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monies are too distinctly detailed to reqnire recapitulation. The sacrifices under this law differed from the burnt offerings in not being wholly consumed on the altar, and from the peace offerings in no part being returned to the party by whom the sacrifice was offered. The adaptation of the offerings to the circumstances of the offerer, is here again brought under our notice in a very pointed manner. The sin offering for the high priest, and that for the congregation at large, was to be a calf, and, as if to mark the greater heinousness of offence in such parties, after the fat had been offered on the altar, the remainder was taken away to be burnt without the camp, in the place where the ashes from the altar were deposited. But when a ruler sinned, the offering was to be a ram ; while a private person might offer a sheep, a she-goat, two turtle doves, or even an ephah of meal, according to his circumstances. Thus the act of satisfaction was made as easy as possible to the poor, so that scarcely any one could be deterred by poverty when his conscience prompted him to the confession of a secret sin. In all the sin offerings, except those for the high-priest and for the congregation, what remained, after the proper portion had been offered on the altar, was not taken out to be burnt outside the camp, but became the portion of the priests.

4. · He shall bring the bullock.'The form in which the sacrifice for sin was made is here fully detailed. On comparing this account with that of the burnt offering, there appear few other differences than those which have been specified in the preceding note. The only one of importance is, that the blood, instead of being sprinkled only upon the altar of burnt offering, was taken into the holy place and sprinkled seven times before the vail, some of it being also put upon the horns of the incense altar; what

remained was then brought back and poured out at the foot of the brazen altar. The reader may perhaps be interested in comparing both accounts with the description which Herodotus gives of the Egyptian sacrifices - The animal selected for the purpose being conducted to the altar, the fire was kindled thereon. After this, a libation of wine was poured upon the altar, and the god to whom it was dedicated was solemnly invoked. The animal was then killed, after which the head was cut off and the carcass flayed. Thus much seems to be a general statement; but Herodotus himself vbserves, that there was a considerable difference in the ceremonies of burning the victims. What follows refers to the ox sacrificed at the great festival in honour of Isis. After the animal had been killed, flayed, and beheaded, the intestines were taken out, but the fat and the paunch were left. They then cut off the legs, shoulders, neck, and the extremities of the loins; but the trunk was stuffed with bread, honey (prohibited in the Hebrew offerings) raisins, figs, frankincense, myrrh, and various aromatics. After this the victim was burnt, a large quantity of oil being poured upon the flames. While the victim was burning, the spectators flagellated themselves, and afterwards feasted on the reserved parts of the victim, having fasted previously to the sacrifice. It is unnecessary to point out the details of analogy or difference between this and the Hebrew sacrifices; but it will be observed, that several of the articles which belonged to the meat offering, burnt with the Hebrew sacrifices, are comprehended in the stuffing burnt with the Egyptian victim, but that salt is wanting. It seems, also, that the Egyptian sacrifice was not quartered, like that of the Israelites.


sinned, a female from the flock, a lamb or a 1 He that sinneth in concealing his knowledge, 2 in

kid of the goats, for a sin offering; and the touching an unclean thing, 4 or in making an oath.

priest shall make an atonement for him con6 His trespass offering, of the flock, 7 of fowls, 11 or cerning his sin. of flour. 14 The trespass offering in sacrilege, 17 7 † And if 'he be not able to bring a lamb, and in sins of ignorance.

then he shall bring for his trespass, which he And if a soul sin, and hear the voice of swear hath committed, two turtledoves, or two young ing, and is a witness, whether he hath seen or pigeons, unto the LORD ; one for a sin offering, known of it; if he do not utter it, then he and the other for a burnt offering. shall bear his iniquity.

