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Verse 1. • Meat offering.'-This, the second in the enu small part was consumed on the altar, and the rest be meration of legal offerings, forms the subject of the pre longed to the priest. sent chapter. The original word is indo minchah, from
4. • Oven.'—The ovens of a people continually on the the root ng manach,' to give' or · bestow; and hence pro- move, could have little resemblance to our own; and we perly a gift' or offering. Instances of the use of the can only discover what they probably were, by a reference word in the general sense, so as to include even slain ani to existing usages in the East. The trade of a baker is mals (as in Gen. iv. 3-5) do occur ; but its ordinary and only carried on in large towns; people bake their own legal use in the books of the law is to distinguish a blood bread daily in villages and encampments, and to a very less offering from a bloody sacrifice. The common ren considerable extent in towns also. It is evident, theredering of the term in the Authorized Version by. meat fore, that when individual families bake every day as much offering' is incorrect according to the modern acceptation bread only as is required for that day, recollecting at the of the word ' meat,' which is now applied exclusively to same time that fuel is in general scarce, it is necessary that flesh. But it was correct at the time the translation was the oven should be small, and consuming but little fuel. made, when meať had the same general meaning as These requisites are fully met in the common family ovens * food,'—which use of the word is still, indeed, preserved of Western Asia. That which may be considered the among uneducated people in the remoter provinces, who most general is a circular pit in the earthen floor, usually still call animal food flesh,' and food generally meat,' between four and five feet deep, and about three feet in and who look upon the practice of applying the word diameter. This pit is well plastered within ; and the * meat exclusively to · flesh,' as a fine affectation, charac dough, which is in large oval or round cakes—not thicker teristic of gentry and Londoners. In Wilson's Christian than pancakes, which in appearance they very much reDictionary, published in 1622, and therefore coeval with semble when done-is dexterously stuck against the sides the authorized translation meat’is defined as,. something of the pit, which has been previously heated, and has the prepared to eat for bodily nourishment.' It is worth while glowing embers still at the bottom. This cake is not to note this, as the word meat is repeatedly used in this turned; and, from its thinness, is completely done in two general sense in the translations of both the Old and New or three minutes. Its moisture being then absorbed, it Testament.
would fall from the sides of the oven into the fire, were it From the nature of the offering, and from the general
not removed in proper time. This bread is usually flexsentiment attached to it, it would seem to have been pri
ible and soft, and may be rolled up like paper; but if sufmarily intended as a grateful acknowledgment of the
fered to remain long enough, it becomes hard and crisp on bounty and beneficence of God, as manifested in those gifts
the side which has been in contact with the oven ; but it of his providence to which we owe our daily bread. It
is seldom suffered to attain this state, although we, who hence had a propitiatory reference, the idea of which seems
have lived for above two years on this sort of bread, to have been derived from the eastern custom of bringing
thought it far preferable in this form. It is to be observed, presents, however humble, to a great person of whom a
that this pit is not exclusively an oven; but, particularly in favour is asked, or whose good will one desires to cultivate.
Persia, is often the only fireplace for general purposes,
which is to be found in cottages, and even in some decent Hence the addition of the meat offering to the burnt offering; the propitiation of the meat offering being necessa
houses. Whether this was the oven' of the Hebrews in rily added to the expiation of the burnt offering in order
the desert, it is difficult to determine. It is formed with to complete the atonement. The idea of the meat offering
little expense or labour; but is more generally found in is propitiatory every where except in Lev. v. 11, where
towns and villages than among the nomade tribes of the
desert. The other things resembling ovens, act more or an expiatory signification is attached to it-because the offering there described is that of a poor man, who could
less upon the same principle as this. They are of various not afford an animal sacrifice, and to which, therefore, in
kinds; but they may generally be described as strong un. merciful accommodation to his poverty, the ideas belong
glazed earthen vessels, which being heated by an internal ing to the costlier sacrifice were transferred.
