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was probably the hawk best known to the Israelites at the tions seem to require. The gannet, or solan goose, which time this law was delivered. It is the bird which the recent writers seem to prefer, darts from great elevafalconers of Aleppo call by the name of Al Saphy, and itions into the sea to catch its prey, sometimes rising which they employ in taking herons, bustards, and other to the surface half a minute after the plunge. But this large birds. Dr. Russell, in his Natural History of bird does not appear to have been noticed in the Mediter. Aleppo, also mentions the kestril, or fulco tinnunculus'; ranean; it is not in Russell's list of the birds of Syria, and the falcon gentil, which the natives know by the name of is not known to come more southward than the British al-Shaheen, which flies at all kinds of birds; one which Channel. Cuvier considers Gesner to be right in regardthey call al-Huz, or Baraban, which is employed against ing this bird as a gull. In a matter so doubtful it may be the antelope and hare, and which seems to be the Ger. | as well to accept this conclusion as to offer any other-esfalcon; another called al-Zygranuz, which acts against pecially as the common gull, or sea-mew (Larus canus) is waterfowl, and is without doubt the goshawk; two, named so well known on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean al-Dugrau and al-Ispoor, used against francolins and as to have acquired an Arabic name—that of Duikely. partridges, and which are not clearly identified, though
- Great owl.' quas yanshuph, Sept. iBus.—The sacred they are probably of the smaller and less powerful hawks of the genus nisus, and are celebrated for the celerity of
bird, so celebrated in ancient story—the Ibis religiosa of their flight, and the activity with which they pursue their
Cuvier-is by some supposed to be the bird intended. prey. Of this genus the sparrow-hawk is the most familiar
This bird was embalmed by the Egyptians; and specimeus type, and is probably one of the birds thus indicated.
have been preserved in a state of such perfection that not Then there is the Al-Bashak, and is without doubt the
only the skeleton but the feathers might be studied, in crested buzzard (Falco bacha), which is the principal
order to ascertain its identity with the living animal. It enemy of the Shaphan, which has been noticed under v. 5.
is about the size of a common fowl. While young, the Other species probably occur—but hawks of no one par
neck is partially covered with down, or minute feathers, ticular species are very common in Syria or elsewhere.
which fall off when the plumage is complete. The major 17. • Little owl.' diś cos ; Sept, vuktikápas. This was per
part of its feathers are of a clear and spotless white. The haps the common barn. Sep!: VUKTIKópat. This was per
head, bill, neck, and legs are of a deep black; as are also haps the common barn-owl (Strir flammea), which is extensively spread over Europe, Asia, and America.
the tips of the quill-feathers, with a violet reflection. The
Our version gives three owls in two verses; but this appears to
last four secondaries are of the same tincture, and by their be the only real one. Some writers, however, think that
length and silky nature form an elegant plume, mantling the list of water-fowl begins here, and that the sea-gull is
over the hinder parts of the body. intended.
Although, on the authority of the Septuagint, which is
entitled to respect when we can ascertain, as in this case, - Cormorant.' The Hebrew name, w shalach, is from
the species it intends to indicate, we have set down the a root signifying to cast or throw, and, as well as the Greek yanshuph as the ibis—we cannot withhold Col. C. H. katapáxins, appears to refer to the action of a bird in Smith's objection that— A bird so rare about Memphis, casting or darting itself down from the high rocks into or | and totally unknown in Palestine, could not be the yantowards the water. Hence it has been identified with the shuph of the Pentateuch, neither could the black ibis which gannet, the gull, and the cormorant. Some species of cor- appears about Diametta, nor any species of warm and morant are doubtless found on the coast of Palestine, but watery regions be well taken for it.' It may, however, be none of them rush flying upon their prey, as the indica- i observed, that the birds named in this chapter are not
Gesner's researches shew how early and long the writers of the middle ages were perplexed to find again the porphyrion of the ancients, although modern writers have not the shadow of a doubt on the subject, the species being moreover depicted on the Egyptian monuments.
- Pelican.' - See Psalm cii. 6.
- Gier-eagle.' on racham.- The Septuagint makes this a swan (KÚrvos); but it is now almost universally agreed that it denotes the bird which at this day bears the same name of racham in Egypt and Syria. This is the white carrion vulture of Egypt (Vultur percnopterus), popularly known as Pharaoh's fowl,' which seems to embody an ancient appellation. This bird, like all true vultures, has the pouch exposed, and the sides of the head and throat bare and livid. It is not much larger in the body than a raven, but it stands high on the legs, which are armed with sharp claws. The general colour is white, with tinges of buff and rufous, and with the quill feathers wholly and the wing coverts partly of a black and blackish ash colour; the females are brownish. The feathered creation does not offer another bird so foul as this, both in its own person, and from the nature of its food. Always soiled with blood and garbage, and revolting both to the sight and smell, its services are yet so great in clearing the soil of dead carcases putrifying in the sun, and the cultivated fields of rats, mice, and other vermin, that it
GREAT OWL (Ibis religiosa). necessarily birds of Palestine, unless indicated to be such in other passages of Scripture. This is not the case with the present bird, which is only again mentioned in Isa. xxxiv. Il; where it is described as belonging to a region (Edom) nearer than Palestine to the place where this law was delivered ; and that region seems most unsuitable for the night-heron-a frequenter of the sea-shore, lakes, marshes, and rivers—which appears to him to be, more probably than the ibis, the yanshuph of Scripture. The bird must be regarded as most uncertain.
