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cording to their names, like the engravings of 29 And a girdle of fine twined linen, and a signet, every one with his name, according to blue, and purple, and scarlet, of needlework; the twelve tribes.

as the LORD commanded Moses. 15 And they made upon the breastplate 30 | And they made the plate of the holy chains at the ends, of wreathen work of pure crown of pure gold, and wrote upon it a

writing, like to the engravings of a signet, 16 And they made two ouches of gold, "HOLINESS TO THE LORD. and two gold rings, and put the two rings in 31 And they tied unto it a lace of blue, to the two ends of the breastplate.

fasten it on high upon the mitre; as the LORD 17 And they put the two wreathen chains commanded Moses. of gold in the two rings on the ends of the 32 | Thus was all the work of the taberbreastplate.

nacle of the tent of the congregation finished : 18 And the two ends of the two wreathen and the children of Israel did according to all chains they fastened in the two ouches, and that the LORD commanded Moses, so did put them on the shoulderpieces of the ephod, they. before it.

33 And they brought the tabernacle unto 19 And they made two rings of gold, and Moses, the tent, and all his furniture, his put them on the two ends of the breastplate, taches, his boards, his bars, and his pillars, upon the border of it, which was on the side and his sockets, of the ephod inward.

34 And the covering of rams' skins dyed 20 And they made two other golden rings, red, and the covering of badgers' skins, and and put them on the two sides of the ephod | the vail of the covering, underneath, toward the forepart of it, over 35 The ark of the testimony, and the staves against the other coupling thereof, above the thereof, and the mercy seat, curious girdle of the ephod.

36 The table, and all the vessels thereof, 21 And they did bind the breastplate by and the shewbread, his rings unto the rings of the ephod with a 37 The pure candlestick, with the lamps lace of blue, that it might be above the curious thereof, even with the lamps to be set in order, girdle of the ephod, and that the breastplate and all the vessels thereof, and the oil for might not be loosed from the ephod ; as the LORD commanded Moses.

38 And the golden altar, and the anointing 22 [ And he made the robe of the ephod oil, and the sweet incense, and the hanging of woven work, all of blue.

for the tabernacle door, 23 And there was an hole in the midst of 39 The brasen altar, and his grate of brass, the robe, as the hole of an habergeon, with a his staves, and all his vessels, the laver and band round about the hole, that it should not his foot, rend.

40 The hangings of the court, his pillars, 24 And they made upon the hems of the and his sockets, and the hanging for the court robe pomegranates of blue, and purple, and gate, his cords, and his pins, and all the vesscarlet, and twined linen.

sels of the service of the tabernacle, for the 25 And they made 'bells of pure gold, and tent of the congregation, put the bells between the pomegranates upon 41 The cloths of service to do service in the hem of the robe, round about between the the holy place, and the holy garments for pomegranates;

Aaron the priest, and his sons' garments, to 26 A bell and a pomegranate, a bell and a minister in the priest's office. pomegranate, round about the hem of the robe | 42 According to all that the LORD comto minister in; as the LORD commanded Moses. manded Moses, so the children of Israel made

27 | And they made coats of fine linen of all the work. woven work for Aaron, and for his sons,

43 And Moses did look upon all the work, 28 And a mitre of fine linen, and goodly and, behold, they had done it as the LORD bonnets of fine linen, and linen breeches of had commanded, even so had they done it: fine twined linen,

| and Moses blessed them.
s Chap. 28. 33. Chap. 28. 42. 7 Chap. 28. 36. 8 Heb, the incense of swect spices.

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Verse 3. ' And they did beat the gold into thin plates, and silver have led to the beautiful invention of plating and cut it into wires, to work it in the blue, etc.'-T'his is | silver wire with gold. the most ancient notice of the preparation of gold in wires,

10. Sardius.' O7X, odem-the cornelian of the moor extended threads, to be interwoven in cloths; and it is

derns; its ancient name, o ápdlov, seems to have been taken quite in conformity with all the information we can collect from ancient writings on the subject. Works made with

from Sardus, or Sardinia, where it was originally found.

