Obrazy na stronie
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in the north of Spain; the Saxons, as the Jews interpreti 5. Nimrod, an individual. He built, besides Babel, his Ashkenaz, in Jer. li. 27, to be Germany.

metropolis, three cities or towns in the great plain of th (Diphath, 1 Chron. i. 6, a permutation of D | Shinar-Erech, Accad, and Calneh, of which see the notes and R, not unexampled). Rhibii, east of the "Euxine; | on v. 10. Tobata and other parts of Paphlagonia; Croatia ; thé ii. Mizraim, literally the two Egypts, the upper and the Riphæan mountains, a very obscure name in ancient geo- lower: each was called Misr, a word even now vernacular graphy (Strabo, Virgil, Pliny, Mela), referring probably in that country. Of his descendants seven are specified to the great chains of mountains from the north of Asia under plural national names, some of which are well westwards (Hyperboræans, Steph, Byzant.), and therefore ascertained. including vague knowledge of the Uralian, Hartz, and 1. Ludim. Ludites, celebrated as soldiers and archers Alpine regions; Peoples of Armenia and other parts of the

(Isa. lxvi. 19; Jer. xlvi. 9; Ezek, xxvii. 10; xxx, 5), and 3. Togarmah. Peoples of Armenia a

in those passages connected with other peoples known to Caucasian region. The Armenian traditions assign as their be African. The Ludim probably lay towards Ethiopia. ancestor Haik, the son of Torgom and grandson of Noah. They must not be confounded with the Lydians of Asia

ü. Magog. In Ezekiel this seems to be used as the Minor (v. 22). name of a country, and Gog that of its chieftain. The 2. Ananim. Very uncertain. Bochart supposes them Mongoles, Moguls; the great Tartar nation.

to have been wandering tribes about the temple of Jupiter iii. Madai. The Medes; people of Iran, to whom the Ammon, where was an ancient people called Nasamones. Sanscrit language belonged; primeval inhabitants of Hin 3. Lehabim. Perhaps inhabitants of a coast-district imdustan.

mediately west of Egypt. Probably the Lubim (2 Chron. iv. Javan. The Greeks, Asiatic and European. Taones xii. 3; Nahum iii. 9). (Hom. Il. xiii, 685).

4. Pathrusim. The people of the Thebaid (Pathros) in Sons of Javan:-.

Upper Egypt. 1. Elisha. Greeks, especially of the Peloponnesus; 5. · Casluhim, out of whom came Philistim. A people Helles ; Elis, in which is Alisium ('Axelolov, Il. ii. 617).' on the north-east coast of Egypt, of whom the Philistines

2. Tarshish. The east coast of Spain, where the Phæ were a colony, probably combined with some of the Caphnician Canaanites afterwards planted their colony.

torim. 3. Kittim. Inhabitants of the isles and many of the 6. Caphtorim. Inhabitants of the island Cyprus. coasts of the Mediterranean, particularly the Macedonians iii. Phut. This word occurs in two or three passages and the Romans, and those farther to the west.

besides, always in connection with Africa. Josephus and 4. Dodanim (Rhodanim, i Chron. i. 7). Dodona, a Pliny mention an African river, Phutes. The great colony from which probably settled at the mouths of the modern archæologist geographer, Ritter, says that hordes Rhone, Rhodanus.

of people have been poured out of Futa, in the interior of To this Javanian (lonian) branch is attributed the Africa. peopling of the isles of the nations' (v. 5), a frequent iv. Canaan. His descendants came out of Arabia, Hebrew denomination of the western countries to which planted colonies in Palestine, and gradually possessed the Israelites, Tyrians, Egyptians, &c., had access by sea. themselves of the whole country.

His children or posterity :II. Sons of HAM.

