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palatable when the animal is young and not poorly fed. It is inferior to good beef, although, when the present writer first ate it, he mistook it for coarse beef; but it is at least equal, if not superior, to horse-flesh.

5. Coney.'—The original is ?w shaphan ; and the particulars stated of it in the texts where its name occurs shew that it could hardly have been the 'coney,' or rabbit, which, indeed, is an animal not found in Syria or Palestine. The other places where the shaphan is named are Deut. xiv. 7; Ps. civ. 18; Prov. xxx. 26. Bruce seems to have been the first to point out that it was probably the Ushkoko, or Ganam Israil, the Wabber of the Arabs,

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INSIDE OF A CANEL's Foot.-A, is the cushion on which the animal

treads, shewn as lifted out of its bed.. renders the division incomplete, and Moses, for the purposes of the law, therefore decides that it divides not the hoof. Under this nicely balanced state of the question it has been conjectured that the determination against the use of the camel for food was made with the view of protecting the life of a labouring animal-a beast of burden. But the camel was but little in use as such among the Jews: and on the same ground the life of the ox would equally have required protection ; for that was, far more than the camel, a labouring animal among the Hebrews. It seems more likely that the intention of this law was that of keeping the Israelites distinct from the other descendants of Abraham, with whom their connection and coincidence in manners were otherwise so close. That it actually had this effect appears from an anecdote related by Theophanes, who (sub Ann. 622) relates that when Mohammed appeared under so many imposing circumstances, many of the Jews in Arabia were disposed to recognise him as

SYRIAN HYRAX. the Messiah, and, accordingly, adopted the religion which he taught. But, after a while, they became much offended

and in scientific zoology one of the small genus Hyrax, by his eating of camel's flesh, which was forbidden by the

distinguished by the specific name of Syrian (Hyrax Sys Mosaical·law. On this the author of the ‘History of the

riacus). Externally the Hyrax is somewhat of the size, Dispersion of the Jews,' in the Universal History (xiii.

form, and brownish colour of the rabbit; and although it 210), remarks: • It seems somewhat surprising that they,

has short round ears, it is sufficiently like for inexact obwho scrupled not to abandon their old law for this new one,

servers to mistake the one for the other. Its internal should be so squeamish at Mohammed's transgressing it in

structure, however, as well as its whole osteology, represo inconsiderable a point; though it is not strange to meet

sents that of a rhinoceros in miniature, and has no appearwith such contrasts among mankind, especially among the

ance of the complicated fourfold stomachs of ruminating Jews. The interdiction of the camel, and, of course, its

animals; and therefore the hyrax is not a ruminant; neither milk, was thus well calculated to prevent them from enter

is it a rodent, like the hare and rabbit, as it wants the petaining any desire to continue in Arabia, or from again

culiar incisor teeth calculated for nibbling, which distindevoting themselves to the favourite occupation of nomade

guishes that genus of animals; but it is in some respects an herdsmen, from which it was obviously the intention of

anomalous creature, nearly allied to the great Pachydermany of the laws to wean them. In Arabia, a people would

mata of systematic zoology. This being the case, Col. Habe in a very uncomfortable condition who could neither eat

milton Smith suggests : It may be that the peculiar structhe flesh of the camel nor drink its milk. Of the constant

ture of their anterior teeth is convenient for stripping off use of its milk by the Arabs we have already spoken; and

the seeds of grapes and tritica, and that these in part reif we wanted a medical reason for its interdiction, it might |

tained in the mouth cause a practice of working the jaws, be found in the fact that to its constant use is attributed

which to common observers may appear to be chewing the the obstructions and indurations of the stomach, which form

cud.' There must certainly be something to produce that one of the most common complaints of the Arabs. They

appearance, or it cannot be correct to regard it as the rarely kill the camel or any other animal for ordinary food ; | Shaphan of Scripture. The intention of the law is to conbut when a camel happens to be lamed in a caravan it is

fine the Israelites to the use for food of such ruminating killed, and a general feast is made on its flesh. Camels are animals as completely divide the hoof. One of the two also killed on great festival occasions, and sometimes to give

signs will not do; both must exist, and both must be pera large entertainment in honour of a distinguished guest.