The Hebrew, intimating. redness,' is very well applied to threads of metal are rarely mentioned at all, and whenever

a gem that is generally of a red colour, though there be they are spoken of, the wire appears to have been wholly

varieties which are of a flame and of a pearl tincture, from made on the anvil. The metals were beaten with a ham

the East Indies. The finest specimens come from Surat, mer into thin plates, then cut with a pair of scissors or

a large city near the gulf of Cambay, on the north-western other instrument, into narrow slips, which were afterwards

shores of India. It is found in the channels of torrents of rounded with the hammer and file, so as to form wires or threads. Most of this process is described in the text. A

Hindostan, in nodules of a black-olive passing into grey. very similar process of fabrication is described by Homer

After exposure for some weeks to the sun, these are subas being used by Vulcan, who repaired to his forge and

jected to heat in earthen pots, whence proceed those lively formed upon his anvil a net so fine, that it could be per

colours for which they are valued in jewellery. ceived by no one, not even by the gods, being more deli

Topaz.' 7795 pitdah; Sept. Tonáciov.—Most of cate than the web of a spider. Abating the hyperbole, we

the ancient versions regard this as the topaz, which is may gather from this, as well as from the fact that the generally described by the ancients as of a golden yellow threads of metal were, in the instance before us, interwoven colour, although Pliny states its colour to be green. Rewith, or employed to embroider cloths, that very fine wire lying on this last intimation, several writers have conwas formed by this tedious and laborious process. It is

ceived that the topaz of the ancients was no other than the not exactly clear how the gold threads were applied to crysolite: but one who has written with great attention on ornament the ephod of the high-priest. We rather think the subject refutes this by showing that all the hues asthey were not interwoven in the cloth, as in chap. xxxv. cribed to the ancient topaz are found in that to which 34, it seems to be said that the colours in the enriched the moderns have applied the name. (Bellarmann, Urim cloth were the work of the embroiderer as distinguished und Thummim, p. 39.) The prevailing colour of this prefrom the weaver, who is afterwards mentioned. So also cious stone is wine-yellow in every degree of shade. The the robe of the ephod, which was all of blue, is said to dark shade of this colour passes over into carnation red, have been of woven work (verse 22), probably to denote

and sometimes, although rarely, into lilac; the pale shade its simplicity. The same is also said of the innermost of the wine-yellow passes into greyish ; and from yellowish coat, v. 27; while in speaking of the ephod, the girdles, white into greenish white and pale green. It may be etc., which were highly ornamented, embroidery and therefore difficult to determine the precise hne of the needlework are mentioned. Beckmann thinks that the jewel which shone in the breastplate of the high priest. earliest application of gold to dress, was to sew on slips of It is clear that the stone was highly prized by the Hebrews. the metal, particularly on the seams, as is now done with Job declares that wisdom was more precious than the gold lace. As there is no mention in the text of any process subsequent to that of cutting the metallic plate into includes Southerà Arabia and the Arabian Gulf, the intislips, necessarily flat, it is possible that they were em mation coincides with the statement of Pliny, that the broidered on the dress, or otherwise applied, without topazes known to the ancients came from the Topaz Island being rounded into wires or threads. Beckmann supposes in the Red Sea. that gold stars and other figures cut from thin plates of the -Carbuncle. npn bareketh.—The Greek version has metal, were very early applied to dresses, much in the oudpaydos, smaragdus, or emerald, in all the places where same manner as spangles are at present, being either sewed this word occurs. This interpretation is also given by to the cloth, or fastened by some adhesive composition. To Josephus, and is accepted by the best authorities, so that, this would seem to have succeeded the arts of embroidering upon the whole, we may with tolerable safety regard the and interweaving with threads of gold; and, ultimately, emerald as the Hebrew bareketh. The emerald is well the progress of uncomfortable luxury led to the formation characterized by its green colour, of various depths. In of clothes entirely of gold threads, without any other ma value it ranks next after the ruby, and is nearly as hard terial. This was indeed.cloth of gold'-a name which in as the topaz. The best that are brought to this country more modern times has been given to cloth, the threads of come from Peru; but India may have afforded as good in which are of silk wound about with silver wire flattened

the time of Moses. terwoven in cloth earlier than the times of the later Greek

11. Emerald.' nophek, rendered in the Sept. emperors.

ăv@pas, i. e. a glowing coal, which the old Latin version It is really surprising to find so much use made of renders by .carbunculus,' whence the English carbuncle. threads of precious metal while it continued to be formed