8 And he shall bring them unto the priest, 2 Or if a soul touch any unclean thing, who shall offer that which is for the sin offerwhether it be a carcase of an unclean beast, or ing first, and 'wring off his head from his neck, a carcase of unclean cattle, or the carcase of but shall not divide it asunder: unclean creeping things, and if it be hidden 9 And he shall sprinkle of the blood of the from him ; he also shall be unclean, and guilty. sin offering upon the side of the altar; and

3 Or if he touch the uncleanness of man, the rest of the blood shall be wrung out at the whatsoever uncleanness it be that a man shall bottom of the altar: it is a sin offering. be defiled withal, and it be hid from him ; 10 And he shall offer the second for a when he knoweth of it, then he shall be guilty. burnt offering, according to the ‘manner: and

4 Or if a soul swear, pronouncing with his the priest shall make an atonement for him lips to do evil, or to do good, whatsoever it be for his sin which he hath sinned, and it shall that a man shall pronounce with an oath, and be forgiven him. it be hid from him ; when he knoweth of it, 11 But if he be not able to bring two then he shall be guilty in one of these. turtledoves, or two young pigeons, then he

5 And it shall be, when he shall be guilty that sinned shall bring for his offering the in one of these things, that he shall confess tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a sin that he hath sinned in that thing :

offering ; he shall put no oil upon it, neither 6 And he shall bring his trespass offering shall he put any frankincense thereon : for it unto the Lord for his sin which he hath ) is a sin offering.

1 Heb. his hand cannot reach to the sufficiency of a lamb. Chap. 1. 15. 304

30r, ordinance.

he bring it toul of it, "eftar, add its and the with the

12 Then shall he bring it to the priest, and | 16 And he shall make amends for the harm the priest shall take his handful of it, even a that he hath done in the holy thing, and shall memorial thereof, and burn it on the altar, add the fifth part thereto, and give it unto the

according to the offerings made by fire unto priest : and the priest shall make an atonethe LORD : it is a sin offering.

ment for him with the ram of the trespass 13 And the priest shall make an atone offering, and it shall be forgiven him. ment for him as touching his sin that he hath 17 And if a 'soul sin, and commit any sinned in one of these, and it shall be forgiven of these things which are forbidden to be done him: and the remnant shall be the priest's, as by the commandments of the Lord; though a mcat offering

he wist it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear 14 | And the LORD spake unto Moses, his iniquity. saying,

18 And he shall bring a ram without blem15. If a soul commit a trespass, and sin , ish out of the flock, with thy estimation, for a through ignorance, in the holy things of the trespass offering, unto the priest : and the Lond; then he shall bring for his trespass priest shall make an atonement for him conunto the Lord a ram without blemish out of cerning his ignorance wherein he erred and the flocks, with thy estimation by shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for a 19 It is a trespass offering: he hath certrespass offering :

tainly trespassed against the LORD. • Chap. 2. 2. 5 Chap. 4. 35, 6 Chap. 1. 2.

Versc 1. The voice of swearing,' literally, the voice of 1 piate its non-fulfilment by an offering; and it was, at the an oath.'--It is to be observed that the sin offering for same time, the best possible means of weaning the people perjury was not allowed when a man testified falsely from rash oaths, because the man who had become addicted against an innocent person ; for then he was subject to the to that unbecoming practice, would find himself too frepunishment in which the innocent man would have been quently obliged, either to keep his oaths, how great soever involved if convicted (Deut. xix. 19). It was only per the inconvenience, or else to make offerings for their atonemitted when a witness omitted to testify what he knew ment.' Commentaries, iv. 111. against a guilty person, or in any other respect concealed what he ought to have made known. Geddes and others

6. "Trespass offering.'- In the note on ch. iy. 3, the diffi. translate the words of an adjuration, and agree with

culty of distinguishing the classes of offences for which the Delgado, who says; the meaning is, that when evidence

sin offerings and the trespass offerings were respectively was wanted, the judge ordered proclamation to be made

made, has been pointed out. The occasions on which the for any one who knew any thing on the subject to come

offerings were made are much the same, and the ceremonies forward and declare it in court. To such proclamation a

exhibit little difference. Indeed, we sometimes have the curse was commonly added against any man who should

same offerings called interchangeably • sin offerings' and neglect or refuse to give evidence.' The offence in view

'trespass offerings, as in the very passage before us, v. in the present instance therefore, is, that the man had in

6-9, where the offence is indifferently called a “sin, and a curred this curse by neglecting to appear as a witness.

trespass,' and the offering a 'trespass offering' and a “sin Perhaps it is as well to bear in mind, that, as the witnesses

offering. Nevertheless a close inspection will discover

some differences between the two. Sin offerings were in the Hebrew courts of judicature were sworn, not di.