fect. Thus the camel, although it ruminates, yet as it does Sometimes also a man vows to sacrifice a camel if he obtain

not completely divide the hoof, is excluded; and thus the this or that blessing. as, for instance, if his mare brings forth swine, although it completely divides the hoof, but does not a female; and in that case he slaughters the animal, and

ruminate, is also interdicted. So there are certain animals feasts his friends on the flesh. Burckhardt (Notes on the

which do not ruminate, although from the motion of their Bedouins) mentions the rather remarkable fact, that the

jaws they seem to do so, and are popularly regarded as ruArabs know no remedy against the three most dangerous minating creatures. These it was necessary to exclude, not diseases to which camels are subject; but they believe that

by teaching natural history, and by instructing the people the Jews in their sacred books have remedies mentioned, how to distinguish scientifically between those that chew which they withhold through hatred and malice. The

the cud and those that only seem to do so, but to give some flesh of the camel is coarse-grained, but is rather juicy and easy and popular rule which should be universally appli


cable in such cases; and the rule given was that no animal servers might take for the process of rumination. The popularly held to ruminate should be regarded as fit for hare belongs to the crder of rodentia, or gnawers; and, in food unless it were cloven-footed. And this rule was most common with porcupines, squirrels, beavers, and rats, it effectual for its intended purpose, because all real rumi has incisor teeth set like chisels, and adapted to cutting, nants are cloven-footed, although all cloven.footed animals gnawing, and nibbling. The stomach of the rodents is are not ruminants. This seems the obvious explanation of single, and except when they may masticate some small the sense in which the Shaphan is assumed to be a rumi portion of food received in the hollow of the cheek, is more nating animal; and under that view we may admit it to that of the lips; when in a state of repose, the animals are have been the hyrax, which is not a ruminating animal, engaged in working the incisor teeth upon each other. although we cannot regard the point as entirely established; | * This practice,' writes Col. Hamilton Smith, " is a necessary and we should have held that fact a sufficient ground for condition of existence; for the friction keeps them fit for its rejection, werc it not for the consideration that the dif the purpose of nibbling, and prevents their growing beyond ficulty thereby avoided would recur in the next verse, their proper length. It is a provision of nature in the where the hare, the identity of which is beyond dispute, is whole order of rodents, that if by any accident the four in like manner described, in conformity with common opi. cutting teeth be rendered inefficient, by not closing upon nion, as a ruminant, which it certainly is not. The hyrax each other at the exact line of contact, they grow rapidly is of clumsier structure than the rabbit, without tail, having beyond serviceable use, and impede feeding till the animal long bristly hairs scattered over the general fur; the feet perishes from want. As hares do not subsist on hard subare naked below, and all the nails are fat and rounded, stances, like most of the genera of the order, but on tender save those on each inner toe of the hind feet, which are shoots and grasses, they have more cause, and therefore a long and awl-shaped; therefore it cannot dig, but is framed more constant craving, to abrade their teeth; and this they to reside not like rabbits in burrows, but in the clefts of the do in a manner which, combined with a slight trituration of rocks—a characteristic indicated in Ps. civ. 18. Such of the occasional contents of the cheeks, even modern writers, the animal's habits as illustrate Prov. xxx, 26, are noticed not zoologists, have mistaken for real rumination. under that text.

There are two species of hare which must have been 6. Hare.'— The original word is nang arnebeth ; and known to the Jews, both figured in Hemprich and Ehrenthat it denotes the hare is one of the best established facts berg's great work the Symbolæ Physicæ, from which our in the zoology of Scripture. Not only has the animal a engraving is copied. The Syrian hare (Lepus Syriucus) name which is essentially the same as the Hebrew in all is nearly equal in size to the common European hare, the Syro-Arabian languages, but the Jews themselves have having the fur ochry buff; the other, the Sinai hare from ancient times understood the prohibition as applying (Lepus Sinaiticus), or hare of the desert, is smaller, and to the hare, which they accordingly abstained from eating. of a brownish colour. They reside in the localities indiThis animal being highly prized by the Greeks and Ro cated by their names, and are chiefly distinguished from mans, they could not but notice the abstinence of the Jews the common hare by greater length of ears, and by a black from it as a singular circumstance (Martial, xiii. 87; tail with white fringe. Plutarch, Symposium, ix. 3). The considerations which The use of the hare for food is not forbidden to Mohamhave been produced in the preceding note therefore apply medans in their Koran, and is distinctly ailowed, by the with peculiar force in the present instance; for it is mani example of Mohammed himself, in the Mischat-ul-Masabih; fest that the animal is said to chew the cúd entirely with but the Moslem doctors have classed its flesh among meats reference to that action of the jaws which cursory ob which, although not legally forbidden, are abominable.