Under this name several red stones appear to be comby the hammer. Beckmann declares himself unable to prehended ; but if one of them more than another may be determine when attempts were first made to draw into indicated, we should perhaps refer to the precious or poble

garnet as agreeing best with the designation, since, when through holes in a steel plate placed perpendicularly on a

held to the sun, it resembles a burning coal-Apos de Toy table. But the art was not known in Italy in the time of

ήλιον τιθέμενον άνθρακος καιομένου ποιεί χρόαν (TheoCharlemagne; and our author, from the best evidence he phrastus, 31). The colour of the precious garnet, it is well was able to obtain, is disposed to attribute the invention of known, is of a deep red, sometimes falling into blue. The the drawing-plate to the fourteenth century. Since then

best garnets are from Pegu, in the Birman empire. The the arts of forming and applying threads of gold have re ancients obtained the most esteemed from Africa, whence ceived much improvement. It is not known when wire they are called Garamantine and Carthaginian. first began to be spun round thread, as it now usually is in 1 - Sapphire. See Exod. xxiv. 10. application to dress. This branch of the art is not ancient.

- Diamond! Dbar yahalom.—The Greek versions The threads found among the ruins of Herculaneum are of massy gold. When the fine wire first began to be spun

give örug, óvuxíov, the onyx, as the representative of this around thread it was round; the art of first flattening the

word. This is more probably than any other the stone wire, by means of which tassels and other ornaments have

intended. For a description of it see the note on Gen. been rendered much cheaper-in consequence of much less

ii. 12. metal being required to cover the silk—and at the same 12. * Ligure.' Dw? leshem ; Sept. dezúpov.—The Lapis time more brilliant and beautiful, is of modern but unas | lyncurius of the ancients agrees best with our hyacinth, as certained date. The different degrees of ductility of gold being of a red colour for the most part, uppá, and in being

electric, a property ascribed to the Lapis lyncurius, or teen of the oxide of iron, to which the green may be Avykúpiov of Theophrastus. Those known to us are

owing. brought from the south of Europe.

- Onyx. The word is here and shoham, the same - Agate. jap shebo ; Sept. dxárns.—The original

which is rendered onyx' in Gen. ii. 12, where the stone term seems to hint at the variety of colours and figurations

has been noticed. Those, however, who accept the conof the agate. The agate takes a fine polish, which brings

clusion that the yahalom' in v. 11, is the onyx, must admit out those beautiful forms so much admired in that variety

either that the two names denote the same stone, or two called Mocha stone.

marked varieties of it: or else agree with those who be- Amethyst. neng achlamah ; Sept. duélvotos.

lieve the shoham to have been the beryl, or, as the

most valuable kind is called, aqua marine, resembling the The Oriental amethyst is a gem of a violet colour and

emerald in colour, but is superior to it in hardness. It is great brilliancy, and is said to be as hard as the ruby and

in fact considered by some as a species of emerald. Its sapphire. It comes from Persia, Arabia, Armenia, and

green often passes into a honey yellow and sky-blue. It is the East Indies. Those that commonly pass under the

found in the Altaic chain of mountains in Siberia, and in name of amethyst are merely pieces of quartz tinged with

Limoges in France, as well as in Brazil. a rosy or vinous colour.

- Jasper.' nav yashpheh.-Our word jasper is 13. Beryl! piping tarshish.— The Greek translations plainly from Yaonis, which comes from the present Hebrew render this by xovo óricos, crysolite.' This gem is not word. Jasper is a species of the quartz family, and emremarkable for its hardness, being scratched by quartz. It braces a great many varieties. The brown Egyptian is of a green colour, declining to a yellow, and of a splen- variety was perhaps the one selected for the breastplate. dent external lustre. It comes from Egypt, where it is The brown is of various shades disposed in concentric found in alluvial strata. According to the apalysis of stripes, alternating with black stripes. It occurs loose in Klaproth, every hundred parts of this gem contain nine- the sands of Egypt, and is cut into ornaments.

hinhy, garments, andhalt put upönk Mater

to me in the priest's office : for their anaint


tify the altar : and it shall be an altar ‘most 1 The tabernacle is commanded to be reared, 9 and

holy. anointed. 13 Aaron and his sons to be sanctified. 11 And thou shalt anoint the laver and his 16 Moses performeth all things accordingly. 34 A foot, and sanctify it. cloud covereth the tabernacle.