1. Sidon, his first-born, founded the city of that name. i. Cush. The Ethiopians, first on the Arabian side of 2. Heth, the ancestor of the Hittites. The remaining the Red Sea, then colonizing the African side, and subse nine are well known, and are here laid down in the sinquently extending indefinitely to the west, so that Cushite gular of the patronymic, or patrial adjective--the Jebusite, (Jer. xii. 23) became the appellative of a negro.

the Emorite (Amorite), the Girgashite, the Hivite, the Sons of Cush:-

Arkite, the Sinite, the Arvadite, the Zemarite, and the 1. Seba. Joined with Mizraim and Cush (Isa. xliii. 3), Hamathite. All are assigned to Palestine, and the boun. evidently denoting contiguity and affinity. This tribe or daries of the country are precisely laid down. class is probably referred to Suba, a native name of Meroe upon the Nile, in the farthest south of Egypt, or the begin

III. Sons of SHEM. ning of Ethiopia.

Children of Shem :2. Havilah. Of this word vestiges are found in various i. Elam. The ancestor of the Elamites or Elymæans, names of places in Western Arabia, and the adjacent parts who possessed Elymais, a region between Susiana aud of Africa. It is quite distinct from the Havilah (ch. ii. Media, now called Khusistan. The Japhetian Persians 11) in or near Armenia, and probably from another (v. 29) | afterwards entered that region and gained the ascendancy, in Arabia, unless we suppose a union of tribes, or one suc and subsequently they were comprehended under the name ceeded by the other.

of Elam. 3. Sabtah. Sabota or Sabbatha is the name of an ancient ii. Ashur, the ancestor of the Assyrians. trading town of Arabia.

iii. Arphaxad, a personal name in the Abrahamic line. 4. Raamah, noyn, Sept. Rhegma (Alex. Rhegehma), | The word, a remarkable compound, probably denotes which, changing e into n, is the name of a port which the Neighbouring to the Chasdim, i.e. Chaldæans. The name Ægypto-Greek geographer Claudius Ptolemy (who flou- | appears in Arrhapachitis, a province in Northern Assyria, rished in the earlier part of the second century) places on the primitive seat of the Chasdim, and near to which, or the Arabian coast of the Persian Gulf. To this place Dr. | in it, Abraham was born. Baumgarten (Kiel, 1843) refers the name: others take it Children of Arphaxad :-to be Reama, a town of considerable importance in the These are chiedy personal, and contribute to form the south-western part of Arabia Felix, whose inhabitants are sacred pedigree which leads to the Messiah, In this line remarkably black; mentioned along with Sheba in Ezek. occur a grandson named Eber, and his two sons Peleg and xxvii. 22, as a place of rich Oriental traffic.

Joktan. Two sons of this Raamah are mentioned, Sheba and Eber. The only circumstance that we can attach to him Dedan. We find these in the subsequent Scriptures dis is the very important one (which seems, therefore, to imply tinguished for trade and opulence (Ps. lxxii. 10, 15; something extraordinary in his personal history) of being 1 Kings x. 2; Isa. lx. 6; Ezek. xxvii. 15, 20, 22). They the origin of the name Ebrew, or as it is commonly written, both lie in the western part of Arabia. The queen of on account of the y, Hebrew, the ancient and universal Sheba came to the court of Solomon. Dedan is not im name' of the nation, including Abraham himself (see probably considered as the origin of Aden, that very Ewald's Hebr. Gramm., translated by Dr. Nicholson, p. 2). ancient sea-port and island at the mouth of the Arabian Peleg, of whom it is said that in his time the earth was Gulf or Red Sea, which has very recently risen into new divided. Some suppose that the event commemorated by importance,

| his name (which means division') took place at his birth; but it seems more likely that, according to a custom of sion it is necessary to recollect the sense in which the word which there are other instances in Scripture, the name was which we translate .isle' was employed by the Jews. It was applied in his maturer age, on account of some principal used to denote not only such countries as are surrounded or leading concern which he had in the migratory distri on all sides by the sea, but countries which were so sepabution of men. It is to this that the division' is supposed rated from them by water that people could not, or did to refer ; but there have not been wanting those who ima. not, usually go to them and come from them but by sea. gine that the event thus signalized was an occurrence in Thus it meant all countries beyond sea; and the inhaphysical geography, an earthquake, which produced a vast bitants of such countries were called islanders.' The chasm separating considerable parts of the earth, in or term, therefore, applies to the countries west of Palestine ; near the district then inhabited by man.