fire, the bread is baked by being stuck against the sides,
in the manner already noticed. Either the interior or The meat offerings were either attended by drink offer
outer surface is used for this purpose, according to the ings, or they were offered alone. 1. The meat offerings
construction of the vessel, and the description of bread reattended with drink offerings were, fine flour, salt, and
quired. The common bread is sometimes baked on the oil, made either into thin cakes or thin wafers, and baked
outside of the heated vessel; and thus also is baked a kind either in a pan or oven. The accompanying drink offer
of large crisp biscuit, as thin as a wafer, which is made by ing was of wine, which was poured out as a libation at the
the application of a soft paste to the heated surface, which base of the altar. These offerings went along with all the
bakes it in an instant. Of this description, no doubt, is burnt offerings except of birds, obviously because the birds
the wafer-bread which we find mentioned in verse 4 and being offered only by poor persons, they were excused
elsewhere. The ovens of this sort with which the writer from the obligation of adding a meat offering. They also
is most familiar are nearly three feet high, and about accompanied the peace offerings (Num. xv. 3), but not the
fifteen inches in diameter at the top, which is open. It sin offerings, except that which was offered at the cleans
gradually widens to the bottom, where there is a hole for ing of a leper (Lev. xiv. 10). 2. The meat offerings
the convenience of withdrawing the ashes. When the inalone, which were not offered along with animal sacrifices,
side is exclusively used for baking, the outside is usually were either public or private. The public were the wave
coated with clay, the better to concentrate the heat. We sheaf (Lev. xxiii 10,11), and the twelves cakes of the
have seen them used under various circumstances. Even shew-bread (Lev. xxiv. 5); the private were either en
the vessels navigating the Tigris are usually furnished joined by the law, as that of the priest at his consecration
with one of them, for baking the daily supply of bread; (Lev. vi. 20), and that which the jealous husband was to
and they are sometimes built to the deck for standing use. offer (Num. v. 15), or, as already mentioned, they were
The Arab sailors have them also in their vessels on the allowed in case of poverty, in lieu of a more costly sacri
Red Sea, and elsewhere. Sometimes a large water-vessel, fice. The meat offerings were all of wheaten flour, sea
with the bottom knocked out, is made to serve as a substisoned with salt, except that of the jealous husband, which
tute, and goes by the same name. This name (tenûr) is, was of barley meal, without any mixture; and excepting the wave sheaf, which was not ground into flour. Some
as nearly as possible, the original Hebrew word 737 were mixed with oil or frankincense, or both; some were tannur, translated oven' in the text. Ovens, somewhat offered unbaked, others baked ; some were eaten by the similar, are frequently used in houses in the place of the priests, without bringing them to the altar at all, as the hole in the floor already mentioned, especially in aparte leavened cakes and the shew-bread; some were wholly ments which have not the ground for their floor. They consumed on the altar, as was every meat offering for a are then not only used for cooking and baking bread, but priest (Lev. vi, 23), but in most of them, a memorial or for warming the apartment. The top is then covered
with a board, and over this a large cloth or counterpane is mingling with oil, mentioned in verses 4 and 7, better spread, and the people sit around, covering their legs and than by supposing that the paste was tempered with oil laps with the counterpane. So also the pit in the floor, before being baked. Using oil with bread continues to be when not in use for cooking or baking bread, is, in winter, a very common practice in the East; and the Bedouin covered over, and warms the apartment, in much the same Arabs, and generally other Orientals, are fond of dishes manner. It remains to add, that bread is sometimes baked composed of broken bread, steeped not only in oil, butter, on an iron plate placed over the opening at the top of the and milk, but also in preparations of honey, syrups, and oven. That the ovens of the Israelites in the desert were vegetable juices. Oil only is allowed in the meat offer. something on the principle of these earthen ovens, there is ings,' honey being expressly interdicted in verse 11; and not much reason to question; and it is equally probable this shews that the use of honey with bread was even thus that those ovens which are mentioned after their settlement | early common among the Israelites. in Palestine were one of the two, or both of the modifi.