12 | And thou shalt bring Aaron and his And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, sons unto the door of the tabernacle of the

2 On the first day of the first month shalt congregation, and wash them with water. thou set up the tabernacle of the tent of the 13 And thou shalt put upon Aaron the congregation.

holy garments, and anoint him, and sanctify 3 And thou shalt put therein the ark of the him ; that he may minister unto me in the testimony, and cover the ark with the vail. priest's office.

4 And 'thou shalt bring in the table, and 14 And thou shalt bring his sons, and set in order 'the things that are to be set in clothe them with coats : order upon it; and thou shalt bring in the 15 And thou shalt anoint them, as thou didst candlestick, and light the lamps thereof. anoint their father, that they may minister

5 And thou shalt set the altar of gold for the incense before the ark of the testimony, ing shall surely be an everlasting priesthood and put the hanging of the door to the taber- throughout their generations. nacle.

16°1 Thus did Moses: according to all 6 And thou shalt set the altar of the burnt that the LORD commanded him, so did he. offering before the door of the tabernacle of 17 | And it came to pass in the first the tent of the congregation.

month in the second year, on the first day of 7 And thou shalt set the laver between the the month, that the tabernacle was reared tent of the congregation and the altar, and up. shalt put water therein.

* 18 And Moses reared up the tabernacle, 8 And thou shalt set up the court round and fastened his sockets, and set up the boards about, and hang up the hanging at the court thereof, and put in the hars thereof, and gate.

reared up his pillars. 9. And thou shalt take the anointing oil, 19 And he spread abroad the tent over the and anoint the tabernacle, and all that is tabernacle, and put the covering of the tent therein, and shalt hallow it, and all the ves- above upon it; as the LORD commanded sels thereof: and it shall be holy.

| Moses. 10 And thou shalt anoint the altar of the 20 I And he took and put the testimony burnt offering, and all his vessels, and sanc- | into the ark, and set the staves on the ark, 1 Chap. 26. 35. Heb. the order thereof. Heb. holiness of holinesses. 4 Num. 7. 1.

arks of the testimony. I

and put the mercy seat above upon the tent of the congregation and the altar, and ark:

put water there, to wash withal. 21 And he brought the ark into the taber 31 And Moses and Aaron and his sons nacle, and 'set up the vail of the covering, and | washed their hands and their feet thereat: covered the ark of the testimony; as the LORD | 32 When they went into the tent of the commanded Moses.

congregation, and when they came near unto 22 | And he put the table in the tent of the altar, they washed; as the LORD comthe congregation, upon the side of the taber- | manded Moses. nacle northward, without the vail.

33 9 And he reared up the court round 23 And he set the bread in order upon it about the tabernacle and the altar, and set up before the LORD; as the Lord had com the hanging of the court gate. So Moses manded Moses.

finished the work. 24 | And he put the candlestick in the 34 'Then a cloud covered the tent of tent of the congregation, over against the the congregation, and the glory of the LORD table, on the side of the tabernacle southward. | filled the tabernacle.

25 And he lighted the lamps before the | 35 And Moses was not able to enter into LORD; as the LORD commanded Moses. the tent of the congregation, because the

26 | And he put the golden altar in the cloud abode thereon, and the glory of the tent of the congregation before the vail : Lord filled the tabernacle.

27 And he burnt sweet incense thereon; 36 And when the cloud was taken up from as the Lord commanded Moses.

over the tabernacle, the children of Israel 28 | And he set up the hanging at the ®went onward in all their journeys: door of the tabernacle.

