Obrazy na stronie

Mohammed, he pretended to have been in heaven, where temple, where they had only common fire: and this is God spoke to him from the midst of a great and bright fire, numbered among the circumstances in which this temple part of which he brought away with him, and placed it on was inferior to that of Solomon. the altar of the first fire-temple which he erected (at Xix, The Jews believe that the fire was maintained on the in Media), whence it was propagated to other altars. Even altar during the forty years' wanderings : and the Jewish the Hindoos, although they are not worshippers of fire, are tradition, as stated by Maimonides, is, that there were three particularly careful about the origin of the fires which they fires on the altar-one for burnt offerings, another to supply use for sacred purposes. That which is used in the great fire for the incense offerings, and a third kept always burnsacrifice of Yagam must be taken from the fire of some ing, in compliance with the law. It would therefore seem previous offering of the same kind, or procured afresh by that, in this view, two of the fires were allowed to go out rubbing together two pieces of wood : any other would when not wanted, and were rekindled, when required, from amount to what is called “strange fire' in the ensuing the perpetual fire. As the altar in its removals was to be chapter. This sacrifice seems to be a very expensive free covered with a purple cloth and the ashes taken out (Num. will offering-believed to be effectual in procuring the iv, 13), the sacred fire must then have been conveyed in a offerers the fruition of their desires. They reserve a por- separate receptacle. (See the fifth note on Exod. xxvii. 3.) tion of the fire, and carefully keep it up all their lives, With regard to the fire on the temple-altar, the rabbins with a view to its being employed to light their funeral tell us that great care was taken that no wood but that pile (Roberts's Illustrations, p. 84). In the same way, the which was reputed clean should be employed for fael; and Sagnicas, when they enter on their sacerdotal office, kindle, it was all carefully barked and examined before it was laid with two pieces of hard wood, a fire which they keep lighted on. The fire also was never to be blown upon, either with through their lives, for their nuptial ceremony, the per bellows or with the breath of man. These regulations are formance of solemn sacrifices, the obsequies of their so similar to those of Zoroaster, as to strengthen the opinion ancestors, and their own funeral pile (Asiatic Researches, of his being thoroughly conversant with the usages of the ii. 60).

Hebrews. He strictly enjoined that the fire which he preWith respect to the command, that the sacred fire on the tended to have brought from heaven should be carefully altar of burnt offerings should never go out, it has seemed kept up, that barked wood only should be used for fuel, doubtful to many whether this injunction was put in exe and that it should be revived only by the blasts of the open cution in the wilderness, during the marches of the Israelites air, or by oil being poured upon it. It was death to cast from one place to another. If they did not preserve the upon it any unclean thing, or to blow it with bellows or fire during their pilgrimage, they could not afterwards, with the breath, by which it would be polluted; and, for because we read of no new supply of miraculous fire until this reason, the priests themselves, although they watched the dedication of Solomon's temple, when the fire descended the fire day and night, never approached it but with a cloth upon the new altar of burnt offerings. Whether the fire, over their mouths, that they might not breathe thereon. if it still existed, on the tabernacle altar, was then trans The history, true or false, of the preservation of this fire ferred to the new altar, or else extinguished, we cannot after the Mohammedan conquest, under circumstances of learn; but it is on all hands allowed that the miraculous concealment and difficulty, is very interesting. The mofire was kept up on the temple altar until the time of dern Parsees of India believe that it was ultimately conManasseh, as some say, but as others, with more proba veyed to that country, and consequently that they still bility, state, till the destruction of the temple by the possess the sacred fire which Zoroaster brought from Chaldeans. It was not restored by miracle to the second | heaven.


5 So they went near, and carried them in | Nadab and Abilu, for offering of strange fire, are

their coats out of the camp; as Moses had said. burnt by fire. 6 Aaron and his sons are forbidden

6 T And Moses said unto Aaron, and unto to mourn for them. 8 The priests are forbidden Eleazar and unto Ithamar, his sons, Uncover wine when they are to go into the tabernacle. 12 The not your heads, neither rend your clothes ; law of eating the holy things. 16 Aaron's eccuse for

| lest ye die, and lest wrath come upon all the transgressing thereof.

people: but let your brethren, the whole house AND 'Nadab and Abihu, the sons of Aaron, l of Israel, bewail the burning which the LORD took either of them his censer, and put fire hath kindled. therein, and put incense thereon, and offered 7 And ye shall not go out from the door strange fire before the LORD, which he com- of the tabernacle of the congregation, lest ye manded them not.

die: for the anointing oil of the LORD is upon 2 And there went out fire from the LORD, you. And they did according to the word of and devoured them, and they died before the | Moses. LORD.