the usual communication with which was by the MediterJoktan. Universally acknowledged to be the father of ranean. Countries similarly situated with respect to Egypt the numerous tribes of Arabs in Yemen, or Arabia Felix. appear to be here intended, for when this book was written, Of the founders of those tribes thirteen are specified. The the Jews had not yet gained possession of Palestine, and first is evidently Modad, with the Arabic article: the had recently left Egypt. In a general sense the term may second is Shaleph : and Ptolemy mentions a people of in be understood to apply to Europe, so far as known, and to terior Arabia, the Salapeni. Hatzarmaveth is a fruitful Asia Minor. district on the south coast, which still bears exactly the

6. • Mizraim'-See under this word in the above enumesame name. That name signifies the Enclosure, Gate, or

ration. To the fact there stated respecting the preservation Court of Death, on account of its insalubrity, arising from

or restoration of this aicient name of Egypt by the Arabs, the great abundance and mixture of powerful odours.

let us here add the important remark of Dr. Prideaux reJerach signifies the moon; and on the west of this region

specting the part taken by that people:_*These people is a gold-producing tract, in which are the Mountains of

being the oldest nation in the world, and who have never the Moon, which yet must be distinguished from a group

been by any conquest dispossessed, or driven out of their in East Africa, very imperfectly known, and called also by

country; but have always remained there in a continued Orientals the Backbone of the World. Hadoram, the

descent from the first planters until this day, and being also Adramites of Ptolemy and Pliny, on the south coast. Uzal,

as little given to alterations in their manners and usages as mentioned in Ezek. xxvii. 19, which should be translated

in their country, have still retained the names of places • Vedan and Javan (perhaps Yemen ?] from Uzal.' The

which were first attached to them; and on these aboriginal ancient name of a principal city of Yemen, now Sanaha.

people acquiring the empire of the East, they restored the Obal (Ebal in 1 Chron. i. 22), unknown. Abimael, un

original names to many cities after they had been lost for known; but Bochart adduces the Mali of Theophrastus and

ages under the arbitrary changes of successive conquerors.' the Minæi of Strabo, a tribe or tribes in Arabia, as possibly

This accounts for the just importance which has lately been intended. Sheba, probably indicating an invasion of this

given to existing Arabic names in attempting to fix the tribe upon the Cushite Sheba and Dedan, Gen. x. 7, and see

sites of ancient places in Palestine and elsewhere. xxv. 3. From such mixtures much embarrassment often arises in ethnography. Sheba and Seba (x. 7) are often men.

8. · Nimrod.'-It would be hard to find anything against tioned in the Old Testament as seats of great riches and

Nimrod in these verses, unless by inference founded printraffic. Ophir, undoubtedly referring to the seaport in South

cipally upon his name, which signifies a rebel.' The Arabia, so celebrated for its traffic in gold, jewellery, and

probabilities are in favour of the opinion that this chief, fine woods. The same name was probably given to places

like most of the heroes of remote classical antiquity, adin India and East Africa, to which the mercantile ships of

dicted himself to hunting the wild beasts, and thus acquired this Arabian Ophir resorted. A part of the south coast of

qualities adapted to a warfare with men, his success in Arabia is called Oman, and in it is a town called El-Ophir,

which was ensured by the number of bold and exercised with the article. Havilah: perhaps the Cushite settlers men who had associated with him in the active occupations were invaded by this Joktanite tribe. Jobub : Ptolemy of the chase. The land in which Nimrod erected the first mentions a people, Iobaritæ, on the east coast of Arabia. recorded kingdom in the world, is supposed by the ArmeThe r may be a mistake, or a dialectic variety, for b. nian writers to have been in the allotment of the sons of These thirteen tribes seem to have formed the con