7. • Baken in the frying-pan.'—There is in use among cations of the same principle which we have described as being ordinarily exhibited in the houses of Western Asia.
the Bedouins and others a shallow earthen vessel, some
what resembling a frying-pan, and which is used both for These, of course, are not the only forms of baking bread. We mention them as they occur. One has been noticed in
frying, and for baking one sort of bread. Something of the remark on Gen. xviii. 6, and others occur in the notes
this sort is thought to be intended here. There is also
used in Western Asia a modification of this pan, resemto verses 5 and 7 of the present chapter. 5. • Baken in a pan.'- In the preceding note we have
bling the Eastern oven, which Jerome describes as a round mentioned a mode of baking bread on an iron plate laid on
vessel of copper, blackened on the outside by the sur. the top of the oven; but a more simple and primitive use
rounding fire, which heats it within. This might be of a baking plate is exemplified among the nomade tribes
either the oven' or the pan' of the present chapter. of Asia. We first witnessed the process at a small en
This pan-baking is common enough in England, where
the villagers bake large loaves under inverted round iron campment of Eelauts in the north of Persia. There was
pots, with embers and slow-burning fuel heaped upon a convex plate of iron (copper is often in use) placed hori.
them. But it is probable that the fire plate, which we zontally about nine inches from the ground, the edges being supported by stones. There was a slow fire under
have noticed under verse 5, is really intended here, and neath, and the large thin cakes were laid upon the upper
that the pan' there, is the · frying-pan' of the present text. or convex surface, and baked with the same effect as when
This seems to us very probable, as the name given by the stuck to the sides of an oven, but rather more slowly.
Bedouins to this utensil is tajen, which is nearly identical
with the name (anyávov) which the Septuagint gives to The thin wafer bread of soft paste can be baked by the same process, which is recommended to the wandering
the 'pan' in verse 5. It is useful to obtain this etymolotribes by the simplicity and portability of the apparatus.
gical identification of the Arabian tajen with one of the We believe that a flat plate is sometimes employed in this
• pans' of this chapter, but it is of little importance to de
termine which • pan' it is. Upon the whole, the oven, the way, though we do not recollect to have witnessed its use. Chardin thinks that this process was in use long before
pan, and the frying-pan of verses 4, 5, and 7, may, as it oveds of any kind were known; and he is probably right.
appears to us, be referred with much confidence to the clay Unleavened oatmeal cakes, baked on an iron plate called
oven, the metal plate, and the earthen vessel which we 'a girdle,' are still very general in Scotland, and also in
have noticed. the north of England.
11. • No leaven.'—There is an evident antithesis be6. • Purt it in pieces, and pour oil thereon.'—We here tween the interdiction of leaven and the commanded use see bread, after being baked, broken up again and mingled
of salt (verse 13) in every sacrifice and oblation. Leaven, with oil.' Was this an extraordinary and peculiar pre however useful,'is regarded, in its principle, as a species paration for the altar, or was it a preparation in com of putrefaction, since that which is leavened very soon mon use among the Hebrews? We incline to the latter spoils in the warm regions of the east, whereas unleavened opinion; as it seems to differ very little from a common bread may be kept any length of time. At the present and standard dish among the Bedouin Arabs. This is day, the cakes or bread offered in the ceremonies of the made of unleavened paste, baked in thin cakes, which are Hindoos are always unleavened, although leaven is emafterwards broken up, and thoroughly kneaded with but ployed in the bread used for domestic purposes. (Roberts's ter, adding sometimes honey, and sometimes milk, but Oriental Illustrations.) On the other hand, the wellgenerally employing butter alone for the purpose. This kuown preservative qualities of salt, rendered it symbosecond kneading brings it into the state in which it is eaten lical of incorruption and soundness; and therefore its with great satisfaction by the Arabs. The only difference adoption in the offerings was dictated by the same conbetween