8. And the LORD spake unto Aaron, 3 Then Moses said unto Aaron, This is it saying, that the LORD spake, saying, I will be sanc 9 Do not drink wine nor strong drink, tified in them that come nigh me, and before thou, nor thy sons with thee, when ye go into all the people I will be glorified. And Aaron the tabernacle of the congregation, lest ye die : held his peace.

it shall be a statute for ever throughout your 4 And Moses called Mishael and Elzaphan, | generations : the sons of Uzziel the uncle of Aaron, and said 10 And that ye may put difference between unto them, Come near, carry your brethren holy and unholy, and between unclean and from before the sanctuary out of the camp. I clean ;

Nam. 3, 4, and 26.61. i Chron. 24. 2.

3 The Loro spake, my nigh me, and Aaron site shall

11 And that ye may teach the children of thy sons' with thee, by a statute for ever ; as Israel all the statutes which the Lord hath the Lord hath commanded. spoken unto them by the hand of Moses.

16 | And Moses diligently sought the goat 12 T And Moses spake unto Aaron, and of the sin offering, and, behold, it was burnt : unto Eleazar and unto Ithamar, his sons that and he was angry with Eleazar and Ithamar, were left, Take the meat offering that re- the sons of Aaron which were left alive, maineth of the offerings of the Lord made by saying, fire, and eat it without leaven beside the altar : 1 17 Wherefore have ye not eaten the sin for it is most holy:

offering in the holy place, seeing it is most 13 And ye shall eat it in the holy place, holy, and God hath given it you to bear the because it is thy due, and thy sons' due, of the iniquity of the congregation, to make atonesacrifices of the LORD made by fire: for so I am commanded.

18 Behold, the blood of it was not brought 14 And the wave breast and heave shoulder in within the holy place : ye should indeed have shall ye eat in a clean place; thou, and thy eaten it in the holy place, as I commanded. sons, and thy daughters with thee: for they be 19 And Aaron said unto Moses, Behold, thy due, and thy sons' due, which are given | this day have they offered their sin offering out of the sacrifices of peace offerings of the and their burnt offering before the LORD; children of Israel.

and such things have befallen me: and if I 15 The heave shoulder and the wave breast had caten the sin offering to day, should it have shall they bring with the offerings made by been accepted in the sight of the Lord ? fire of the fat, to wave it for a wave offering 20 And when Moses heard that, he was before the LORD; and it shall be thine, and content.

• Exod. 29. 24.