Shem; and this notion has been adopted by many European federacy of the independent and unconquerable Arabs,

commentators. Under this view-which, however, appears whose peninsular, desert, and mountainous country de

to us very doubtful-Nimrod's revolt against the appointed fended them from invasion : Ishmael and his descendants

distribution, and his violent encroachment upon the terriwere united with them.

tory of another branch of the family of Noah, would form Our text concludes with describing a boundary line for

strong points on which to rest the name which is given to the country of these tribes • from Mesha to Sephar.' The

him and the evil character he bears. For the statements former is probably the country Maishon or Mesene, at the

that Nimrod was the author of the adoration of fire, or of north-west head of the Persian Gulf; and the latter, on

idolatrous worship rendered to men, and that he was the the south-west coast of Arabia, where is found a Mount

first persecutor on the score of religion, there is no evidence Sabber.

in the Bible. Eastern authors add that he was the first iv. Lud. From him the Lydians in Asia Minor derived

king in the world, and the first who wore a crown; and their name.

this may, or may not, be true. v. Aram. From him the inhabitants of Syria, Chalon 10. The land of Shinar.'—There are no data to enable itis, and a considerable part of Mesopotamia.

us to fix the limits of this land with precision. It seems Children or posterity of Aram:-

to us a great error to suppose that, if we could ascertain 1. Uz. In the northern part of Arabia, bordering upon

the sites of the towns mentioned in this verse, we should Chaldæa : the land of Job.

be able to define the boundaries of Shinar. Such knor. 2. Hul. The large flat district in the north of Palestine, ledge would enable us to define the limits of Nimrod's through which lies the initial course of the Jordan, even

kingdom, which was in the land of Shinar, but the bounnow called the Land of Hûleh, and in which is the Lake

daries of which are not said to be coincident with those of Haleh, anciently Merom, amply illustrated by Dr. Robin

the land so called. We must be content to remain uncerson, Researches, iii. 339-357.

tain whether it comprehended the whole of the country 3. Gether. East of Armenia; Carthara was a city on

between the rivers Euphrates and Tigris, or was confined

to the lower part of that territory, answering to Babylonia, 4. Mash. A mountain region branching eastwards from and comprehending both banks of both rivers. That the the great Taurus ridge: the Masian mountains of the latter territory, which nearly corresponds to the present Greeks and Romans.

Irak Arabi, is part of what was the land of Shinar, is ad.

mitted on all bands; the only question is, how far it ex. 5. • Isles of the Gentiles.'—To understand this expres- | tended northward in Mesopotamia Proper.

the Tigris.

- Babel-Erech-Accad-Calneh,' - These being the cities with which this celebrated region teemed in ancient principal towns of Nimrod's kingdom might enable us to | times. Ctesiphon has been rather more fortunate. Not discover the limits of the earliest mouarchy on record, if only may the enormously thick walls of the city be traced their sites could be precisely ascertained. "As, a chapter to a considerable extent along the river, but a vast and or two farther on, we find the earliest kingdoms consisting imposing structure of fine brick still remains as an object of little more than a single town and a surrounding dis of solitary magnificence in this desolate region, and is trict, it is reasonable to conclude that the beginning of visible from a great distance. It is unlike any building in Nimrod's kingdom' was comprehended within narrow that part of the world, and is considered to have been built limits, and therefore, that these most ancient cities must by Greek artists in the employ of the Persian kings. It be sought at no considerable distance from one another. presents a facade of 300 feet in length, pierced in the We have been in Irak Arabi, and have found that Nimrod middle by an arch whose curve forms a large parabola occupies a very conspicuous place in the traditions of the rising from about half the height. The height of this arch country, it being generally believed that this once fertile from its apex to the ground is 103 feet, and it leads to a territory formed his kingdom. It is supposed, indeed, that vast hall of the same height, and 82 feet broad by 160 in his father Cush resided there ; and in this opinion Dr. depth. The vaulting of this hall is broken at the back, Hyde concurs, calling Irak the most ancient Cush, being | and there is a large fissure about 15 feet from the entrance. the original seat of that son of Ham, whence his posterity It is called Tuuk Kesra, or the arch of Khosroes,' and is migrated and carried the name iuto Arabia. It is ad believed to have been the palace of the Persian kings, and initted that the sites of the towns here named, are to be is presumed to be the white palace,' the magnificence and sought for in the Arabian Irak.

