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hiin, even that soul shall be cut off from his breast, it shall he bring, that the breast people.

may be waved for a wave offering before the 21. Moreover the soul that shall touch any | Lord. unclean thing, as the uncleanness of man, or 31 And the priest shall burn the fat upon any unclean beast, or any abominable unclean the altar: but the breast shall be Aaron's and thing, and eat of the flesh of the sacrifice of his sons'. peace offerings, which pertain unto the LORD, 32 And the right shoulder shall ye give even that soul shall be cut off from his unto the priest for an heave offering of the people.

sacrifices of your peace offerings. 22 | And the Lord spake unto Moses, 33 He among the sons of Aaron, that saying,

offereth the blood of the peace offerings, and 23 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, the fat, shall have the right shoulder for his * Ye shall eat no manner of fat, of ox, or of part. sheep, or of goat.

34 For the wave breast and the heave 24 And the fat of the 'beast that dieth of shoulder have I taken of the children of Israel itself, and the fat of that which is torn with from off the sacrifices of their peace offerings, beasts, may be used in any other use : but ye and have given them unto Aaron the priest shall in no wise eat of it.

and unto his sons by a statute for ever from 25 For whosoever eateth the fat of the among the children of Israel. beast, of which men offer an offering made by 35 1 This is the portion of the anointing of fire unto the LORD, even the soul that eateth Aaron, and of the anointing of his sons, out it shall be cut off from his people.

of the offerings of the Lord made by fire, in 26 ‘Moreover ye shall eat no manner of the day when he presented them to minister blood, whether it be of fowl or of beast, in any | unto the Lord in the priest's office;

36 Which the LORD commanded to be 27 Whatsoever soul it be that eateth any given them of the children of Israel, in the manner of blood, even that soul shall be cut day that he anointed them, by a statute for off from his people.

ever throughout their generations. 28 | And the Lord spake unto Moses, | 37 This is the law of the burnt offering, saying,

of the meat offering, and of the sin offering, 29 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, and of the trespass offering, and of the conHe that offereth the sacrifice of his peace secrations, and of the sacrifice of the peace offerings unto the LORD shall bring his obla offerings; tion unto the LORD of the sacrifice of his | 38 Which the LORD commanded Moses in peace offerings.

mount Sinai, in the day that he commanded 30 His own hands shall bring the offerings the children of Israel to offer their oblations of the LORD made by fire, the fat with the unto the Lord, in the wilderness of Sinai.

3 Chap. 3. 17. Heb.carcase. 5 Gen. 9. 4. Chap. 3. 17, and 17. 14. Exod. 29. 24.

of your diether it be out shall eat no

olay that the of the childrecommanded

Verses 15-17. · Eaten the same day that it was offered.' - | diction of all fat, but only of such properly fat pieces as were We here see that the flesh of some sacrifices was to be eaten offered on the altar in certain sacrifices, and which, in conon the day of offering; in some cases, however, what re sequence of that appropriation, became too sacred for commained might be eaten on the next day, but nothing was mon food, even in animals that had not been sacrificed. to be kept for use till the third day-whatever then re The parts of which this law interdicted the use were : the mained was to be consumed by fire. As the people of the fat with which the intestines are covered, that is, the East generally eat their meat the same day on which it is omentum or caul; all the fat upon the intestines (mesenkilled, and almost never later than the second day, we are teriuni); the fat of the kidneys; and the fat tail of a partiinclined to concur in the view of Harmer (Observations, cular species of sheep. It is even uncertain whether these i. 457), that this regulation was intended to preclude any parts were allowed for other purposes than food : for in attempt to preserve the meat, by potting or otherwise, so v. 24, the fat of beasts that died of themselves, or were that it might be taken to different parts of the country, and torn by wild beasts, is allowed for such other purposes; used superstitiously, perhaps, as peculiarly holy food, or and the omission of a similar allowance for cattle that died applied in some way inconsistent with the intention of the under the knife, seems to imply that none was made. Inlaw. That intention was, that what became the offerer's dependently of their consecration to the altar, it is not share of the sacrifice he had presented, he should eat cheer difficult to discover other reasons which may have operated fully before the Lord with his friends, and that the poor in causing this remarkable interdiction of employing those and destitute should partake in the benefit. This object parts of animals which are of so much use to us for culiwas ensured by the regulation which precluded the meat nary and other purposes. In the opinion of Michaelis, it from being kept beyond the second day.