Dr. Russell, who does not seem to be aware of this fact, in his Natural History of Aleppo, attributes the abstinence of the Turks from the bare merely to dislike. It is, hov. ever, remarkable that the Bedouin Arabs, the Eelauts of Persia, and other Mohammedan nomades, who in general pay little attention to religion, pursue hares with great eagerness, und eat them openly without the least scruple. The animals are found in considerable numbers in the deserts of Western Asia, which these nomades inhabit, or through which they frequently pass. They are usually dressed entire without any preparation; being baked in a hole digged in the ground for the purpose; and, thus cooked, are much relished by all nomades.

7. The swine.'-The prohibition of the hog is by no means peculiar to the Hebrews. All their neighbours, the Egyptians, the Arabs , and the Phænicians, concurred in disliking the hog, and interdicting its use. Herodotus is very particular in his information as to the estimation in which the hog was held by the first of these nations. We have already mentioned that, on account of their reputed sanctity, the Egyptians abstained from different animals in different parts of the kingdom. But they all concurred in abstaining from the cow, which was universally sacred. The only other animal which the Egyptians in general refrained from using was the hog, which they regarded as unclean. If an Egyptian happened, in passing, to touch a hog, he immediately hastened to the river to wash himself. Swineherds, though native Egyptians, were not allowed to enter the temples; and as no one would form a connection by marriage with them, they were obliged to intermarry exclusively among themselves. Yet the Egyptians saerificed the hog to Lupa and Bacchus, when the moon was at the full, and afterwards feasted on the flesh, which they would have disdained on any other occasion. The histo rian adds: “Why they abhor offerings of swine in their

other festivals, and in this should sacrifice them, is indeed STRIAN HARE. 320

explained by the Egyptians; but although I know the


reason assigned, I think it not fit to be mentioned' | while the rest that differ in these particulars are frequently (Euterpe, ii. 94). The Egyptians, then, did sometimes eat looked upon with disgust, and sometimes with horror, from pork; and we hence see that Moses, by directing a total a belief that they are sometimes poisonous. It is interestabstinence, precluded one of the acts of idolatry to which ing to remark how the sentiments of mankind do generally, the Egyptians were addicted. But the principal reason for in this instance, coincide with the Divine precept. interdicting swine's flesh was probably dietetical. It was a 13. ^ Fowls.'-The article of prohibited birds differs remark made by the ancient physicians, and confirmed by from the others in the absence of a systematic distinction, the modern, that persons who indulged in pork were pecu Twenty species of then known birds are mentioned as for. liarly liable to leprosy and other cutaneous disorders. bidden, by which we must understand that all others were Michaelis observes on this subject : Whoever is afflicted allowed ; and may collect that the general object was to with any cutaneous diseases must carefully abstain from

prohibit the use of birds feeding on flesh and carrion, and swine's flesh if he wishes to recover. It has likewise been

to allow in preference those which feed on vegetable sublong ago observed, that the eating of swine's flesh produces

stances. It is now, in several instances, difficult to ascera peculiar susceptibility of itchy disorders. Now, in the tain what the prohibited birds are; though this must have whole tract of country in which Palestine lies, something been well known while the Israelites maintained a national more to the south, and something more to the north, the existence in Palestine. At present, dispersed as they are, leprosy is an endemic disease : in Egypt it is peculiarly and much obscurity having fallen upon their language, common; and the Israelites left that country so far infected they are placed in the predicament of not understanding, with it that Moses was obliged to make many regulations on and of expounding by guess, a statute which they still think the subject, that the contagion might be weakened, and the themselves bound to observe. The scientific distinctions, people tolerably guarded against its influence.' He adds : | with regard to the other class of animals, precludes the