3 Chap. 6. 26.

Verse 1. Nadab and Abihu ... offered strange fire be- | Jonathan answers, with great probability, that they obfore the LORD.'---From the interdiction of wine and tained it from the fires at which the priests' portion of the strong drink which immediately succeeds this awful event, sacrifices was dressed for food in the court of the taberit has been inferred that a too free indulgence in wine led nacle. Strange or common fire was, in much the same them to the act of disobedience and rashness for which way, rigidly interdicted by the religion of Zoroaster, Nadab and Abihu were thus awfully punished. This, which declared it a crime punishable with death to kindle however, is no more than a conjecture. As to the crime fire on the altar of any newly-erected temple, or to rekindle itself, some think that it consisted in an unauthorized it on any altar when it had been by accident extinguished, attempt to enter the most holy place, which the high-priest except with fire obtained either from some other temple, alone was allowed to enter, and that only once in the year. or from the sun. This would also involve an attempted encroachment on the 2. * Fire from the LORD... devoured them.' - Slew peculiar prerogatives of the high-priest. We confess, how- them’ would have been more accurate, as it seems, from ever, that their offence does not seem to us so difficult to l v. 5, that their bodies were not reduced to ashes, nor even discover as these conjectures suppose. The text says that their vestments consumed. Whence the fire proceeded does • they offered strange fire before the Lord, which he com- not appear. Some think it came from their own censers : manded them not. This seems clear enough, when we but the expression from the Lord,' would seem either to recollect that the statements in the preceding chapter con- | imply that it issued immediately from the air, or from the cerning the fire miraculously kindled on the altar, which most holy place, where the Lord's presence dwelt between was to be continually kept up on the altar of burnt offering, the cherubim. The effect, as described, resembles that of and from which the fire was to be taken to burn the in | lightning, which destroys without injuring the clothes or cense offered morning and evening on the golden altar, leaving any marks of violence on the bodies of the slain. By strange fire,' therefore, we are to understand, probably, It is said that the Jews, from this precedent, derived their common fire, not from the brazen altar, and therefore not practice of strangling or suffocating those that were conthat which had in its origin been miraculously kindled demned to be burned, without reducing them to ashes. and appropriated to the service of the altars. That they 3. • And Aaron held his peace.'-The reader will not had no right to offer incense at all, as some Rabbins and fail to remark the emphasis and effect of this beautiful modern critics suppose, there seems reason to doubt ; abruption. It implies, that however strongly he may have indeed, that the censers are said to be their censers,' felt this awful event as a father, he indulged no lamentation seems to imply that it was part of their duty to offer or complaint, but submitted in silence to the judgment of incense. In this case, their crime was that they performed God upon those very sons who had before been peculiarly their duty in an irregular and negligent manner. (See honoured with the Divine favour; they alone of all his Saurin's Dissertations, No. lvi.) We incline to prefer this sons having been with him and Moses and the seventy interpretation ; but Scheltinga and others advocate the elders on the mount (Exod. xxiv. 9), and had seen there opinion, that the fire itself was properly taken from the the symbols of the Divine presence, and heard, under the altar of burnt offerings, but that the incense was applied most awful circumstances, the delivery of those ordinances to the fire in another manner than God had ordained. which it was death to break, and for breaking which they They ground this opinion chiefly on the fact that Moses had died. This made their presumption or neglect the calls it simply 'fire' as put into the censers, and does not more criminal. We may safely claim for the conduct of call it'strange fire' till after the incense has been intro their afflicted father on this occasion as large a measure of duced. It has also been asked where these unhappy men praise as writers have liberally given to instances of regot the fire, if it was not from the altar? The Targum of signation to calamity, similar, but certainly not more con

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spicuous. Indeed, from the instances quoted, it would seem course, can only apply to the secondary priests, and it seems as if the ancient heathen expected priests and others, when doubtful how far it applies even to them. It is, however, engaged in sacrifices, to remain unmoved by any intelli. | certain that the priests wore the common dress on ordinary gence concerning their private calamities. They relate occasions; and that they were not forbidden to rend it, is that Minos heard of the death of his son while occupied in rendered probable from the fact that the high-priest Caiaa sacrifice; but although he took off his crown, and com- phas rent his clothes when he heard the alleged blasphemy manded the music to cease, he continued the sacrifice he of Jesus Christ. This, however, was not an act of mourn. bad commenced. Xenophon, while offering a sacrifice, į ing, which only it seems the intention of the text to forbid. heard that his eldest son had been killed in the battle of We do not suppose that the priests were allowed to rend Mantinea; upon this he put off his mitre until he should the sacred vestments on any occasion; but whether they learn how his son had died, and when he knew that he might not exhibit an act of mourning, when not engaged had died bravely and victorious, he replaced it on his head, I in their official duties, it is difficult to determine. Rending and continued the sacrifice. Many similar illustrations the clothes was a common and very ancient mode of exmight be adduced ; but we have the rather selected these, pressing grief, indignation, or concern, and as such is freas they also contribute to illustrate the direction in 1, 6: quently mentioned in the Scriptures. The earliest instances • Uncover not your heads.'

are those of Reuben on finding the pit empty in which he 6. · Uncover not your heads.'—Some explain this in re had expected to discover Joseph ; and of Jacob, who also ference to the hair, which the Israelites were sometimes rent his clothes when be heard of Joseph's death. It is accustomed to shave in times of mourning. But we concur said that the upper garment only was rent for a brother, with the Septuagint, and the great majority of commentators, 1 sister, son, daughter, or wife, but all the garments for a in believing that the mitre or turban was intended. This father or mother. Maimonides says that the rents were was also worn by the priests while officiating. The heathen not stitched up again till after thirty days, and were never priests and sacrificers also had their heads covered; and sewed up well. There is no law which enjoins the Jews as we gather from the instances in the preceding note, that to rend their clothes; yet in general they so far think it it was among them a mark of affliction for such a person requisite to comply with this old custom as to make a slight to take off the covering of the head, we may infer that this rent for the sake of form. was forbidden to the Hebrew priests as a well-known and 9. · Do not drink wine nor strong drink.' - Setting aside common act of priestly mourning.