was one of the great objects of some of the laws of Moses 23. Ye shall cat no manner of fat,' etc.- This is a very to change the character of the Israelites from that of a remarkable law; but it is not to be understood as an inter nomade and pastoral, to that of a settled agricultural

people. Accordingly, there are a number of regulations, encouragement and excitement to them. The fat of the the combined operation of which rendered such a change | large tail of the Eastern sheep is reckoned a luxurious almost compulsory. The present is one of those which delicacy; but I am told, by one who has eaten of it, that it tended to wean them from that entire dependence upon is not wholesome.' Geddes himself adds : "To this I can their flocks, which is usual among nomade people; and to bear personal testimony: one ounce of fat, taken at any introduce new wants, which only agriculture could supply. time, would go near to kill me: and I am convinced that The present law, in particular, appears to be one of several, most of bilious and many other bodily disorders are owing which seem directed to oblige them to the cultivation of the to the use of fat meats.' Besides this, the eating of the fat excellent olives of Palestine, the country which they were pieces in question, and the use of fat in the preparation of destined to occupy. Being here debarred the employment food, is highly injurious to persons particularly subject to of such fat, and being apparently, on the other hand, cutaneous disorders, as the Israelites are thought to have precluded the use of butter (see note on Deut. xiv. 21), no been. To this we may add, that, as it was an object of resource remained for them but to cultivate and employ | many laws to discourage any friendly intercourse between its oil, which in fact they did to a great extent, after they the Israelites and the idolatrous nations, nothing could be were settled in the Promised Land. Whether this view be better calculated than the present and other dietetic regucorrect or not, the tendency of such a law to prevent their , lations to prevent them from joining in the festivities and falling back on nomade habits, can hardly be questioned. It social entertainments of their heathen neighbours. was adapted to their condition in Palestine: but since their 38. Oblations.'— The word d' 72 korbanim, is a ge* dispersion they have felt the interdiction of fat and (as they

neral name for all sorts of offerings or oblations to God. understand) of butter, in cooking, as one of the peculiar evils of their state, and have been driven so to expound

The root of the word is in the verb 27 karab, to approach their law as to allow themselves the use of goose fat as a or bring near; and the term therefore denotes any thing substitute.

brought nigh' to be offered or dedicated to the Lord, to There are, however, other reasons which may also have whom also the offerer himself was, as it were, brought nigh, had sonie effect in inducing this prohibition. Geddes, who having access in the way appointed by the law. The comregards it as a medicinal precept, quotes the MS. note of prehensive term is thus very appropriately introduced bere, Mr. Street, who says, truly: Bilious disorders are very at the conclusion of the account of the different offerings frequent in hot countries; the eating of fat meat is a great and sacrifices.


did he put the golden plate, the holy crown ;

as the LORD 'commanded Moses. 1 Moses consecrateth Aaron and his sons. 14 Their sin offering. 18 Their burnt offering. 22 The ram

10 And Moses took the anointing oil, and of consecration. 31 The place and time of their | anointed the tabernacle and all that was consecration.

therein, and sanctified them. And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, 11 And he sprinkled thereof upon the altar

2 Take Aaron and his sons with him, and seven times, and anointed the altar and all his 'the garments, and 'the anointing oil, and a vessels, both the laver and his foot, to sanctify bullock for the sin offering, and two rams, | them. and a basket of unleavened bread;

12 And he 'poured of the anointing vil 3 And gather thou all the congregation upon Aaron's head, and anointed him, to together unto the door of the tabernacle of sanctify him. the congregation.

13 And Moses brought Aaron's sons, and 4 And Moses did as the Lord commanded put coats upon them, and girded them with him ; and the assembly was gathered together girdles, and "put bonnets upon them ; as the unto the door of the tabernacle of the congre LORD commanded Moses. gation.