internal riches of which struck the barbarous conquerors - Babel:-No one doubts that this first postdiluvian from Arabia with amazement and delight. city of which we have any record was the original of that - Accad: -The probabilities which have been allowed great city on the Euphrates (32° 25' N. lat., and 44° E. | to operate in fixing Erech and Calneh, find equal, or more long.), which afterwards acquired such fame as the capital

than equal, room in assigning Accad to the Sittace of the of the Babylonian empire. The town founded there by

Greeks, and the Akkerkúf of the present time. It is Nimrod could have been but of little consequence, and that

situated about nine miles west of the Tigris, at the place little it probably lost after the confusion of tongues re

where that river makes its nearest approach to the Eucorded in the next chapter. For an account of the city in

phrates. Sittace' retains some elements of the name its palmy state, see the Note on Dan. iv, 30, • Is not this

Accad ; and Akkerkúf has more similarity to the original great Babylon ?' and for a description of its present desola.

name than will sometimes be found in analogies on which tion, we may refer to the Notes on those prophecies in

elaborate theories have been founded. The situation and which that desolation is foretold. The site of Babel being

the name being concurrently favourable, its identity with found, we must look in the same district for the other

the ancient Accad finds another confirmation in the recities.

markable and primitive monument which is found there. - Erech.'-According to the Rabbins, this is the same

and which the Arabs, to this day, call Tel Nimrúd, and as the present Urfah, known in the Bible as Ur. But this the Turks, Nimrúd Tepassé ; both which appellations is unreasonably distant from Babel, and would give too

signify the Hill of Nimrod.' It consists of a mound, surgreat extent to the kingdom of Nimrod. It is generally

mounted by a mass of building which looks like a tower, believed to have been a city of Chaldæa, which took from

or an irregular pyramid, according to the point from which it its present name of Irak. Cities, the names of which it is viewed. It is 300 feet in circumference at the bottom, are evidently formed from Erech, are mentioned by Hero

and rises 125 or 130 feet above the greatly inclined eledotus, Ptolemy, and Ammianus Marcellinus. Mr. Bryant,

vation on which it stands. The mound which constitutes

the foundation of the structure is composed of a mass of distinguished as And-Erech and Ard-Erech-the former

rubbish formed by the decay of the superstructure. In the in Susiana, near some fiery or bituminous pools, and the tower itself the different layers of sun-dried bricks, of latter on the Euphrates below Babylon. This last pro which it is composed, may be traced very distinctly. The bably occupied the site of the original Erech of the text.

bricks are cemented together by lime or bitumen, and are - Calneh.'-A great mass of authority, ancient and divided into courses varying from 12 to 20 feet in height, modern, European and Oriental, concurs in fixing the site and separated by layers of reeds, such as grow in the of this city at what was the great city of Ctesiphon, upon marshy parts of the country, and in a state of astonishing the eastern bank of the river Tigris, about 18 miles below preservation. The solidity and loftiness of this pile, as Bagdad. Opposite to it stood Seleucia, which was built by

well as the difficulty of discovering any other use for it, the Greeks for the express purpose of ruining Babylon, would indicate it to have been one of those immense pyand was made the capital of their empire east of the Eu ramidal towers which were consecrated to the worship of phrates. After the lapse of several centuries, Ctesiphon, the heavenly bodies, and which served at once as the temwhich seems to have been in previous existence as a small

ples and observatories of the primitive times. That this town, began to assume importance as a rival to Seleucia, in

worship arose very early, we shall have occasion to state ; the hands of the Parthians, the bitter and implacable ene

and it is agreed on all hands that it originated in the counmies of the Greeks. It is said to have been first walled in try in which this pile is found. There seem to have been the reign of Pacoras, king of the Parthians, who was