sometimes offered for the whole congregation; trespass rectly, but adjured, as it were, by hearing an oath read, the voice of swearing' was the reading of this oath,

offerings never but for particular persons. Bullocks were What was said after this was upon oath ; and, as Michaelis

sometimes used for sin offerings, never for trespass offer

ings. The blood of the sin offering was put upon the obserres, this testimony upon oath, and the making it per

horns of the altar; that of the trespass offering was only jury in a witness to conceal what was known to him, must have had a powerful effect in eliciting the truth, as a de

sprinkled around the bottom of the altar. Some have linquent could scarcely feel offended with even a friend of

concluded that the difference between the sin offerings and his own, who, when thus circumstanced as a witness,

the trespass offerings lay only in these circumstances: should declare the whole truth.

but others conceive that there nust have been some 4. 'If a soul swear,' etc.- This is an interesting law on

greater difference between them, which was the reason of the subject of rash oaths. If a man made such an oath

their being offered with these differing circumstances. and had not kept it, he was guilty, and had to atone for his

Yet what that difference was, has rather been variously offence by a sin offering—for his inconsideration, if it was

conjectured by many interpreters, than strongly asserted an oath to do evil; and for his neglect, if it was an oath

or clearly established by any. to do good. *This served very effectually,' says Michaelis, 15. "Sin through ignorance, in the holy things of the

to maintain the honour of oaths, inasmuch as every oath, Lord.'— This is understood to apply to the case of a person however inconsiderate, or unlawful, or impossible, was who had incurred a debt to the sanctuary, by withholding considered so far obligatory, that it was necessary to ex- ! the prescribed dues of first fruits, tithes, etc.

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it; and he shall burn thereon the fat of the 1 The trespass offering for sins done witlingly. 8 The peace offerings. law of the burnt offering, 14 and of the meat offering.

13 The fire shall ever be burning upon the 19 The offering at the consecration of a priest. 24 altar; it shall never go out. The law of the sin offering.

14 T And this is the law of the meat And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, offering: the sons of Aaron shall offer it be

2 If a soul sin, and commit a trespass fore the LORD, before the altar. against the Lord, and lie unto his neighbour 15 And he shall take of it his handful, of in that which was delivered him to keep, or in the flour of the meat offering, and of the oil 'fellowship’, or in a thing taken away by vio thereof, and all the frankincense which is lence, or hath deceived his neighbour; upon the meat offering, and shall burn it upon

3 Or have found that which was lost, and the altar for a sweet savour, even the 'melieth concerning it, and 'sweareth falsely; in morial of it, unto the LORD. any of all these that a man doeth, sinning 16 And the remainder thereof shall Aaron therein:

and his sons eat: with unleavened bread shall 4 Then it shall be, because he hath sinned, it be eaten in the holy place; in the court of and is guilty, that he shall restore that which the tabernacle of the congregation they shall he took violently away, or the thing which he | eat it. hath deceitfully gotten, or that which was de | 17 It shall not be baken with leaven. I livered him to keep, or the lost thing which have given it unto them for their portion of he found,

my offerings made by fire ; it is most holy, 5 Or all that about which he hath sworn | as is the sin offering, and as the trespass falsely; he shall even “restore it in the prin offering. cipal, and shall add the fifth part more thereto, 18 All the males among the children of and give it unto him to whom it appertaineth, Aaron shall eat of it. It shall be a statute *in the day of his trespass offering.

for ever in your generations concerning the 6 And he shall bring his trespass offering offerings of the LORD made by fire: every unto the LORD, a ram without blemish out of one that toucheth them shall be holy. the "flock, with thy estimation, for a trespass 19 And the LORD spake unto Moses, offering, unto the priest:

saying, 7 And the priest shall make an atonement 1 20 This is the offering of Aaron and of his for him before the LORD: and it shall be sons, which they shall offer unto the LORD in forgiven him for any thing of all that he hath the day when lie is anointed; the tenth part done in trespassing therein.

