Michaelis, iii. 367, 368. Although, however, the use of

stars, and various fanciful figures. They have no figures the fruit was only interdicted for three years, the produce

of living objects, such being forbidden by their religion ; did not become available to the proprietor till the fifth

neither do they associate any superstitions with them, so year, the first-fruits, that is those of the fourth year, being

far as we are able to ascertain. They probably did both in this, as in other instances, one of the dues from which

before the Mohammedan era, as their descendants in the the priests derived their subsistence.

island of Malta do at present. The men, there, generally 26. Enchantment.'-The original term is from wng

go about without their jackets, and with their shirt sleeves

tucked up above their elbows, and we scarcely recollect nachash, which signifies both a serpent,' and brass.

ever to have seen an arm, thus bare, which was not covered Taking hold of tbe former signification, some suppose that with religious emblems and figures of the Virgin, or of something is meant like to the divination and augury by

some saint under whose immediate protection the person serpents, mentioned by Homer and other ancient writers, thus marked conceived himself to be. Thus also, persons and called by the Greeks Ophio-manteïa. The Septuagint who visit the holy sepulchre and other sacred places in sanctions this view, which is supported at great length by | Palestine, have commonly a mark impressed upon the arm Bochart. There was another mode of divination, by

in testimony of their meritorious pilgrimage. The Hinmeans of plates of brass, mentioned by Pliny (Hist. Nat.,

doos also puncture upon their persons representations of XXX. 2), and which sone suppose may be rather intended birds, trees, and the gods they serve. Among them the in this place. Implicit reliance cannot be reposed upon

representations are sometimes of a highly offensive descripeither interpretation, as both have no other foundation than tion. All Hindoos have a black spot, or some other mark, the etymology of the word: but, of the two, the former

upon their foreheads. It was probably the perversion of seems best entitled to consideration; as there are indica

such figures to superstitious purposes, or their being worn tions in Scripture that the Jews were at times addicted to

in honour of some idol, which occasioned them to be interOphiolatry.

dicted in the text before usif such tattooing is really - Nor observe times.'--The Hebrew word here iyn, that which is here intended. As the marks are indelible, theonēnu, is of doubtful origin, and hence arises some we, of course, in taking this view, consider that a permauncertainty in the interpretation of it. The most com- nent fashion, rather than a temporary mourning usage, is mon is that which derives the word from t änän, 'a here prohibited. cloud,' and supposes that it has reference to the taking | 31. Them that have familiar spirits.'--The word renof ornens from the aspect of the clouds and other celestialdered · familiar spiritsis nak oboth, singular lix ob, to phenomena, a common practice of ancient augury. Gese- i which it would be difficult to assign any translation which nius proposes to go to the verb isy änăn, 'to cloud, which should render it intelligible without much periphrasis The literal meaning is • leathern bottles,' properly 'water. demon, as a bottle, that is, a vessel or case, in which the skins. The sense in which it is applied must be collected demon was contained. from the passages in which it occurs; being, Lev. xx. 6; -• Wizards. This is an admirable translation of the Deut. xviii. 11; 2 Sam. xxviii. 3, 7, 9; 2 Kings xxi. 6; original, if we refer to either the literal or conventional 2 Chron. xxxiii. 6; Isa. viji. 19; xix. 3; xxix. 3; where senses of the Hebrew word and the English one by which it clearly denotes a necromancer or sorcerer, one who pro- | it is rendered. The latter wise-ard,' contracted • wizard, fesses to call up the dead by means of magical incantations from wise,' denotes literally “a wise man,' but conventionand formulas, in order that they may give response to ally a man who pretends to secret arts which give him a future or doubtful things. In some places it is put for the knowledge of hidden things; and no one versed in lawful divining spirit or foreboding demon Python, which was knowledge would like to be called a wizard, although the supposed to have taken up its temporary abode in the con term correctly designates him, taken in its literal and origijuror; Lev. xx. 27; 1 Sam. xxviii. 8 : comp. Acts xvi. 6. nal signification. In like manner the original here is O'y?! Hence a female professor of this art is called one in whom

yiddonim, from ytyada, “ to know,' which means literally is a spirit of divination' (1 Sam. xxviii. 7, 8); and in Isa. xxix. 4, it is put for the spirit evoked. The Septuagint