this and the preparation in the text, is the use of siderations, whether physical or figurative, which prebutter instead of oil; and in its not being said here that cluded the use of leaven. In other illustrations we shall the bread was kneaded anew, but only that it was broken have occasions to notice the place which salt occupies in up and mingled with oil. These points of difference are the estimation of some nations; and we may now observe, not very essential. The Bedouins, as a pastoral people, that so far from the use of salt here being, as some think, have no oil; but are very fond of it when it can be ob in opposition to pagan practices, it is certain that salt was tained: butter, therefore, as used by them, may be re used by the heathen at a very early period in their sacrigarded as a substitute for the oil of the text. And as to fices and oblations. Homer expressly mentions. sacred the want of a second kneading in the present case, it is by salt,' as strewed upon sacritices, and also speaks of offerings no means certain that such kneading did not take place, of salted cakes. In fact, salt occupies a conspicuous place even though it is not specified. Besides, the Bedouins in the heathen sacrifices both without and with blood. In do not always knead the broken bread again with butter, the latter, not only was a . salted cake,' mola salsa, put on but are content to soak or dip the broken morsels in melted the head of the victim, but salt, together with meal, was butter. It is probable that the present text explains the strewed on the victims, the fire, and the knives.
be a male or female, he shall offer it without 1 The peace offering of the herd, 6 of the flock, 7 either | blemish before the LORD. a lamb, 12 or a goat.
2 And he shall lay his hand upon the head And if his oblation be a sacrifice of peace of his offering, and kill it at the door of the offering, if he offer it of the herd; whether it | tabernacle of the congregation : and Aaron's
sons the priests shall sprinkle the blood upon 1 10 And the two kidneys, and the fat that the altar round about.
is upon them, which is by the flanks, and the 3 And he shall offer of the sacrifice of the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall peace offering an offering made by fire unto he take away. the LORD ; 'the 'fat that covereth the inwards, 11 And the priest shall burn it upon the and all the fat that is upon the inwards, altar : it is the food of the offering made by
4 And the two kidneys, and the fat that fire unto the LORD. is on them, which is by the flanks, and the 12 | And if his offering be a goat, then he 'caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall shall offer it before the LORD. he take away.
13 And he shall lay his hand upon the 5 And Aaron's sons shall burn it on the head of it, and kill it before the tabernacle of altar upon the burnt sacrifice, which is upon the congregation : and the sons of Aaron shall the wood that is on the fire : it is an offering sprinkle the blood thereof upon the altar round made by fire, of a sweet savour unto the Lord. about.
6 | And if his offering for a sacrifice of 14 And he shall offer thereof his offering, peace offering unto the Lord be of the flock; | even an offering made by fire unto the LORD; male or female, he shall offer it without blemish. the fat that covereth the inwards, and all the
7 If he offer a Jamb for his offering, then | fat that is upon the inwards, . shall he offer it before the LORD.
15 And the two kidneys, and the fat that 8 And he shall lay his hand upon the head is upon them, which is by the flanks, and the of his offering, and kill it before the tabernacle caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it of the congregation : and Aaron's sons shall | shall he take away. sprinkle the blood thereof round about upon L 16 And the priest shall burn them upon the altar.
the altar: it is the food of the offering made 9 And he shall offer of the sacrifice of the by fire for a sweet savour: *all the fat is the peace offering an offering made by fire unto | LORD's. the LORD; the fat thereof, and the whole 17 It shall be a perpetual statute for your rump, it shall he take off hard by the back | generations throughout all your dwellings, bone; and the fat that covereth the inwards, that ye eat neither fat nor 'blood. and all the fat that is upon the inwards, | Exod. 29.22. & Or, suet. Or, midrif over the liver, and over the kidneys. • Chap. 7. 25. 5 Gen. 9. 4. Chap. 7. 26, and 17. 14.