14 9 And he brought the bullock for the 5 And Moses said unto the congregation, sin offering: and Aaron and his sons laid *This is the thing which the LORD commanded their hands upon the head of the bullock for to be done.

the sin offering. 6 And Moses brought Aaron and his sons, 15 And he slew it; and Moses took the and washed them with water.

blood, and put it upon the horns of the alter 7 And he put upon him the coat, and girded round about with his finger, and purified the him with the girdle, and clothed him with the altar, and poured the blood at the bottom of robe, and put the ephod upon him, and he the altar, and sanctified it, to make recongirded him with the curious girdle of the

im with the curious girdle of the I ciliation upon it. ephod, and bound it unto him therewith.

16 And lie took all the fat that was upon 8 And he put the breastplate upon him : | the inwards, and the caul above the liver, and also he put in the breastplate the Urim and the two kidneys, and their fat, and Moses the Thummim.

burned it upon the altar. 9 And he put the mitre upon his head ; 17 But the bullock, and his hide, his also upon the mitre, even upon his forefront, I flesh, and his dung, he burnt with fire with1 Exod. 28. 2. 4. 2 Exod. 30. 24. Exod. 29. 4. • Exod. 28. 30. 5 Exod. 28. 37, &c. Peal. 133. 2. Ecclus. 15. 15.

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out the camp; as the LORD 'commanded and upon his sons' hands, and waved them for Moses.

a wave offering before the LORD. 18 | And he brought the ram for the 28 And Moses took them from off their burnt offering : and Aaron and his sons laid hands, and burnt them on the altar upon the their hands upon the head of the ram.

burnt offering: they were consecrations for a 19 And he killed it; and Moses sprinkled sweet savour : it is an offering made by fire the blood upon the altar round about.

unto the LORD. 20 And he cut the ram into pieces; and 29 And Moses took the breast, and waved Moses burnt the head, and the pieces, and the it for a wave offering before the LORD: for of fat.

the ram of consecration it was Moses' 1 part; 21 And he washed the inwards and the as the LORD commanded Moses. legs in water; and Moses burnt the whole 30 And Moses took of the anointing oil, ram upon the altar : it was a burnt sacrifice and of the blood which was upon the altar, for a sweet savour, and an offering made by and sprinkled it upon Aaron, and upon his fire unto the LORD; as the LORD commanded garments, and upon his sons, and upon his Moses.

sons' garments with him ; and sanctified Aaron, 22 | And ''he brought the other ram, the and his garments, and his sons, and his sons' ram of consecration : and Aaron and his garments with him. sons laid their hands upon the head of the 31 | And Moses said unto Aaron and to ram.

his sons, Boil the flesh at the door of the taber23 And he slew it; and Moses took of the nacle of the congregation : and there eat it blood of it, and put it upon the tip of Aaron's with the bread that is in the basket of conseright ear, and upon the thumb of his right crations, as I commanded, saying, Aaron and hand, and upon the great toe of his right his sons shall eat it.

32 And that which remaineth of the flesh 24 And he brought Aaron's sons, and and of the bread shall ye burn with fire. Moses put of the blood upon the tip of their | 33 And ye shall not go out of the door of right ear, and upon the thumbs of their right the tabernacle of the congregation in seven hands, and upon the great toes of their right days, until the days of your consecration be at feet: and Moses sprinkled the blood upon the an end: for 'seven days shall he consecrate you. altar round about.

34 As he hath done this day, so the LORD 25 And he took the fat, and the rump, and hath commanded to do, to make an atonement all the fat that was upon the inwards, and the for you. caul above the liver, and the two kidneys, and 35 Therefore shall ye abide at the door of their fat, and the right shoulder :

the tabernacle of the congregation day and 26 And out of the basket of unleavened night seven days, and keep the charge of the bread, that was before the LORD, he took one LORD, that ye die not: for so I am comunleavened cake, and a cake of oiled bread, manded. and one wafer, and put them on the fat, and | 36 So Aaron and his sons did all things upon the right shoulder :


which the LORD commanded by the hand of 27 And he put all "upon Aaron's hands, Moses.. 9 Exod. 29. 14. 10 Exod. 29. 31. 11 Esod. 29. 24, 8c 12 Exod. 29. 26. 18 Exod, 29, 32. 14 Exod. 29. 35.