18. Swan. havin tinshemeth, Toppupíwv.- Porphyrio hyacinthinus, or Hyacinthine gallinule- a bird very famous among the ancients for the beauty of its plumage, which is indigo mingled with red. It inhabits marshy situations in the neighbourhood of rivers aud lakes, and is found universally in the Levant and the islands of the Mediterranean. It feeds itself standing on one leg, holding its
t was in the precincts of pagan temples, and therefore perhaps is here marked unclean, as most, if not all the sacred animals of the heathen are. When, in the decline of idolatry, the
haleshoothor + S
le claws O ne oner.
GIER-EAGLE. EGYPTIAN VULTURE (Vultur Percnopterus). was deemed a sacred bird by the ancient idolators of Egypt, and its existence is still protected by law and public opinion. This vulture extends to Palestine in the summer season, and is there frequently seen, especially about the borders of the lake of Tiberias and in the plains of Philistia, solitary or in numbers according to circumstances of food; for a good supply of carrion fails not to attract many of them.
19. Stork' 17'Dn, chasidah. There is little doubt
Swan (Porphyrio Hyacinthinus). dog, peacock, ibis, the purple bird in question, and other domesticated ornaments of the temples had disappeared,
that the stork, probably in both the white and black spe- passes, do not on any occasion exhibit alarm or apprehencies, is really intended by the chasidah-a name importing | sion. This may as well be a consequence as a cause of benignity or pity. It is several times mentioned by the the peculiar favour with which they are regarded. But sacred writers in such a manner as to intimate their fa- | certain it is, that in Turkey, Persia, Egypt, or indeed in miliar knowledge of the bird and its habits; and when we any place, even in Europe, to which these birds resort, a come to such passages we shall illustrate the circumstances man would be universally execrated who should molest a to which they direct attention. The bird is an inhabitant stork, or even disturb its nest during its absence. In some of the warmer regions, but often migrates to higher lati cases the law expressly provides for its protection. It was tudes to lay its eggs and hatch its young. It is particu exactly the same among ancient nations, the laws in some larly abundant in Egypt and the western parts of Asia, of which made it highly penal to kill a stork. It often and is also well known in different parts of Europe ; and, appeared to us as if the Orientals in general regarded the wherever found, its amiable and confiding disposition has stork as a sort of household god, whose presence brought secured it the protection and esteem of man. No bird is a blessing upon the house on which it established its nest. more noted for its attachment to its young; and, which is They also do not overlook the importance of its services more rare among birds, for its kindness to the old and in clearing the land of serpents and other noxious reptiles, feeble of its own race. It has also acquired a sort of sanc which form part of its food. Whether the law of Moses tity in different countries, not less perhaps from its grave prohibited the stork as food, in order to protect its existand contemplative appearance than from its predilection ence, or because the nature of its food rendered it unclean, for churches, mosques, and temples, on the roofs or towers it is impossible to determine ; but there is not the least of which—perhaps because they are in general the loftiest reason to doubt that the stork's nest and its inmate figured buildings—it usually prefers to establish its large and as conspicuously upon the highest points in the towns and well-compacted nest. It also builds on the roofs of private villages of ancient Canaan, as they do in the modern houses; and, in the East, on the wind-chimneys, by which Palestine. Multitudes of storks congregate on the borders apartments are ventilated. This habit brings it into close of the lake of Tiberias. Both the white stork (Ciconia connection with man in Turkey and Persia; in most parts / alba) and the black stork (C. nigra) are found in Syria; of which countries people sleep at night on the flat roofs but the former is most common. of their houses, and sometimes sit and amuse themselves there in the cool of the evening. The storks, although
– Lapwing' no'947 dukiphath ; Sept. &rox.—We may then full in view, and themselves observant of all that l conclude this to be the hoopoe (Upupa epops, Linn.), which
is often met with in the writings of antiquity; it is an ravines, striking and devouring an immense quantity of elegant and animated bird, its head being surrounded with fish' (art. HERON in Kitto's Cyclopædia). Another writer a beautiful crest of plumes, which, by their varying motion, in the same work (the Rev. J. F. Denman, in art. ANAPHA) seem to express the feelings of the wearer. It is spread abandons this process of identification in despair, feeling over all the warmer regions of the old continent, and oc- that among so many conflicting claims growing out of it, casionally visits this country. It is about twelve inches there is no better course than to turn to the traditional long, with a fawn-coloured plumage, barred with black identification, which, through the Septuagint xapadpios, and white on the wings and lower parts of the back. Tail and the Vulgate caradryon and caradrium, he traces to black, with a crescent of white at the base. Its food con the genus Charadrius, or of plovers, several species of sists of insects, worms, and snails, and it was perhaps on which are found in Palestine; the most conspicuous there this account forbidden as an article of diet. The bird is being the golden plover (Charadrius pluvialis), the stone common in Egypt, and its presence in Palestine is unques curlew (C. ædicnemus), and the lapwing (C. spinosus). tionable. It occurs in Russell's list of Syrian birds, and This deserves attention ; but the questions respecting the Buckingham saw beautifully-crested hoopoes' at Jerash, anapha can perhaps never be satisfactorily settled. beyond the Jordan, early in March..