of an "ephah of fine flour for a meat offering 8. And the LORD spake unto Moses, perpetual, half of it in the morning, and half saying,

thereof at night. 9 Command Aaron and his sons, saying, 21 In a pan it shall be made with oil; and This is the law of the burnt offering : It is when it is baken, thou shalt bring it in: and the burnt offering, because of the burning | the baken pieces of the meat offering shalt upon the altar all night unto the morning, thou offer for a sweet savour unto the LORD. and the fire of the altar shall be burning 22 And the priest of his sons that is anointed in it.

in his stead shall offer it: it is a statute for 10 And the priest shall put on his linen ever unto the LORD; it shall be wholly burnt. garment, and his linen breeches shall he put 23 For every meat offering for the priest upon his flesh, and take up the ashes which shall be wholly burnt : it shall not be the fire hath consumed with the burnt offering eaten. on the altar, and he shall put them beside the 24 T And the LORD spake unto Moses, altar.

saying, 11 And he shall put off his garments, and 25 Speak unto Aaron and to his sons, sayput on other garments, and carry forth the ing, This is the law of the sin offering: In the ashes without the camp unto a clean place. I place where the burnt offering is killed shall

12 And the fire upon the altar shall be the sin offering be killed before the LORD : it burning in it; it shall not be put out: and is most holy. the priest shall burn wood on it every morn- 26 The priest that offereth it for sin shall ing, and lay the burnt offering in order upon eat it: in the holy place shall it be eaten, in

i Or, in dealing. 2 Heb. putting of the hand. 3 Num. 5. 6. 4 Chap. 5. 16. 5 Or, in the day of his being found guilty. 6 Heb. in the day of his trespass. 7 Chap. 5. 15. 8 Or, for the burning. Chap. 2. 1. Num. 15. 4. 10 Chap. 2. 3.

11 Exod. 29. 37.

12 Exod. 16. 36.

the court of the tabernacle of the congre- , in a brasen pot, it shall be both scoured, and gation.

rinsed in water. 27 Whatsoever shall touch the flesh thereof 29 All the males among the priests shall shall be holy: and when there is sprinkled of eat thereof: it is most holy. the blood thereof upon any garment, thou 30 “And no sin offering, whereof any of shalt wash that whereon it was sprinkled in the blood is brought into the tabernacle of the the holy place.

congregation to reconcile withal in the holy 28 But the earthen vessel wherein it is place, shall be eaten: it shall be burnt in the sodden 'shall be broken: and if it be sodden | fire.