the detailed explanations of the Rabbins, this seems to mean - Neither rend your clothes.'-Calmet, in his Com- | that the priests were not to drink wine, or any other inementaire Littéral, thinks that this command is restricted briating liquor, on the days of their ministration, antil after to the sacerdotal vestments of the priests; and it is certainly their service in the tabernacle for the current day had terpossible that the interdiction of the outward indication of minated. A regulation like this was in force among the mourning was limited to the time in which the priests Egyptian priests. The Carthaginians (and probably their were engaged in their official duties and wore their cere ancestors the Phænicians) had a similar law for their mamodial habits. At other times they dressed like the rest gistrates, who, during their year of office, and the judges of their countrymen ; and the Talmud says, that a priest and governors, while in actual employment, were not was only accounted a priest while he wore the sacred vest. allowed so much as to taste wine. Strong drinks' ments, and that beyond the precincts of the temple (or undoubtedly include all intoxicating drinks other than tabernacle) he was considered only as a layman. This, of wine.


. 7 And the swine, though he divide the

hoof, and be clovenfooted, yet he cheweth not | What beasts may, 4 and what may not be eaten. | the cud : he is unclean to you.

9 What fishes. 13 What fouls. 29 The creeping things which are unclean.

8 Of their flesh shall ye not eat, and their

carcase shall ye not touch ; they are unclean ANĐ the LORD spake unto Moses and to to you. Aaron, saying unto them,

9 These shall ye eat of all that are in 2 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, the waters : whatsoever hath fins and scales *These are the beasts which ye shall eat among in the waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, all the beasts that are on the earth.

them shall ye eat. 3 Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is 10 And all that have not fins and scales in clovenfooted, and cheweth the cud, among the seas, and in the rivers, of all that move in the beasts, that shall ye eat.

the waters, and of any living thing which is 4. Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of, in the waters, they shall be an abomination | them that chew the cud, or of them that divide unto you: the hoof: as the camel, because he cheweth 11 They shall be even an abomination unto the cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is you ; ye shall not eat of their flesh, but ye unclean unto you.

shall have their carcases in abomination. 5 And the coney, because he cheweth the į 12 Whatsoever hath no fins nor scales in cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean the waters, that shall be an abomination unto you. unto you.

13 | And these are they which ye shall have 6 And the hare, because he cheweth the in abomination among the fowls; they shall not cud, but divideth not the hoof; he is unclean be eaten, they are an abomination : the eagle, unto you.

and the ossifrage, and the ospray, I Deut. 14. 4. Acta 10.14.

2 2 Vac. 6. 8.


9 20 All fowbomination unteat of every which

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14 And the vulture, and the kite after his | any work is done, it must be put into water,

and it shall be unclean until the even ; so it 15 Every raven after his kind;

shall be cleansed. 16 And the owl, and the night bawk, and 33 And every carthen vessel, whereinto any the cuckow, and the hawk after his kind, of them falleth, whatsoever is in it shall be

17 And the little owl, and the cormorant, unclean; and 'ye shall break it. and the great owl,

34 Of all meat which may be eaten, that 18 And the swan, and the pelican, and the on which such water cometh shall be unclean : gier eagle,

and all drink that may be drunk in every such 19 And the stork, the heron after her kind, vessel shall be unclean. and the lapwing, and the bat.

35 And every thing whereupon any part of 20 All fowls that creep, going upon all four, their carcase falleth shall be unclean; whether

it be oven, or ranges for pots, they shall be 21 Yet these may ye eat of every flying broken down: for they are unclean, and shall creeping thing that goeth upon all four, which be unclean unto you. have legs above their feet, to leap withal upon 36 Nevertheless a fountain or pit, 'wherein the earth;

there is plenty of water, shall be clean: but 22 Even these of them ye may eat; the that which toucheth their carcase shall be locust after his kind, and the bald locust after unclean. his kind, and the beetle after his kind, and the 37 And if any part of their carcase fall grasshopper after his kind.

upon any sowing seed which is to be sown, 23 But all other flying creeping things, it shall be clean. which have four feet, shall be an abomination 38 But if any water be put upon the seed, unto you.

and any part of their carcase fall thereon, it 24° And for these ye shall be unclean :) shall be unclean unto you. whosoever toucheth the carcase of them shall 39 And if any beast, of which ye may eat, be unclean until the even.

die; he that toucheth the carcase thereof shall 25 And whosoever beareth ought of the be unclean until the even. carcase of them shall wash his clothes, and be 40 And he that eateth of the carcase of it unclean until the even.

shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until 26 The carcases of every beast which divideth the even : he also that beareth the carcase of the hoof, and is not clovenfooted, nor cheweth it shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the cud, are unclean unto you: every one that the even. toucheth them shall be unclean.