Verse 1. • A sacrifice of peace.'—The peace offerings' , tinctly understood what sheep and what tail is intended. to which this chapter relates, were, like the burnt offerings, (See the cut and note to Gen. iv. 2.) The direction indiand meat offerings, the voluntary offerings of the people. cates that the fat-tailed species were usually offered in They were either intended to testify thankfulness for bless sacrifice, if the flocks of the Hebrews were not wholly ings already received, in which view they are called | composed of them. This species is particularly abundant 'thank-offerings'in Coverdale's translation; or were else | in Syria and Palestine, equalling or outnumbering the votive, being offered with prayer for future blessings. No common Bedouin species. "Even the latter, although in doubt they were sometimes both in one. The offerings other respects inuch resembling the common English sheep, might be either of animals, or of four or dough. The is distinguished by a larger and thicker tail than any distinction between this and the burnt offerings' as to British species possesses. But the tail of the species peanimals, was that either males or females might be offered culiarly called fat tailed,' seems to exceed all reasonable in this, but only males in the other; and that, in this, the bounds, and has attracted the attention of all travellers whole was not consumed on the altar, as in the burnt of from the times of Herodotus to our own. These tails, or fering. Only the fat parts were so consumed. A small rather, tails loaded on each side with enormous masses of portion was appropriated to the priest, the rest being al fat, are often one-fourth the weight of the whole carcass lowed to the offerer and his guests as an offering feast, when divested of the head, intestines, and skin. The tails whence some translators prefer to translate D'p shela
seem to attain the largest size in the countries with which
the Hebrews were most conversant; for in countries more mim, by "feast sacrifice' rather than peace offering.'
eastward we never saw them quite so large as the largest The parts of either the animal or vegetable offerings that
of those described by Dr. Russell in his Natural History were appropriated to the priests and Levites were called
of Aleppo. He says that a common sheep of this sort, heave' or wave offerings;' because they were heaved without the head, feet, entrails and skin, weighs sixty or or lifted up towards heaven, and waved to and fro before
seventy pounds, of which the tail usually weighs fifteen or they were eaten, in acknowledgment of the goodness of
upwards; but he adds, that such as are of the largest God, and also in token of their being consecrated to him. breed and have been fattened with care, will sometimes
9. The whole rump, it shall he take off hard by the weigh 150 lbs., the tails being 50 lbs. These very large backbone.'-Dr. Geddes renders more distinctly :-* The sheep are kept in yards where they are in no danger of large fat tail entire, cut off close to the rump.' It might injuring their tails; but in some other places where they seem extraordinary that the tail of a sheep (only of feed in the fields, the shepherds sometimes affix a thin a sheep) should be pointed out with so much care piece of board to the under part of the tail, to prevent its as a suitable offering upon God's altar, were it not dis- / being torn by bushes and thickets, as it is not covered un.
derneath with thick wool like the upper part. Sometimes the board is furnished with small wheels, whence comes, with a little exaggeration, the story of the Oriental sheep being under the necessity of having carts to carry their tails. This is less an exaggeration with respect to the African variety, in which the tail is not turned up at the end as in the Syrian species, and therefore would actually trail on the ground, when fattened, without some such assistance. The mutton of these sheep is very good, and the fat of the
tail is the most grateful animal fat the present writer ever tasted. It is rich and marrowy, and is never eaten alone, but is mixed up in many dishes with lean meat, and is in various ways employed as a substitute for butter and oil. The standing oriental dish, boiled rice, is peculiarly palatable when lubricated with fat from the tail of this remarkable species of sheep. Viewed in its various applications, the tail is an article of great use and delicacy, and could be no unworthy offering.
his flesh, with his head, and with his legs, and 1 The sin offering of ignorance, 3 for the priest, 13 for his inwards, and his dung,
the congregation, 22 for the ruler, 27 for any of the 12 Even the whole bullock shall he carry people.