18 Chap. 11. 33. 14 Heb. 13. 11.

Verse 2. If a soul sin .... and lie unto his neighbour | concealing it under ground, or in strange places, or even in that which was delivered him to keep.' – The law on this to build it up in the thick walls of their houses. To the subject is stated more at large in Exod. xxii. 7-15. From latter practice there are frequent allusions in Scripture; the present text we learn, in addition, incidentally, that | and some further notice of it will be found in the note tó when a person denied that he had received a deposit, and Matt. xiii. 34. no proof of his having done so could be adduced, he was In the Code of Gentoo Laws, as translated by Halhed, obliged to take an oath to that effect : but if he swore the fourth chapter, Of Trust and Deposite,' and the folfalsely, and afterwards repented of having done so, the sin lowing, Of Selling a Stranger's Property, -contain, in offering and restitution to the injured party afforded him part, some valuable and striking analogies to the Mosaic an opportunity of atonement, without incurring the extent law. The principles are nearly identical: indeed, the of punishment to which he would have been liable had the Gentoo Law looks like a commentary on, or rather an excrime been judicially proved. The law is too distinctly panded application of, the sacred text. The principle of ancounced in Exod. xxii. to require enlarged remark; restitution, of punishment by fine, of purgation by oath, but as an important distinction concerning a deposited is the same in both. A few statements from this imporbeast injured, or stolen from the person with whom it was tant document may help to illustrate the application of the deposited, is liable to escape notice, as stated in verses common principles. "The Gentoo law enjoins caution in 9-11 of that chapter, we may observe, that if the animal the selection of a trustee, and also in undertaking a trust. were stolen, or met with an accident, when out at pasture, It then says, “If a person should make use of any property the depositary was allowed to clear himself by oath, and intrusted to him, or it be spoiled for want of his care and then the owner had no claim upon him ; but if it were attention, then, whatever crime it is for a woman to abuse stolen from his own premises, he was obliged to make resti. her husband, or for a man to murder his friend, the same tution. This was obviously on the consideration of its being degree of guilt shall be imputed to him, and the value of more difficult to steal a beast than any thing else from a the trust must be made good. If property be stolen, burnt, house: and that as the trustee might have had the profit or otherwise lost or destroyed, the trustee must make the arising from the use of it, so he ought to bear the loss arising whole good in case he conceals any portion that may have from his neglect in looking after it, or from accident been saved. If a trustee does not give up, on the first which is of more rare occurrence, and often difficult to demand, the property intrusted to him, he is to be fined by distinguish from neglect (see Michaelis, ii. 375). The im the magistrate : he must not, however, deliver it up to any portance of distinct regulations on the subject of deposited one but the owner--not even to his son without an order property has been strongly felt by all oriental legislators; from the father; but if the owner dies without resuming and it proceeds from the fact that there were not at any time, his deposit, the trustee rust deliver it up to the heir, withand are not now, any of those responsible banking establish out waiting for an application. If a person delivers his ments which in modern Europe afford such important property marked and sealed to the trustee, it must be refacilities for the application, transfer, and security of pro turned with the same mark and seal; but if it is not so, perty. Hence, when a man is apprehensive of oppression the trustee shall be put to his oath concerning any alteraor robbery, or, from another cause, wishes to secure his tion which may have taken place. Further information property, he has no other alternative than either to hide it may be found in the work to which we have referred; and in some place of concealment, or to put it in the hands of the whole subject is well worth the attention of those who some irresponsible person, in whom he thinks he has cause desire to acquaint themselves with the peculiarities of to rely. So also, if a man wishes to leave his place of Oriental legislation, as contributing to the illustration of residence for a time, he must either adopt one of these the Scriptures. courses, or else, perhaps at a great sacrifice, turn his pro 9. The law of the burnt offering.'-This is the daily perty into money or jewels, and take it with him, exposing | burnt offering or perpetual sacrifice, consisting of two it to all the dangers of the road; which, in the East, are lambs offered upon the altar of burnt offering, one in the very imminent and great. Much risk attends all these morning, and the other in the evening. That of the courses. For individuals to prove unfaithful to their morning was offered about sunrise, after the incense was trust, as to property deposited with them, is so very com burnt upon the golden altar, and before any other sacrifice. mon a circumstance, that a large proportion of the tales That of the evening was offered in the decline of day, with which the oriental story-tellers amuse or move their before the night began. They were both wholly conauditors, in coffee-houses and elsewhere, as well as of those sumed on the altar, after the same manner as the free-will which are written in books, turn upon the contrivances to burnt offering, but by a slow fire, that they might continue which the owner of property is obliged to resort in order | the longer burning. With each of the victims was offered to recover it from the person to whom it has been in a bread offering, and a drink offering of strong wine (see trusted. Men who would have remained honest under the Num. xxviii. 5-7), the latter being poured out before the ordinary circumstances of life, are too often drawn aside Lord, or about the altar, as a libation. The Jewish writers from rectitude by the temptations of valuable property consider that the morning sacrifice made atonement for the committed to their trust. Continual experience of this sins of the preceding night, and that of the evening for the sort has had a very unhappy effect upon the moral feelings sins of the past day. It may be regarded as a daily exof Orientals. Men fear to confide in each other: and, in pression of national as well as individual repentance, the case of property which persons desire to secure, they prayer, and thanksgiving. often prefer the hazards attending the other alternative of 28. 'Earthen vessel .. .. brasen pot.'— This is a very re