Verse 6. ' Washed them with water.'-Here the cere- entering a church. The Roman Catholic church retains monies of consecration commence with ablutions, and we something of the practice of ablution before, and sometimes have seen that the priests were required to bathe their after, mass; and Calmet says that the holy-water vessels at hands and feet whenever they entered the tabernacle. This the entrance of the churches are in imitation of the laver doubtless was, not merely to ensure physical cleanness, but of the tabernacle. The Oriental Christians have also their also to symbolize that spiritual purity with which man solemn washings on particular occasions, such as Good should appear before God. The present washing is, how | Friday. The practice of ablution was adopted by Moever, distinguished from the daily ablution, inasmuch as hammed in a very full sense; for his followers are not the whole person seems now to have been washed, but only only obliged to perform their ablutions before they enter a the bands and feet on common occasions. The idea of the mosque, but before they commence their prayers, wherever fitness of such a practice is so obvious, that it has been offered, which they are required to repeat five times each more or less in use in most religious systems. We find, at day. This is certainly the most burdensome system of the heathen temples, lavers of a similar use to this at the ablution which ever existed in ancient or modern times. tabernacle. The Egyptian priests washed themselves with The Hindoos also rejoice in the purifying virtues of their cold water twice every day, and twice at night; the Greeks idolized Ganges; and wash also in other waters, because had their sprinklings, the Romans their Iustrations and they believe that such will be equally effectual, if, whilst lavations; the ancient Christians practised ablution before they bathe, they say, "O Ganges, purify me! In fact, receiving the sacrament, and also bathed their eyes on , nothing is, or has been, more common than ablutions in

thie worship which different nations render to their gods; to have symbolized the effusion of the gifts and graces and there are few acts connected with their service which which they were presumed to receive from heaven tu are not begun or ended with some rite symbolical of puri | qualify them for distinguished offices. Hence this sacred fication. In the religion of classical antiquity, the priest anointing seems to have been considered as investing with was obliged to prepare himself by ablution for offering | a peculiar sanctity the person on whom it had been consacrifice; for which purpose there was usually water at the ferred. We see this in the reverence with which the entrance of the temple. In very ancient times the priests Lord's anointed' is on all occasions mentioned in Scripture. seem to have previously bathed themselves in some river The persons set apart to their offices by anointing, among or stream. But such ablutions were only necessary in sa the Hebrews, were the priests, kings, prophets; but there crifices to the celestial gods, sprinkling being sufficient for is some doubt about the latter, to which we shall have the terrestrial and infernal deitics. (See Banier's Mythology occasion to advert, as well as to the unction of the kings. of the Ancients, i, 271.)