37 But if the cloud were not taken up, 29 And he put the altar of burnt offering then they journeyed not till the day that it by the door of the tabernacle of the tent of was taken up. the congregation, and offered upon it the burnt | 38 For the cloud of the LORD was upon offering and the meat offering; as the 'LORD the tabernacle by day, and fire was on it by commanded Moses.

night, in the sight of all the house of Israel, 30 | And he set the laver between the throughout all their journeys.

* Chap 35. 12. © Chap 30. 9. 7 Nium, 9. 15. 1 Kings 8. 10. 8 Heb. journeyed.




This book, like the others composing the Pentateuch, is in the Hebrew denominated from its first word ??!! VA-YIKRA, and he called. In the Septuagint it is named AEYITIKON, of which the Vulgate title Leviticus is the Latinised form; and this has been retained by our own and all other modern versions. This name is well suited to indicate the nature of its contents, for it treats principally of the rites and ceremonies, the services and sacrifices of the religion of the Israelites, the charge of which was committed to the Levitical priesthood, that is to Aaron and his sons or descendants, who were of the tribe of Levi, and who alone of that tribe exercised the priestly office. The first impression, derived from the title, might suggest that the book referred to the particular services of the Levites properly so called. But this is not the case ; for although there are some particulars with regard to their office and duties, a much fuller account of their distinctive ministry is given in the book of Numbers. It is of the peculiar functions of the priests, the sons of Aaron,' that the book chiefly treats ; and this fact is recognised in the titles which the Talmudists give to it : Dabo noin torath ha-cohanim, the law of the priests ;' nisapp non torath hak-korbanoth, the law of the offerings.' In these their functions the sons of Aaron were merely assisted by the second branch of the Levitical family, which, by an appropriate title, was called “the tribe of Levi,' and also · Levites,' and on which the privilege of officiating as a kind of second order in the priesthood was conferred in recompense for the ready zeal which it displayed against idolatry and the worshippers of the golden calf.

That Moses is the author of the book is proved not only by the general arguments which have been adduced to shew his authorship of the entire Pentateuch, but by particular passages in other books, where it is expressly cited as his inspired work (2 Chron. xxx. 16; Neh. viji. 14; Jer, vii. 22, 23; ix. 6; Ezek. xx. 11; Matt. vii. 4; Luke ii. 22; John viii. 5; comp. xiv. 2, and xx. 6; Rom. x. 5; xiii. 9; 2 Cor. vi. 16; Gal. iii. 12; 1 Pet. i. 16). In most of these passages regulations contained in this book are referred to as belonging to the law of Moses,' or as matters which the Lord 'commanded by Moses. It is true that a distinction has been attempted to be made between the law of Moses and books written by Moses--that is to say, that it does not follow that the books were written by him, even though the laws which they contain may have been his. But these passages prove, at all events, that they are his laws; they prove that they are authentic; and, being authentic, the mind would in any case, and apart from all question or proof, recur to him as the probable author of the books in which they are contained. In fact, being authentic as laws of Moses, it matters little whether they were written down by himself or not ; but being authentic, they were either written down in his time or they were not. If they were, no one can for a moment doubt that they were written by him, or at his immediate dictation ; and that they were written in his time, is shewn by the utter improbability that the far-seeing legislator should have left to the uncertainties of oral transmission, laws so minute and so numerous. Aware of this, the rationalist writers of Germany, such as De Wette, Gramberg, Vatke, and others, deny that the laws themselves are authentic—that is, they refuse to acknowledge that they are laws of Moses, or that they originated till long after his time. Viewed in its nakedness, this position is painfully daring; for it necessarily assumes that all the subsequent writers of Scripture who refer to these regulations as laws of Moses, ARE MISTAKEN ; and if they are mistaken, or liable to such mistakes, what have we to trust to? where are the foundations of our hope? There are considerations, however, of intrinsic evidence which suffice to shew that the book of Leviticus is historically genuine. The laws in ch. i.-vii., contain unmistakeable vestiges of the Mosaical period. Here, as well as in Exodus, where the priests are mentioned, Aaron and his sons are named; as, for instance, in ch. i. 5, 7, 8, 11, etc. The tabernacle is the sanctuary, and no trace of any other place of worship appears. Expressions like the following constantly occur, before the tabernacle of the congregation,' or before the door of the tabernacle of

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