41 And every creeping thing that creepeth 27 And whatsoever goeth upon his paws, upon the earth shall be an abomination ; it among all manner of beasts that go on all four, shall not be eaten. those are unclean unto you: whoso toucheth 42 Whatsoever goeth upon the belly, and their carcase shall be unclean until the whatsoever gocth upon all four, or whatsoever even.

‘hath more feet among all creeping things that 28 And he that beareth the carcase of them creep upon the earth, them ye shall not eat; shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the for they are an abomination. even: they are unclean unto you.

43 Ye shall not make your "selves abo. 29 T These also shall be unclean unto you minable with any creeping thing that creepeth, among the creeping things that creep upon the neither shall ye make yourselves unclean with earth; the weasel, and the mouse, and the them, that ye should be defiled thereby. tortoise after his kind,

1 44 For I am the LORD your God: ye shall 30 And the ferret, and the chameleon, and therefore sanctify yourselves, and 'ye shall be the lizard, and the snail, and the mole. holy; for I am holy: neither shall ye defile

31 These are unclean to you among all that yourselves with any manner of creeping thing creep: whosoever doth touch them, when they | that creepeth upon the earth. be dead, shall be unclean until the even. 45 For I am the Lord that bringeth you

32 And upon whatşoever any of them, when up out of the land of Egypt, to be your God : they are dead, doth fall, it shall be unclean ; ye shall therefore be holy, for I am holy whether it be any vessel of wood, or raiment, or 46 This is the law of the beasts, and of the skin, or sack, whatsoever vessel it be, wherein fowl, and of every living creature that moveth e Heba gathering together of raters.

-- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- - -- ----

* Chop. 6. 28.

5 IIeb, doth multiply feet. 1 let. 1. 15.

e Ileb, sour's.

7 Chap. 19. 2, and 10. i.

in the waters, and of every creature that clean and the clean, and between the beast creepeth upon the earth :

that may be eaten and the beast that may 47 To make a difference between the un- | not be eaten.