The precious oil seems to have been more profusely exWe may here observe, that, from the obligation of the pended on Aaron than in any other application. We learn priests to wash their feet before entering the tabernacle, from Ps. cxxxiii. 2, that being poured on his head, it ran and for other reasons, it has been inferred that they offi down on his beard and to the collar of his coat (the robe ciated with bare feet. It is also observed that, in the enu of the ephod)—not to the skirts of his garments, as there meration of the articles of the priestly dress, sandals are translated. The Jewish writers have many fancies about not mentioned, neither does Josephus in his account speak the mode in which the oil was applied, into which we need of them. It is true that Plutarch represents the Hebrew | not enter. If the high-priest was, as some state, fully robed priest as officiating with buskins; but his authority is of | before anointed, the mitre might have been taken off for the least possible weight on such a subject. We believe, that ceremony : but others think that the tiara was not put ourselves, that the priests did officiate barefoot; although on till after the anointing, our conviction does not proceed from the reasons thus 23. · Moses took of the blood of it, and put it upon the stated, but rather from the knowledge that it was in very tip of Aaron's right ear, and upon the thumb of his right ancient times, as at present, a common mark of respect in hand, and upon the great toe of his right foot.: - Banier, in the East to uncover the feet. (See note to Exod. ii. 5.) | his work on the Mythology of the Ancients, gives, after Even classical heathenism affords instances of this usage. Prudentius, a remarkable instance of the personal applica• Adore and sacrifice with naked feet,' was a maxim of tion of the victim's blood in the ceremonies of consecration. Pythagoras, which he probably brought, with the rest of He calls it a sort of baptism of blood,' which was thought his philosophy, from the East. The temple of Diana at to convey a spiritual regeneration. It occurs in the TauroCrete might not be entered with covered feet; the Roman bolium, a sacrifice which was offered to Cybele at the couladies were obliged to be barefoot in the temple of Vesta ; secration of her high-priest, but not wholly confined to that and the suppliants went barefoot to the temple of Jupiter occasion, and which had rites and ceremonies different when they prayed for rain. The Mohammedans, and the from all other sacrifices. In order to consecrate the highAsiatic and Abyssinian Christians, invariably take off their priest, a great hole was made, into which he entered, shoes before they enter a place of worship, as do the dressed in an unusual manner, wearing a crown of gold, Brahmins of India when they enter their temples. As to and with a toga of silk tucked up after the Sabine fashion, the Jews themselves, it is impossible to say, unless by in Above the whole was a sort of floor, the boards of which, ference, how they proceeded in the tabernacle; but it seems not being closely joined, left certain chinks, besides which fair to conclude that they did the same as afterwards in the several holes were bored in the boards themselves. Then Temple, and that they there officiated barefoot is shewn by they led up to the place a bull (sometimes a ram or goat) the concurrent testimony of various writers. Maimonides crowned with garlands, bearing on his shoulders fillets says that none were allowed to enter the Temple with shoes, covered with flowers, and having his forehead gilt. Its or with unclean feet, or with a staff, or in the dress in which throat was cut over the hole, so that the blood fell upon they worked at their respective callings. The Talmud is the floor, which, being perforated, allowed it to pass positive on the same subject, saying that no priest or layman through in a shower upon the priest, who received it might enter with shoes; but as this regulation, in conjunc eagerly upon his body and clothes. Not content with this, tion with their way of life and the thinness of their official he held back his head to receive it on his cheeks, ears, lips, dress, was injurious to the health of the priests, there was and nostrils; he even opened his mouth to moisten his a small apartment or closet, called the stove' or 'fire-room,' tongue with it, and some he swallowed. When all the which had a heated floor, on which they might occasionally blood was drained, the victim was removed, and the highwarm their feet. (See Saurin's Dissertations, xliv. and liv.; priest came out. The horrible appearance which he preCalmet's Commentaire Littéral on Exod. iii. 5, and xxx. sented may well be conceived, but he was received with

congratulation; and the people, not daring to approach his 12. Poured of the anointing oil upon Aaron's head.' person, adored him at a distance, regarding him now as a From comparing this verse with v. 30, it is thought that man quite pure and sanctified.--They who thus received Aaron alone was anointed on the head, his sons being the blood of the Taurobole wore their stained clothes as merely sprinkled; or, as we should understand that Aaron long as possible, as a sensible evidence of their regeneration. was sprinkled in common with his sons, but that the anoint Might it not be to prevent such a practice as this last, that ing or pouring out of oil upon his head was an addition in the sin offering, if any of the victim's blood was sprinkled peculiar to him. The custom of setting persons apart for upon a garment, that garment was directed to be carefully particularly dignified or holy offices, by anointing, seems washed in the holy place ? Ch. vi. 27. to have originated in the East, and in most cases appears

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Moses called Aaron and his sons, and the 1 The first offerings of Aaron for himself and the

elders of Israel ; people. 8 The sin offering, 12 and the burnt offer. 1 2 And he said unto Aaron, "Take thee a ing for himself. 15 The offerings for the people. young calf for a sin offering, and a ram for a 23 Moses and Aaron bless the people. 24 Fire

| burnt offering, without blemish, and offer them cometh from the Lord upon the altar.

before the LORD. And it came to pass on the eighth day, that ! 3 And unto the children of Israel thou

1 Exod. 29, 1.




shalt speak, saying, Take ye a kid of the unto him, with the pieces thereof, and the goats for a sin offering; and a calf and a head : and he burnt them upon the altar. lamb, both of the first year, without blemish, 14 And he did wash the inwards and the for a burnt offering;

legs, and burnt them upon the burnt offering 4 Also a bullock and a ram for peace offer on the altar. | ings, to sacrifice before the LORD ; and a meat 15 9 And he brought the people's offering, | offering mingled with oil: for to day the LORD and took the goat, which was the sin offering will appear unto you.

for the people, and slew it, and offered it for 5 And they brought that which Moses sin, as the first. commanded before the tabernacle of the con 16 And he brought the burnt offering, and gregation : and all the congregation drew near offered it according to the 'manner. and stood before the LORD.