structures of this pature in all the primitive cities of this contemporary with Mark Antony. Seleucia ultimately fell

region; built, probably, more or less after the model of that before the ascendancy of Ctesiphon and the Parthians, and in the metropolitan city of Babylon. The Tel Nimrúd, became a sort of suburb to its rival under the name of

therefore, sufficiently indicates the site of a primitive town, Coche, and were both identified by the Arabs under the

which it is not presuming more than is usual, to suppose to name of Al-Modain, or the cities. Ctesiphon became a

have been Accad. magnificent city, and the winter capital of the Persian empire under the native Sassanian dynasty, which threw 11. Out of that land went forth Asshur.'-The form of off the Parthian predominance. The place was taken by expression in Hebrew gives equal authority to the margithe Arabs in the year 637 A.D., and from that time declined nal reading, which is • Out of that land, he [Nimrod] went amazingly; and when the Caliph Al-Mansur built Bag forth into Assyria ;' and opinions are pretty equally divided dad, the ruins of Al-Modain furnished the principal mate as to which of the senses is to be preferred. Understood rials for the new city. Both sites the present writer has as in the text, it appears that Asshur, the son of Shem, ou had an opportunity of examining with care. Of Seleucia being driven out of Shinar by Nimrod, went and settled in nothing now remains but a portion of the wall; but evident Assyria ; while the other reading makes Nimrod extend traces of its former extent still exist in the now denuded | his original encroachments on the Shemites, by approprisurface, rendered uneven by extended mounds, which, inating Assyria also; or else, that he relinquished his king. most cases, alone remain to mark the sites of the numerous dom in Shinar for some unknown reason, and went to

33 - VOL. I.

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found another in Assyria. Some commentators build an 16, 17, 18.-All these, as before (see Note on v. 6), are excellent character for Nimrod on the superstructure the names of tribes, not individuals. which the last hypothesis offers, contending that this 21. · The brother of Japhet the elder.:-It is on the ancient hero, being disgusted with the mad project of the

authority of this phrase, that many commentators have held tower of Babel, withdrew from the country, to exonerate

that Japhet and not Shem was the eldest son of Noah; and himself from the consequences : yet the common accounts it is hence conceived that Shem is usually named first by make him the prime mover in that famous transaction. way of excellence, because the holy line descended from · Nineveh.'-Whether Nimrod or Asshur founded this

him. Without being insensible to the arguments in favour city, it does not appear to have been of much importance

of this explanation, we feel obliged to withhold our assent for many centuries afterwards. Indeed the text before us leads us to conclude that Resen was in its origin a more important city than Nineveh. It did not rise to greatness dered the brother of Japhet the elder, in conformity with until subseqnently, somewhere about 1230 B.C., when it the grammatical analogies of the Hebrew language, nor is was enlarged by Ninus, its second founder, and became any other instance of such a construction to be found in the greatest city of the world and the mistress of the East. the Scriptures. The elder brother of Japhet' is the The testimony of most ancient writers concurs with the plain and natural rendering, and is that given by the local traditions and the surviving name to fix Nineveh on ancient versions, except the Septuagint, which lies under the site of the village of Nunia, opposite the town of Mosul the suspicion of having been there corrupted. The inon the river Tigris, which formed the boundary of Assyria tention of the sacred writer was evidently to mark the Proper. In the book of Jonah, it is emphatically called seniority and consequent superiority of Shem. He had • an exceeding great city;' and we must refer to the Note already stated that Aam was the youngest, or at least a on that text for an account of its ancient greatness and younger, son of Noah; and now is careful to inform us that present remains.