21. Which have legs above their feet, to leap withal upon the earth.'—Insects, reptiles, and worms, are generally prohibited; but a previous exception is here made in favour of those insects, which, besides four walking legs, have also two longer springing legs (pedes saltatorii), and which, under the name of locusts,' are declared clean. Those particularly enumerated seem to indicate the four leading genera of the locust family, of which the domestic cricket, the mole-cricket, the green grasshopper, and the locust, may be taken as representatives. We have deferred an account of the locust to the book of Joel; but our attention is naturally in this place directed to its use as an article of food in the East, and it is interesting to find that even at this early period it was so employed. The vast swarms of the migratory locusts, which occasionally lay waste the oriental plantations and fields, do, themselves, in some measure furnish an antidote to the evils they occasion. The nomades in particular, who look not beyond the day, and have little immediate interest in cultivation, witness their arrival without regret; and they, as well as the poor inhabitants of villages and towns, collect them in great quantities, not only for their own eating, but for sale in the bazaars, for these insects are highly relished by all classes of people. In some towns there are shops exclusively for the sale of locusts. They are so prepared as to be kept for use a considerable time. There are different processes; but the most usual in Western Asia is to throw them alive into a pot of boiling water, mixed with a good quantity of salt. After boiling a few minutes they are taken out, and the heads, feet, and
wings being plucked off, the trunks are thoroughly dried Hoopoe (Upupa epops).
in the sun, and then stowed away in sacks. They are _ • The bat.' (See the note on Isa. ii. 20.)
usually sold in this condition, and are either eaten with
out further preparation, or else are broiled, or stewed, or - Heron.'— The original word 79 anapha is from a
fried in butter. They are very commonly mixed with root which signifies to breathe short or snort, especially butter, and thus spread on thin cakes of bread, and so from anger, and hence to be angry. Critics have sought caten, particularly at breakfast Europeans have usually in this the means of identifying the bird, which the com an aversion to the eating of these insects from being unparison of texts does not afford, as the name occurs only accustomed to them; and we must confess that we did not here and in the parallel text (Deut. xiv. 18). Now there ourselves receive them at first without some repugnance; are many birds to whom the characteristic indicated by but, separately from the question of usage, they are not the name applies, and accordingly the range of identifi more repulsive than shrimps or prawns, to which they do, cation has extended over such various birds as the crane, indeed, in taste and other qualities, bear a greater resemcurlew, woodcock, peacock, kite, parrot, mountain falcon, blance than to any other article of food to which we are lapwing, goose, crane, and heron. Some of these are accustomed. The Israelites being in the peninsula of clearly impossible, and others shew very deficient infor Sinai when they received this law, it becomes a rather mation in those by whom they are proposed, and the va remarkable fact that Burckhardt describes the present inriety of these conclusions shew how little reliance can habitants of that peninsula as the only Bedouins known be placed upon this principle of identification. Col. Hamil to him who do not use the locust as an article of food. ton Smith is, we believe, the only writer who has put in a word for the goose, to which, he says, the name, with
29. Weasel.'—The Septuagint and the Vulgate agree reference to its signification, would most obviously apply;
with our version in rendering 75 choled by "weasel, and the bird is not otherwise mentioned in Scripture, though it may well seem surprising that it should have although it was constantly eaten in Egypt, and must at found a place among the reptiles. The word as used in some seasons have frequented the lakes of Palestine. This the Syriac implies a creeping insidious movement, and is, however, a list of birds excluded from use as food, and may therefore suit the weasel, and was perhaps given also the Hebrews do not consider that the goose is among the to some of the lizard tribe, which, in warmer climates, birds which it prohibits. Col. Smith himself inclines to often find their way into the dwellings without invitation, the heron, .as uttering a similar sound of displeasure with and often without a welcome. It may possibly denote much more meaning; and the common species, ardea the mole, which is common in Syria, and to which the cinerea, is found in Egypt, and is also abundant in the characteristic deduced from the signification of the name Hauran of Palestine, where it frequents the margins of is well applicable. On this ground alone the claims lakes and pools, and the reedy water-courses in the steep of several animals might be equal; but the similarity of
TORTOISE. Nilotic LIZARD (Varanus Niloticus). the Hebrew choled to the Arabic name for the mole, khlud, destruction among the young and the eggs of the crocodile. gives some preponderance to this conclusion.