markable instruction. We all know that earthen vessels other vessel, is said in all the Scripture to be of iron. are broken, and others thoroughly scoured, when supposed What is translated iron pan,' in Ezek. iv. 3, is properly to be defileri, among the Mohammedans and Hindoos, as an iron plate,' as the context alone sufficiently indicates. they were also among the Jews. But the present instance In point of fact, the culinary and other domestic vessels is of a different character. The earthen vessel was to be | throughout the East remain to this day, as we find them broken, and the copper one scoured and rinsed, not because thus early in the Mosaic history, either of copper, earthenthey were defiled, but because the flesh of the sin offering ware, or wood (ch. xi. 33; xv. 12), although, no doubt, having been cooked in them, they had thus become too the quality and manufacture have much improved. The sacred for common use. We shall elsewhere have occasion present writer, in the course of journies and residence in to remark on instances in which earthen utensils were different parts of Western Asia, does not think that he broken, and others scoured in consequence of defilement. ever met with an instance of a cooking vessel of any other At present we only direct attention to the fact, that at this metal than copper: and dishes and bowls of the same time the culinary vessels of the Hebrews seem to have been metal, tinned, are those which most usually make their exclusively of earthenware or copper. Iron, though known appearance on the tables of kings and great men. When to them, was at this time very little in use for any purpose, luxury desires something more rich and costly for the and even when they became better acquainted with that table than copper, it finds indulgence, not in silver and valuable metal it is doubtful if their culinary or other gold, but in china and fine earthenware. vessels were ever made of it. At least, no pot, pan, or |


11 And this is the law of the sacrifice of 1 The law of the trespass offering, 11 and of the peace

| peace offerings, which he shall offer unto the offerings, 12 whether it be for a thanksgiving, 16 or | LORD.

| LORD. ä vow, or a freewill offering. 22 The fat, 26 and | 12 If he offer it for a thanksgiving, then the blood, are forbidden. 28 The priest's portion in he shall offer with the sacrifice of thanksgiving the peace offerings.

unleavened cakes mingled with oil, and unLIKEWISE this is the law of the trespass offer- leavened wafers anointed with oil, and cakes ing: it is most holy.

| mingled with oil, of fine flour, fried. 2 In the place where they kill the burnt | 13 Besides the cakes, he shall offer for his offering shall they kill the trespass offering : offering leavened bread with the sacrifice of and the blood thereof shall he sprinkle round thanksgiving of his peace offerings. about upon the altar.

14 And of it he shall offer one out of the 3 And he shall offer of it all the fat there- | whole oblation for an heave offering unto the of; the rump, and the fat that covereth the LORD, and it shall be the priest's that sprinkleth inwards,

the blood of the peace offerings. 4 And the two kidneys, and the fat that is 15 And the flesh of the sacrifice of his peace on them, which is by the flanks, and the caul offerings for thanksgiving shall be eaten the that is above the liver, with the kidneys, it same day that it is offered ; he shall not leave shall he take away:

any of it until the morning. 5 And the priest shall burn them upon the 16 But if the sacrifice of his offering be a altar for an offering made by fire unto the vow, or a voluntary offering, it shall be eaten LORD : it is a trespass offering.

the same day that he offereth his sacrifice : 6 Every male among the priests shall cat and on the morrow also the remainder of it thereof: it shall be eaten in the holy place : shall be 'eaten : it is most holy.

17 But the remainder of the flesh of the I 7 As the sin offering is, so is the trespass sacrifice on the third day shall be burnt with

offering : there is one law for them : the fire. į priest that maketlı atonement therewith shall 18 And if any of the flesh of the sacrifice have it.

of his peace offerings be eaten at all on the 8 And the priest that offereth any man's third day, it shall not be accepted, neither burnt offering, even the priest shall have to shall it be imputed unto him that offereth it: . himself the skin of the burnt offering which it shall be an abomination, and the soul that he hath offered.

eateth of it shall bear his iniquity. 9 And all the meat offering that is baken 19 And the flesh that toucheth any unclean ! in the oven, and all that is dressed in the thing shall not be eaten; it shall be burnt with fryingpan, and 'in the pan, shall be the fire: and as for the flesh, all that be clean shall priest's that offereth it.

eat thereof. 10 And every meat offering, mingled with 20 But the soul that eateth of the flesh of oil, and dry, shall all the sous of Aaron have, i the sacrifice of peace offerings, that pertain one as much as another.

| unto the LORD, 'having his uncleanness uponi

| Or, on the fiat pliute, or, slice. 2 Chap. 15. 8.

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