Shem, the stem of the Hebrews, was older than Japhet. It Rehoboth, Calah, Resen.'— The site of Resen is indi has indeed been urged, in consideration of the interpretacated with more than ordinary precision in the text; but tion to which we object, that as Noah was 500 years old in seeking it, or those of the other two cities, we have when he began to have sons, and the Deluge took place in no such evidence and strong probabilities as have helped the 600th year of his age, his eldest son must at that date in determining the sites of the towns of Nimrod's kingdom have been 100 years old, whereas we are informed in ch. in Shinar. We can only conjecture that they existed on xi. 10, that Shem was not 100 years old till two years the Tigris, below, and perhaps above, Nineveh, at no great after, when he begat Arphaxad. But this is of little distance from each other. Most writers concur in placing weight, when we consider that the centuries appear to be Calah on the Great Zab, before it enters the Tigris, and sometimes given in round numbers, without exact regard Resen higher up on the latter river, so as to be between to an odd year or two over or under.' The incidents of life Nineveh and Calah. But Rehoboth has been shifted about | do not naturally run in centenary periods; and when such everywhere. Some place it above Nineveh, others below in any accounts recur, it needs but little reflection to teach Calah, while others fix it on the western bank of the Tigris, us that the writer does not mean to be exact, but to say opposite Resen.

1. when he was about a hundred years old,' etc.

CHAPTER XI.

7 Go to, let us go down, and there con1 One language in the world. 3 The building of Babel. | found their language, that they may not

5 The confusion of tongues. 10 The generations of understand one another's speech. Shem. 27 The generations of Terah the father of 8 So the LORD scattered them abroad from Abram. 31 Terah goeth from Ur to Haran.

thence upon the face of all the earth : and And the whole earth was of one 'language, they left off to build the city. and of one *speech.

9 Therefore is the name of it called 'Babel ; 2 And it came to pass, as they journeyed because the LORD did there confound the from the east, that they found a plain in the language of all the earth: and from thence land of Shinar ; and they dwelt there.

did the LORD scatter them abroad upon the 3 | And 'they said one to another, Go to, | face of all the earth. let us make brick, and burn them throughly. | 10 T "These are the generations of Shem : And they had brick for stone, and slime had Shem was an hundred years old, and begat they for morter.

Arphaxad two years after the flood : 4 And they said, Go to, let us build us a 11 And Shem lived after he begat Arcity and a tower, whose top may reach unto phaxad five hundred years, and begat sons heaven ; and let us make us a name, lest we and daughters. be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole | 12 And Arphaxad lived five and thirty earth.

years, and begat Salah : 5 And the LORD came down to see the 13 And Arphaxad lived after he begat city and the tower, which the children of men Salah four hundred and three years, and builded.

begat sons and daughters. 6 And the LORD said, Behold, the people 14 And Salah lived thirty years, and begat is one, and they have all one language ; and Eber: this they begin to do: and now nothing will 15 And Salah lived after he begat Eber be restrained from them, which they have four hundred and three years, and begat sons imagined to do.

| and daughters. 1 Heb. lip. Heb. words. 3 Heb. a man said to his neighbour. Heb. burn them to a burning. 6 That is, confusion.

6 Wisd. 10. 5. 34

i Chron. 1. 17.

16 And Eber lived four and thirty years,' 26 And Terah lived seventy years, and and begat 'Peleg :

begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran. 17 And Eber lived after he begat Peleg 27 | Now these are the generations of four hundred and thirty years, and begat sons Terah: Terah begat Abram, Nahor, and and daughters.

Haran; and Haran begat Lot. 18 And Peleg lived thirty years, and begat 28 And Haran died before his father Terah Reu:

in the land of his nativity, in Ur of the 19 And Peleg lived after he begat Reu | Chaldees. two hundred and nine years, and begat sons 29 And Abram and Nahor took them and daughters.

wives : the name of Abram's wife was Sarai : 20 And Reu lived two and thirty years, and the name of Nahor's wife, Milcah, the and begat °Serug:

daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah, and 21 And Reu lived after he begat Serug the father of Iscah. two hundred and seven years, and begat sons 30 But Sarai was barren ; she had no and daughters.

child. 22 And Serug lived thirty years, and begat 31 | And Terah took Abram bis son, and Nahor:

Lot the son of Haran his son's son, and Sarai 23 And Serug lived after he begat Nahor his daughter in law, his son Abram's wife; two hundred years, and begat sons and and they went forth with them from "Ur of daughters.

the Chaldees, to go into the land of Canaan ; 27 And Nahor lived nine and twenty years, and they came unto Haran, and dwelt and begat "Terah :

there. 25 And Nahor lived after he begat Terah I 32 And the days of Terah were two hundred an hundred and nineteen years, and begat and five years : and Terah died in Harąn. sons and daughters. s 1 Chron. 1. 19. Called, Luke 3. 35, Phalec. 10 Luke 3. 35, Saruch. , 11 Luke 3. 34, Thara. 12 Josh. 24. 2. 1 Chron. 1. 26.