It attains a length of five or six feet, and is figured on the - Mouse.' See the note on 1 Sam. vi. 5.
old monuments of Egypt. There is another species, the - Tortoise.' tzab.—Here begins the mention of Desert Varan (Varanus arenarius), which is frequent in several animals apparently of the great lizard family,
the deserts bordering Egypt and Palestine. It differs indicated probably as examples designed to exclude the
chiefly from the other in its smaller size, and in the less whole class, from the largest Saurians down to the smallest
aquatic adaptations of the tail. This is no doubt the land of the tribe. That several of them should be mentioned
crocodile of Herodotus, and probably the true Scincus of will not surprise those who reflect that Syria, Arabia, and
the ancients. The Arabs call both species by the name of Egypt is overrun with animals of this family, but will
Waran, distinguishing the former as Waran el-bahr, the think that there is every reason to expect allusion to more
river lizard, and the latter as Waran el-hard, the land than one genus in the Scriptures, where so many observa
lizard. The desert species differs much in habit from tions and similes are derived from natural objects familiar
its aquatic congener. Instead of throwing itself with to the respective writers. We are led to this conclusion
avidity upon the aliments presented to it, and exhibiting by the high authority of the Septuagint, which refers the
much'irritation and desire to injure, as the latter does in different Hebrew names to different kinds of lizards. In captivity—the former, in bondage, altogether refuses food, the present instance the Sept. translates tzab by 8 kpokó
and it is necessary to put the morsels into its mouth, and delos 8 xepoalós, land crocodile,' which is not very clear, compel it to eat. but must mean one of the largest kinds of lizards. The 30. · Ferret,' & anakah, perhaps the Lacerta gecko largest of all the race is the Nilotic lizard (Varanus of Hasselquist, or Gecko lobatus of Geoffroy, a species of Niloticus, the Lacerta Niloticu of Linnæus), which has lizard found in countries bordering the Mediterranean; it so much analogy to the crocodile that the Egyptians | is of a reddish grey, spotted with brown. It is thought pretend that the animal is produced from the eggs of at Cairo to poison the victuals over which it passes, and the crocodile hatched in a dry place. The animal is more especially salt provisions, of which it is very fond. It has aquatic than any other lizard, although much less so than a voice resembling somewhat that of a frog, which is intithe crocodile." It swims admirably and causes great | mated by the Hebrew name, importing a sigh or a groan.
FERRET (Lacerta Gecko). -"Chameleon.”—The original is no coach; and our - Lizard. ngo? letaah ; Sept. xalaßútns ; Vulg. version follows the Septuagint (xauarréwv) in rendering it | Stellio.—The original word signifies to adhere, and may by chameleon. But this is still questionable, as we seem therefore very well apply to the Gecko des murailles. It better able to recoguise the chameleon in the thinshemeth is a disagreeable animal, covered with tubercles, and of a of the preceding verse. The word expresses force or prow grey colour. It lives in holes of the walls and under ess, and seems to indicate one of the most powerful crea stones, and covers itself with dirt, which is perhaps tures of its class. We therefore take it to be the species alluded to by the sense adhering, which the name conveys. mentioned under the last as the true Scincus of the ancients, and as the Varanus arenarius, the Waran
- Snail! oon chomet, in Chaldee, signifies to bow el-hard of the Arabs: this is of a large size, some down; it therefore suggests the Lacerta stellio, which is times reaching six feet in length, and abounds in the noted for bowing its head, insomuch that the followers of deserts of Africa, Arabia, and southern Syria. Its vigour Mohammed kill it, because they say it mimics then in is evinced by the activity and strength which it manifests the mode of repeating their prayers. It is about a foot in in diving into the sands, whence perhaps it is that its length, and of an olive colour shaded with black. This body and tail has been, in various forms of preparation, species is very common in Palestine, and particularly in long used medicinally in the East, and was known in the Judæa, where Belon affirms that it sometimes attains the old pharmacy of Europe, under the notion that it repaired size of a weasel. This is the lizard which infests the exhausted vigour in the human constitution.
pyramids, and which in Syria harbours in the crevices