Every physician will interdict a person labouring under uncertainty which here attends a mere enumeration by any cutaneous disease from eating pork; and it has been name. But although no scientific distinction is established remarked in Germany that such diseases are in a peculiar | in the case of birds, the order of enumeration seems to manner to be met with in those places where a great deal exhibit a very accurate classification of the species, so far of pork is eaten.' Michaelis also observes that, although as the details can be ascertained. It is observable that the pork was forbidden as food, the Hebrews were not forbidden

species mentioned are of birds which, except in case of to keep swine as articles of trade. We agree that they

necessity, are not usually eaten in scarcely any country. might do so, and shall be prepared to shew that they actually

- Eagle-See Deut. xxxii. 11, and Ezek. xvii. 3. did so, after people of Greek descent, and others who liked pork, began to settle in towns upon their borders (see the

- Ossifrage.' De peres. The Sept. has here ypúy, note on Luke viii. 32); but it does not appear to us very and the Vulgate gryphus, whence our griffon. The bird likely that they did so in the earlier ages of their history, is only mentioned here, and in the parallel text, Deut. xiv. when, as we believe, most of their neighbours participated 12, so that we have few intimations to guide us in its idenin their objections to swine's flesh, Michaelis omits to tification. The Hebrew word means breaker,' which has observe one very important fact operating to the interdic | suggested to our translators and others the idea of its being tion of pork; this is, that, of all animals, the hog is the | the same with the 'ossifrage,' or 'bone-breaker,' which has only one subject to leprosy, and also to measles and a dis been regarded as the same with the Aquila ossifraga of order resembling the king's evil. The Hebrews were aware Buffon, or the Great Sea Eagle' of Pennant; and which of this, and had a saying that the hogs received nine out of obtained that name under the impression that it broke or ten measures of leprosy that descended on the world. We crushed for food the bones of the animals which formed its can perceive, however, that so far as the law is concerned, prey. It is now, however, known that no bird is in that the hog was not more unclean than the ass or camel ; but sense a·bone-breaker. If done at all, it must be by the these animals are useful in other respects than for food; beak; and the beaks of birds of prey, although powerful, and as the hog is of little use but for food, and its habits are so only in striking, tearing, and holding, not in mastiare filthy and disagreeable, a people who may not use it as cating or in crushing bones, for which the organ is utterly meat, naturally come to regard it with an aversion which unsuited. And then, if they could crush them, their stodoes not apply to other animals equally disallowed as food. machs, far less vigorous than in some other orders, would But we think the extent of this aversion has been exag not enable them to digest what they have taken, nor have gerated. The Mohammedans detest the hog quite as much remains of bones ever been found within them. This conas it was possible for the Jews to do, and none are kept for sideration disposes of the claim of the sea-eagle to be reany purpose by them; but if they encounter a wild hog, garded as identified with the peres from reference to any they will capture it alive or dead, and carry it, even in their consideration arising out of the signification of the name, arms, to Christians, either for sale, or as an acceptable But if any reliance is to be placed thereon as a clue to present. The only pork we ever tasted, while residing in identification, there is another bird manifestly entitled to Mohammedan Asia, was procured in this manner from the name, and which (and not the sea-eagle) is now known Moslems. There is nothing in the law to prevent the Jews to have been the bird to which the Romans applied the from doing the same, if they knew persons by whom pork name of ossifrage. This is the Gypatos barbatos—the might be eaten. It is true that, if they touched the dead Lämmer Geyer of the Swiss—the largest flying bird of carcase of an animal not allowed for food, they became | the old continent, and little, if at all, inferior to the condor unclean till the evening; but this was equally the case if | of South America. It inhabits the highest ranges of mounthey touched a human corpse, or even the carcase of an tains in Europe, Western Asia, and Africa; and although animal fit for food, unless it had been slaughtered in the sometimes feeding on carrion, and not appearing to take usual way. There was nothing to prevent them from up its prey like eagles in its talons, it pursues the chamois, handling hogs, or any other unclean animals, while alive. young ibex, or mountain-deer, or marmot, among preciIt may be added that the flesh of the hogs of Palestine is pices, until it drives, or by a rush of its wings forces, the of very indifferent quality, and will bear no comparison game over the brink, to be dashed in pieces below, and with that which our own swine afford.