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Judith 5. 7.

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Verse 1. * One language.'—What the primæval language was is a point which has excited very much discussion. Hebrew, Syriac, Arabic, Chaldee, Phænician, Egyptian, Ethiopic, Greek, Sanscrit, and Chinese, have each had the priority of their claims warmly advocated. The weight of number and authority is in favour of the Hebrew and the Syriac, which were originally one and the same :1. Because the names of the letters, and the numeral values assigned to them, in Hebrew and Syriac, have been generally adopted by the rest, however unlike the letters may be formed. 2. That the superior antiquity of the Hebrew and Syriac letters (which had originally but one form) is demonstrated by the greater simplicity of their shapes. 3. From internal evidence—such as, that words derived from or identical with Hebrew words run through all the greater number of known languages; that all Oriental proper names of rivers, mountains, cities, persons, etc., are deducible from the Hebrew; that when Abraham “the Hebrew travelled in Palestine and Egypt, he was everywhere understood ;-with other arguments of similar character and force.

3. · Brick.' --The want of stone in the plain watered by the Euphrates and Tigris, in the lower half of their course, rendered brick formerly, as it still is, the universal material in all the buildings of the country. The text will be best elucidated by observing what materials are employed in those masses of ruin which, whether belonging to the original city and tower or not, are undoubtedly among the most ancient remains in the world. The bricks are of Iwo sorts, one dried in the sun, and the other burnt by fire. The size of the latter is generally thirteen inches square by three thick; there are some which do not exceed half those dimensions, and a few with shapes adapted to particular purposes, such as for rounding corners, etc. They are of several colours-white, approaching more or less to a yellowish cast, like our Stourbridge, or fire-brick, which h is the finest sort; red, like our ordinary brick, which is the coarsest sort; and some that have a blackish cast, and

are very hard. The sun-dried brick is considerably larger, and in general looks like a clod of earth, in which are seen particles of broken reed and chopped straw, obviously intended to give compactness to the mass. When any considerable degree of thickness was required, the practice in the Babylonian structures seems to have been, to form the mass with sun-dried bricks, and then to invest it with a case of burnt bricks. The ruins exhibit evident traces of this mode of construction, although, in the course of ages, the external coverings of burnt bricks have been taken away for use in building. If we are to understand the text as meaning burut bricks—which the original does not state so positively as our translation—it by no means follows that such only were used, as no large construction at Babylon was at any time wholly, or even principally, composed of burnt brick.

Slime.'-“They had bitumen for cement would be a better translation of this passage; for the word in this place does undoubtedly denote that remarkable mineral pitch to which the name of bitumen is given, and which is supposed to have been formed in the earth from the decomposition of animal and vegetable substances. It is the most inflammable of known minerals. There are two or three sorts, but having the same component parts. It is usually of a blackish or brown hue, and hardens more or less on exposure to the air. In its most fluid state it forms naphtha ; when of the consistence of oil it becomes petroleum; at the next stage of induration it becomes elastic bitumen, then maltha, and so on, until it becomes a compact mass, and is then called asphaltum, the word by which the Septuagint renders the word 7pm chemar, which we have here as slime.' Herodotus states that the Babylonians derived their supplies of this substance from Is on the Euphrates. This is the modern Hit, a small mudwalled town, chiefly inhabited by Arabs and Jews, situated on the western bank of the river, and fixed by Rennell in 33° 43' 15" N. lat. The principal bitumen pit has two sources, and is divided by a wall in the centre, on one side

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