forth 'without the camp unto a clean place, And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, where the ashes are poured out, and burn
2 Speak unto the children of Israel, saying, him on the wood with fire: 'where the ashes If a soul shall sin through ignorance against are poured out shall he be burnt. any of the commandments of the LORD, con 13 | And if the whole congregation of cerning things which ought not to be done, and Israel sin through ignorance, and the thing shall do against any of them :
be hid from the eyes of the assembly, and 3 If the priest that is anointed do sin ac they have done somewhat against any of the cording to the sin of the people; then let him commandments of the LORD, concerning things bring for his sin, which he hath sinned, a which should not be done, and are guilty; young bullock without blemish unto the LORD 14 When the 'sin, which they have sinned for a sin offering.
against it, is known, then the congregation 4 And he shall bring the bullock unto the shall offer a young bullock for the sin, and door of the tabernacle of the congregation bring him before the tabernacle of the conbefore the LORD; and shall lay his hand upon gregation. the bullock's head, and kill the bullock before 15 And the elders of the congregation shall the LORD.
lay their hands upon the head of the bullock 5 And the priest that is anointed shall take before the LORD: and the bullock shall be of the bullock's blood, and bring it to the killed before the LORD. tabernacle of the congregation.
16 And the priest that is anointed shall 6 And the priest shall dip his finger in the bring of the bullock's blood to the tabernacle blood, and sprinkle of the blood seven times of the congregation. before the LORD, before the vail of the sanc- 17 And the priest shall dip his finger in tuary.
some of the blood, and sprinkle it seven times 7 And the priest shall put some of the blood before the LORD, even before the vail. upon the horns of the altar of sweet incense | 18 And he shall put some of the blood upon before the LORD, which is in the tabernacle of the horns of the altar which is before the the congregation; and shall pour 'all the LORD, that is in the tabernacle of the conblood of the bullock at the bottom of the altar gregation, and shall pour out all the blood of the burnt offering, which is at the door of at the bottom of the altar of the burnt offering, the tabernacle of the congregation.
which is at the door of the tabernacle of the 8 And he shall take off from it all the fat congregation. of the bullock for the sin offering; the fat that 19 And he shall take all his fat from him, covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is and burn it upon the altar. upon the inwards,
20 And he shall do with the bullock as he 9 And the two kidneys, and the fat that is did with the bullock for a sin offering, so shall upon them, which is by the flanks, and the he do with this : and the priest shall make an caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall atonement for them, and it shall be forgiven he take away,
them. 10 As it was taken off from the bullock of 21 And he shall carry forth the bullock the sacrifice of peace offerings : and the priest without the camp, and burn him as he burned shall burn them upon the altar of the burnt the first bullock : it is a sin offering for the offering.
congregation. 11 And the skin of the bullock, and all | 22 4 When a ruler hath sinned, and done 1 Chap. 5, 9. Exod. 29. 14. Num. 19. 5. 3 Heb. to without the camp. Heb. 13. 11. Heb. at the pouring out of the ashes.
8 Chap. 5. 2, 3, 4.
somewhat through ignorance against any of head of the sin offering, and slay the sin the commandments of the LORD his God, con- offering in the place of the burnt offering. cerning things which should not be done, and 1 30 And the priest shall take of the blood is guilty;
thereof with his finger, and put it upon the 23 Or if his sin, wherein he hath sinned, horns of the altar of burnt offering, and shall come to his knowledge; he shall bring his pour out all the blood thereof at the bottom of offering, a kid of the goats, a male without the altar. blemish:
31 And he shall take away all the fat 24 And he shall lay his hand upon the thereof, as the fat is taken away from off the head of the goat, and kill it in the place where sacrifice of peace offerings; and the priest they kill the burnt offering before the LORD: shall burn it upon the altar for a sweet sait is a sin offering.
vour unto the LORD; and the priest shall 25 And the priest shall take of the blood make an atonement for him, and it shall be of the sin offering with his finger, and put it forgiven him. upon the horns of the altar of burnt offering, 32 And if he bring a lamb for a sin offerand shall pour out his blood at the bottom of ing, he shall bring it a female without blemish. the altar of burnt offering.