“knowing ones,' or wise ones;' but conventionally, a usually renders oboth by évyaotpiuulou ‘ventriloquists,' and man practising unlawful acts, or affecting the possession of that not incorrectly, since among the ancients the power of knowledge and powers hidden from others, that is a wizard ventriloquism was often misused for the purposes of magic or sorcerer. The word occurs again in xx. 6; and Deut. and necromancy. As to the connection between the two xviii. 11; and in Lev. xx. 27 it also denotes a wizardsignifications of bottle and necromacer, it in all probability spirit, or spirit of divination, by which wizards were suparose from regarding the conjuror while possessed by the posed to be attended.

* And thath uncovered surely be


9 'For every one that curseth his father

or his mother shall be surely put to death : he 1 Of him that giveth of his seed to Molech. 4 Of him that favoureth such an one. 6 Of going to wizards.

hath cursed his father or his mother; his 7 Of sanctification. 9 Of him that curseth his blood shall be upon him. parents. 10 Of adultery. 11, 14, 17, 19 Of in 10 1 And 'the man that committeth adulcest. 13 Of sodomy. 15 Of bestiality. 18 Of

tery with another man's wife, even he that uncleanness. 22 Obedience is required with holiness. 27 Wizards must be put to death.

committeth adultery with his neighbour's wife,

the adulterer and the adulteress shall surely And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying be put to death.

2 l'Again, thou shalt say to the children il | 'And the man that lieth with his of Israel, Whosoever he be of the children father's wife hath uncovered his father's of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn nakedness : both of them shall surely be put in Israel, that giveth any of his seed unto to death; their blood shall be upon them. Molech; he shall surely be put to death : the 12 And if a man lie with his daughter in people of the land shall stone him with stones. law, both of them shall surely be put to death :

3 And I will set my face against that man, they have wrought confusion; their blood and will cut him off from among his people ; shall be upon them. because he hath given of his seed unto 13 T 'If a man also lie with mankind, as he Molech, to defile my sanctuary, and to pro- lieth with a woman, both of them have comfane my holy name.

mitted an abomination : they shall surely be 4 1 And if the people of the land do any put to death ; their blood shall be upon them. ways hide their eyes from the man, when he 14 I And if a man take a wife and her giveth of his seed unto Molech, and kill him mother, it is wickedness : they shall be burnt not:

with fire, both he and they ; that there be no 5 Then I will set my face against that wickedness among you. man, and against his family, and will cut him 15 T’And if a man lie with a beast, he shall off, and all that go a whoring after him, to surely be put to death : and ye shall slay the commit whoredom with Molech, from among beast. their people.

16 And if a woman approach unto any 6 | And the soul that turneth after such beast, and lie down thereto, thou shalt kill as have familiar spirits, and after wizards, to the woman, and the beast: they shall surely go a whoring after them, I will even set my be put to death; their blood shall be upon face against that soul, and will cut him off | them. from among his people.

17 | And if a man shall take his sister, his 7 | Sanctify yourselves therefore, and be father's daughter, or his mother's daughter, ye holy: for I am the LORD your God. and see her nakedness, and she see his naked

8 And ye shall keep my statutes, and doness : it is a wicked thing; and they shall be thein: I am the LORD which sanctify you. cut off in the sight of their people : he hath 1 Chap. 18. 21. 2 Chap. 11. 44, and 19. 2. 1 Pet. 1. 16. 3 Exod. 21.17 Prov. 20. 20. Matt. 15. 4. Deut. 22. 22. Jchn 8. 4,5

- 5 Chap. 8. 8. VOL. L.

6 Chap, 18. 22.

1 Clap, 18.33.

8 Chap. 18. 9.

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