thus deservedly obtains the name of bone-breaker. Orni9, 10. · Whatsoever hath fins and scales,' etc.-In these thologists have scarcely yet determined whether to place two following verses, the law points out an important the bird with eagles or with vultures. Its head and neck difference in the flesh of marine animals, as indicated by are not naked, as in the latter, but covered with whitish the presence or absence of scales and fins. As examples narrow feathers; the rest of the plumage being nearly all of fish destitute of scales, we might refer to the shark, the black and brown. It often measures four feet two or three ray, and the sun-fish; and, as habitants of the water without inches from the point of the bill to the end of the tail; and fins, such animals as the seal and the walrus may be meant. the spread of its wings is sometimes not less than ten feet We may observe that the fish with fins and scales are gene- across. This, then, being the ancient ossifrage, and there rally to this day regarded as wholesome, and often delicious, being a reason which does not elsewhere exist for the name VOL. 1.


but the probabilities are at least equally in favour of our version.

14. Vulture.' 787 daah.—This bird occurs only bere and in Deut. xiv, 13, where, however, by an error of the copyists, the text has 7787 raah, and is there rendered by

glede,' The Septuagint renders it by guy, gyps, and the Vulgate by milvus, · kite.' We see no reason to dissent from the majority of versions and interpreters in supposing the kite rather than the vulture to be here intended. The name, when taken in its full acceptation, denotes that kind of flight which is at once swift, varied, and majestic: this agrees very well with the kite or glede, which is characterised by the easy and swift motion with which it glides through the air, for the bird has, in proportion to its bulk, very long wings, with a forked tail extending beyond them. It rises to a towering height, hangs apparently motionless in the sky, and darts down with immeuse ve


OsSIFRAGE (Gypatos Barbatos). of breaker,' or bone-breaker,' we cannot point to any bird as more probably intended by the Hebrew name peres, if we go by the meaning of the name; and if that kind of identification seem doubtful, there is nothing else to guide us to the knowledge of the bird in question. A probability is all that can be attained,

- Ospray.' n'gly ozniyyah.— The ospray, or fishhawk, Pandion haliatus, is a native of both continents. The upper parts of its body are of a rich glossy brown; the tail barred with brown of different shades, while the under parts are white. It subsists entirely upon fish, which it seizes by darting down with incredible velocity upon them. Some think the black eagle is here intended;

VULTURE (JIilrus ictinus). locity; but the legs and claws being weak, it is cowardly, and feeds upon carrion, fish, small birds, and even insects. From their habits, this kite is in Egypt often seen in company with vultures, both in their fight, and while engaged in their foul but useful task of devouring the carrion and offal of meat, which would otherwise pollute the air by its decomposition. It is not known with certainty that the kite of Europe and that of Egypt are the same species, though there is no want of scientific names for both species found in the valley of the Nile, one of which is certainly distinct from that of Europe, and the other, if not so, is a strongly marked variety. One of them is the milvus ictinus of Savigny, which is distinguished also by other names in different states of its plumage. Its head and throat are of a whitish colour, streaked with brown; the body grey-brown above, and ferruginons below. The other, called milvus ater, or the black kite, has the head, neck, and back, dark rusty grey; the scapulars bordered with rusty; the wing coverts and pinions black, the latter tipped with white; and tail grey above and white beneath. The habits of both species are much the same; and the probability is, that both species extend into Palestine and

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Cuckoo. SEA-SWALLOW (Sterna hirundo). - Hawk' ya netz ; Sept. lépaš; Vulg. accipiter. This, like the Arabic naz, appears to be a common name to several species of raptorial birds, like our own word .falcon.' Western Asia and Lower Egypt, and consequently the intermediate countries of Syria and Palestine, are the residence of a considerable number of species of hawks, which are migratory, as followers upon birds of passage, or remain in a region so abundantly stocked with pigeon and turtle dove as Palestine, and affording such a variety of ground for hunting this particular bird-abounding as it does in mountain and forest, plain, desert, marsh, river, and sea-coast. The hierax, or sacred hawk of Egypt, so abundantly represented on all the ancient monuments of that country, is called by Sir J. G. Wilkinson, Falco areoris, but seems to be the same, or only a variety of the common peregrine falcon, which, from its extensive diffusion, is doubtless to be found also in Palestine. This

NICHT HAWK. GOAT-SUCKER (Caprimulgus Europæus).

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