33 And he shall lay his hand upon the head 26 And he shall burn all his fat upon the of the sin offering, and slay it for a sin offeraltar, as the fat of the sacrifice of peace offer ing in the place where they kill the burnt ings : and the priest shall make an atonement offering. for him as concerning his sin, and it shall be 34 And the priest shall take of the blood forgiven him.
of the sin offering with his finger, and put it 27 | And if ’any one of the common upon the horns of the altar of burnt offering, people sin through ignorance, while he doeth and shall pour out all the blood thereof at the somewhat against any of the commandments of bottom of the altar : the LORD, concerning things which ought not 35 And he shall take away all the fat to be done, and be guilty ;
thereof, as the fat of the lamb is taken away 28 Or if his sin, which he hath sinned, from the sacrifice of the peace offerings; and come to his knowledge: then he shall bring the priest shall burn them upon the altar, his offering, a kid of the goats, a female according to the offerings made by fire unto without blemish, for his sin which he hath the LORD: and the priest shall make an atonesinned.
ment for his sin that he hath committed, and 29 And he shall lay his hand upon the it shall be forgiven him.
7 Heb, any soul., & Heb. people of the land. Chap. 3. 14. 10 Exod. 29. 18.
Verse 3. Sin offering:-The latitude, as to the age and ledgment of his offence, the ordinary law operating in sex of the victim, which was allowed in the peace offerings, cases of detected guilt: and no offering was accepted in is here again restricted, as in the burnt offerings, but in a the case of those crimes in which the good of the commumore pecnliar manner. The sin and trespass offerings nity required that the legal punishment should be duly were those in consideration of which certain offences were inflicted. The offences to which the law of sin or trespass remitted, or punished with mitigated severity. These was applicable are very distinctly stated. The list includes offerings never accompanied the ordinary penalties of the all unintentional transgressions of the law, whether sins of law, being accepted in lieu of them. They effected, as commission or omission, as well as the wilful sins enumeSt. Paul observes (Heb. ix. 13, 14), not any real forgive rated in Lev, v. 1, 4, 14, 15; vi. 1–7; xix. 20-22. The ness of sin before God, but merely a civil cancelment and exact distinction between the transgression to which the deliverance from secular punishment. And yet, indeed, sin offerings and the trespass offerings respectively have these offerings in themselves may be considered as a sort reference is exceedingly obscure, and may be regarded as of punishment, first, as fines of some, though but small still unascertained. Among a great many conjectures amount, paid in cattle; and, secondly, as accompanied | which have been offered, one of the most probable is, that, with a public acknowledgment of guilt, which it behoved understood in the strictly legal sense, sins were violations the offender to make; and, although this does not appear of prohibitorý statutes, and consisted in the doing of someto have been attended with any degree of infamy, it was thing which the law had forbidden to be done ; and that, necessarily very humiliating. In offences against property, on the other hand, trespasses were infractions of imperative restitution was to be made, with twenty per cent. in ad statutes, and consisted in leaving undone something that dition, not a restitution of from two to five fold, as in the the law commanded to be done. In both offerings, the ordinary operation of the law; and the difference in the party offering the sacrifice placed his hands on the head great moderation of all sorts of fines under this modifi of the victim, and confessed his sin or trespasses over it, cation of the law, appears to have been intended with the saying: 'I have sinned, I have done iniquity, I have view of facilitating the restitution of property unjustly ac- trespassed, and have done thus and thus, and do return my quired, and the retraction of false oaths. It seems that repentance before thee, and with this I make atonement.' this process of commuted punishment only operated when the animal was then considered to bear vicariously the a man's consience prompted him to a voluntary acknow- | sins of the person who brought it. The rest of the cere