Verse 2. These are the beasts which ye shall eat.'—The to the Arabs, they were nearly related to the Israelites, and principal design of the dietetical regulations embodied in their practices were less corrupt than those of the Egyptians this chapter, as well as of many other of the laws of Moses, and Canaanites, whence the difference of food is not so was to oblige the Israelites to continue, as far as possible, strongly marked; but still it was quite enough to hinder a distinct people in Palestine, without spreading into other the intimacy of the two nations. The camel not only concountries, or having much intercourse with their inha stitutes the principal wealth of the Arabs, but its fiesh is a bitants. This object explains many directions which other principal animal food; besides which they eat the hare, and wise it would be difficult to understand. And the ulterior the jerboa-all these are forbidden in this chapter, the last intention of this doubtless was to prevent them from being under the name of mouse.' If even at this distance of time infected by that idolatry into which all the neighbouring we can discover such differences between the diet of the nations were plunged, as well as to preserve them from the Hebrews and that of their neighbours, we may easily condegrading vices to which the idolatrrs of Palestine were ceive that a more intimate acquaintance with the diet of eminently addicted, as we learn not only from the Scrip the latter would exhibit more important and numerous tures, but from the authority of the classical writers. Now, distinctions. in attaining this object, a distinction of meats must be felt Those which we have stated are doubtless the principal to have been of the highest importance. •Intimate friend. reasons for the minute distinctions of food enforced in this ships,' says Michaelis, are in most cases formed at table; chapter, as indeed seems to be expressly intimated in re. and with the man with whom I can neither eat nor drink, 43-45. But there is every probability that dietetical consi. let our intercourse in business be what it may, I shall sel derations also had their due weight, although we are not dom become so familiar as with him whose guest I am, and to consider such considerations as influencing all the prohe mine. "If we have, besides, from education, an abhor hibitions relative to unclean beasts. Such considerations rence of the food which others eat, this forms a new ob are sufficiently obvious, however, in some of the interdicstacle to closer intimacy. The truth of this observation tions, such, for instance, as that of pork, in v. 7 (see the must be obvious to every person acquainted with the East, note thereon): and we feel satisfied that a minute investiwhere, on account of the natives regarding as unclean gation would show that the nutriment afforded by the flesh many articles of food and modes of preparation in which of many of the interdicted animals is less wholesome and Europeans indulge, travellers or residents find it impossible tends more to the production of scrofulous and scorbutic to associate intimately with conscientious Mohammedans disorders, than that of any included in the list of permitted or Hindoos. Nothing more effectual could be devised to food. To this some have added moral reasons for the laws keep one people distinct from another. It causes the dif in question, ascribing to the eating of certain animals a ference between them to be ever present to the mind, specific influence on the moral temperament. That such touching, as it does, upon so many points of social and an influence may to some degree and in certain forms be every day contact; and it is therefore far more efficient in exhibited, need not be denied; but it will still remain its results, as a rule of distinction, than any difference in doubtful whether such influence of particular kinds of food doctrine, worship, or morals, which men could entertain. can ever be of so much importance, as alone to furnish a While the writer of this note was in Asia, he had almost reason for legislative interference. daily occasion to be convinced of the incalculable efficacy 3. · Whatsoever parteth the hoof,' etc.--Here we have a of such distinctions in keeping men apart from strangers. specific allusion to that order of the mammalia which are A Mohammedan, for instance, might be kind, liberal, in called the Ruminantia, as embracing all those animals that dulgent; but the recurrence of a meal, or of any eating, chew the cud, and have the foot divided into two principal threw him back upon his own distinctive practices and toes, whereof the nails are developed in an extraordinary habits, reminding him that you were an unclean person manner, and form what is commonly known by the name from your habits of indulgence in foods and drinks for of a hoof. Their stomach is divided into four distinct sacs bidden to him, and that his own purity was endangered by or portions, and they subsist entirely upon vegetables ; communication with you. Your own perception of this hence they are in a peculiar manner suited for the purpose feeling in him, is not to you less painful and more dis recommended both by prescription and use. All beasts couraging to intercourse, than its existence is to him who that had neither, or wanted one, of the distinguishing entertains it. It is a mutual repulsion continually ope marks in question, are declared unclean. The reader will rating; and its effect may be estimated from the fact, that not fail to observe that the beautifully simple and scientific no nation, in which a distinction of meats was rigidly en division of quadrupeds here stated on Divine authority at forced as a part of a religious system, has ever changed its so early a period, is one which has never yet, after all the religion. Oriental legislators have been generally aware improvements in natural history, become obsolete; bat, on of the effect of such regulations; and hence through most the contrary, is one which the greatest masters of the parts of Asia we find a religious distinction of meats in science have continued to consider useful. very active operation, and so arranged as to prevent social 4. The camel, because he chewcth the cud, but dirideth intercourse with people of a different faith. In the chapter not the hoof'-Michaelis justly remarks, that in the case of before us it is not difficult to discover that the Israelites, certain quadrupeds a doubt may arise, whether they do in attending to its injunctious, must have been precluded fully divide the hoof, or ruminate. In such cases,' he from social intercourse with any of their neighbours. As says, 'to prevent difficulties, a legislator must authoritato the Egyptians, they had themselves a system of national tively decide ; by which I do not mean that he should laws on this point, which restrained them from intercourse prescribe to naturalists what their belief should be, bat with strangers. They could not eat with the Israelites only to determine, for the sake of expounders or judges of even in the time of Jacob, Some of the animals which the the law, what animals are to be regarded as ruminating, or Israelites were allowed to eat were never slaughtered by parting the hoof.' This doubt arises in the case of the the Egyptians, being sacred to some god; while, on the camel, which does ruminate, and does in some sort divide other hand, the Israelites were interdicted some animals the hoof-that is, the foot is divided into two toes, which are which the Egyptians ate freely. Then as to the Canaanites very distinctly marked above, but underneath the division or Phæniciaus, they seem to have eaten not only those is limited to the anterior portion of the foot, the toes being meats prohibited by Moses, which we usually eat; but also cushioned upon and confined by the elastic pad upon which others, of which the flesh of dogs was one." With regard | the camel goes. This peculiar conformation of the foot

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