17 And he brought the meat offering, and 6 And Moses said, This is the thing which took an handful thereof, and burnt it upon the the LORD commanded that ye should do: and altar, beside the burnt sacrifice of the morning. the glory of the LORD shall appear unto 18 He slew also the bullock and the ram you.

for a sacrifice of peace offerings, which was for 7 And Moses said unto Aaron, Go unto the the people: and Aaron's sons presented unto altar, and offer thy sin offering, and thy burnt him the blood, which he sprinkled upon the offering, and make an atonement for thyself, | altar round about, and for the people : and offer the offering of 19 And the fat of the bullock and of the the people, and make an atonement for them; ram, the rump, and that which covereth the as the LORD commanded.

inwards, and the kidneys, and the caul above 8 9 Aaron therefore went unto the altar, the liver: and slew the calf of the sin offering, which was 20 And they put the fat upon the breasts, for himself.

and he burnt the fat upon the altar : 9 And the sons of Aaron brought the blood 21 And the breasts and the right shoulder unto him : and he dipped his finger in the Aaron waved for a wave offering before the blood, and put it upon the horns of the altar, | LORD; as Moses commanded. and poured out the blood at the bottom of the 22 And Aaron lifted up his hand toward altar:

the people, and blessed them, and came down 10 But the fat, and the kidneys, and the from offering of the sin offering, and the burnt caul above the liver of the sin offering, he offering, and peace offerings. burnt upon the altar; as the LORD commanded 23 4 And Moses and Aaron went into the Moses.

tabernacle of the congregation, and came out, 11 And the flesh and the hide he burnt with and blessed the people : and the glory of the fire without the camp.

LORD appeared unto all the people. 12 And he slew the burnt offering; and 24 And 'there care a fire out from before Aaron's sons presented unto him the blood, the LORD, and consumed upon the altar the which he sprinkled round about upon the burnt offering and the fat : which when all altar. .

the people saw, they shouted, and fell on their 13 And they presented the burnt offering faces. 2 Or, ordinance. Heb. filled his hand out of it. Exod. 29. 38. 3 Gen. 4. 4. 1 Kings 18.38. 2 Chron. 7. 1. 2 Mac. 2, 10, 11.

Verse 24. - There came a fire out from before the LORD There is, of course, no instance of this kind that will bear and consumed upon the altar the burnt offering.'--Connect examination as a matter of fact; but the poetical and other this with ch. vi. 13, The fire shall ever be burning upon allusions to it evince the existence of the feeling, and of the the altar; it shall never go out.'--From this it would ap- | traditions on which it was based. pear that the fire upon the brazen altar was in the first Nothing is more likely than that Zoroaster, the ancient instance miraculously kindled, and that the fire thus ori reformer of the Persian religion, had the instance before ginating was to be continually kept up. The consumption us in view, in some of his pretences and regulations. It is of the sacrifice by miraculous fire is not peculiar to the well known that the ancient Persians were worshippers of present instance : it frequently occurs in the sacred nar fire; us are, to this day, their descendants in India. This rative as a token of the Divine favour and acceptance (see they were before the time of Zoroaster, but not, apparently, the references from this verse); but it is only in this in on the same grounds on which his doctrine placed that stance that there is any direction about such fires being worship. We need not here inquire into the principles of continually kept up. Some tradition of these facts, or at that worship, as we only mention it in order to state that, least of the patriarchal instances, seems to have existed to connect the greater sanctity with the fire which should among the ancient heathen, among whom we find that the burn and be reverenced upon their altars, he professed to consumption of the sacrifice by supernatural fire was re | furnish them with fire from heaven. But this was not by garded as a circumstance denoting acceptance and favour. 1 an open and sensible miracle like the one before us. Like

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