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CHAPTER XXXVII.

wood, and overlaid them with gold, to bear | The ark. 6 The mercy seat with cherubims. 10

the table. The table with his vessels. 17 The candlestick with

i with 16 And he made the vessels which were upon his lamps and instruments. 25 The altar of incense. the table, his dishes, and his spoons, and his 29 The anvinting oil and sweet incense.

bowls, and his covers 'to cover withal, of pure And Bezaleel made 'the ark of shittim wood: gold. two cubits and a half was the length of it, 17 | And he made the 'candlestick of pure and a cubit and a half the breadth of it, and gold : of beaten work made he the candlea cubit and a half the height of it:

stick ; his shaft, and his branch, his bowls, his 2 And he overlaid it with pure gold within knops, and his flowers, were of the same: and without, and made a crown of gold to it 18 And six branches going out of the sides round about.

thereof; three branches of the candlestick out 3 And he cast for it four rings of gold, of the one side thereof, and three branches of to be set by the four corners of it; even two the candlestick out of the other side thereof: rings upon the one side of it, and two rings 19 Three bowls made after the fashion of upon the other side of it.

almonds in one branch, a knop and a flower ; 4 And he made staves of shittim wood, and three bowls made like almonds in another and overlaid them with gold.

branch, a knop and a flower : so throughout 5 And he put the staves into the rings by the six branches going out of the candlestick. the sides of the ark, to bear the ark.

20 And in the candlestick were four bowls 6 T And he made the 'mercy seat of pure made like almonds, his knops, and his flowers: gold: two cubits and a half was the length 21 And a knop under two branches of the thereof, and one cubit and a half the breadth same, and a knop under two branches of the thereof.

same, and a knop under two branches of the 7 And he made two cherubims of gold, same, according to the six branches going out beaten out of one piece made he them, on the of it. two ends of the mercy seat;

22 Their knops and their branches were of 8 One cherub ® on the end on this side, and the same: all of it was one beaten work of another cherub *on the other end on that side : pure gold. out of the mercy seat made he the cherubims 23 And he made his seven lamps, and his on the two ends thereof.

snuffers, and his snuff dishes, of pure gold. 9 And the cherubims spread out their wings 24 Of a talent of pure gold made he it, on high, and covered with their wings over and all the vessels thereof. the mercy scat, with their faces one to another; | 25 | 'And he made the incense altar of even to the mercy seatward were the faces of shittim wood: the length of it was a cubit, the cherubims.

and the breadth of it a cubit; it was four10 | And he made the table of shittim square ; and two cubits was the height of it; wood : two cubits was the length thereof, and the horns thereof were of the same. a cubit the breadth thereof, and a cubit and a 26 And he overlaid it with pure gold, both | half the height thercof:

| the top of it, and the sides thereof round 11 And he overlaid it with pure gold, and about, and the horns of it: also he made unto made thereunto a crown of gold round about. it a crown of gold round about.

12 Also he made thereunto a border of an 27 And he made two rings of gold for it hand breadth round about; and made a crown under the crown thereof, by the two corners of gold for the border thereof round about. of it, upon the two sides thereof, to be places

13 And he cast for it four rings of gold, | for the staves to bear it withal. and put the rings upon the four corners that 28 And he made the staves of shittim were in the four feet thereof.

wood, and overlaid them with gold. 14 Over against the border were the rings, 29 | And he made the holy anointing oil, the places for the staves to bear the table. and the pure incense of sweet spices, according

15 And he made the staves of shittim to the work of the apothecary.

i Chap. 25. 10.

2 Chap. 25, 17. • Or, to pour out withal.

8 Or, out of, &c. Chap. 3. 31,

4 Or, cut of, &c.

5 Chap. 25, 29. 8 Chap. 30. I.

• ở Clap, 20, 35

Verse 29. · The holy anointing oil, and the pure incense of i ment was to be" compound after the art of the apothecary.” sweet spices, according to the work of the apothecary.'--In From this statement it may be justly inferred, that the the time of Jacob (Gen. xxxvii. 25) the commerce of the juices and volatile oils of the aromatics were extracted Egyptians with the Asiatics seems to have consisted chiefly from them by distillation and compression, and were then in gums, spices, and aromatics. Such a commerce (Sir mixed with the fixed oil obtained from the olive. The William Drummond remarks) indicates great wealth and perfume (as described in Exod. xxx. 34) was a compo. great luxury on the part of the Egyptians, who made no sition of equal portions of stacte (99) natuf ), onycha, exports, and who must have given gold in exchange for

galbanum, and pure frankincense, which after commixtion the articles which they received from the East. But if

were to be ground to a powder. The Hebrew word the Egyptians were idle as merchants, they must have been busy as chemists. If we turn our attention to the 1793? lebonah, which we translate frankincense, denotes that Hebrews at this period, we shall not doubt that they had this aromatic was white; but the matter of all resins only employed the chemical skill, which they had acquired in becomes white when purified, and this purification is effected Egypt, in the composition of their perfumes and unguents. by modern chemists by means of alcohol. It follows from The anointing oil, or unguent, was composed of pure these statements, that when the Hebrews quitted Egypt, the myrrh, sweet cinnamon, sweet calamus, and cassia, com- | knowledge of metallurgy, chemistry, and pharmacy, must bined with olive oil. The quantity of these aromatics in have been already well advanced in that country, Oritheir crude state is noted, and was inmense; but the oint- ' gines, ii. 272-275.

CHAPTER XXXVIII.

and their sockets of brass twenty; the hooks

of the pillars and their fillets of silver. 1 The altar of burnt offering. 8 The laver of brass.

12 And for the west side were hangings of 9. The court. 21 The sum of that the people offered.

fifty cubits, their pillars ten, and their sockets And 'he made the altar of burnt offering of | ten; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets shittim wood : five cubits was the length of silver. thereof, and five cubits the breadth thereof; 13 And for the cast side eastward fifty cubits. it was foursquare ; and three cubits the height | 14 The hangings of the one side of the gate thereof.

were fifteen cubits; their pillars three, and 2 And he made the horns thereof on the their sockets three. four corners of it; the horns thereof were of 15 And for the other side of the court gate, the same: and he overlaid it with brass. on this hand and that hand, were hangings of

3 And he made all the vessels of the altar, | fifteen cubits; their pillars three, and their the pots, and the shovels, and the basons, and sockets three. the fleshhooks, and the firepans : all the vessels 16 All the hangings of the court round thereof made he of brass.

about were of fine twined linen. 4 And he made for the altar a brasen gate 17 And the sockets for the pillars were of of network under the compass thereof beneath brass; the hooks of the pillars and their fillets unto the midst of it.

of silver ; and the overlaying of their chapiters 5 And he cast four rings for the four ends of silver; and all the pillars of the court were of the grate of brass, to be places for the | filleted with silver. staves.

18 And the hanging for the gate of the 6 And he made the staves of shittim wood, court was needlework, of blue, and purple, and overlaid them with brass.

and scarlet, and fine twined linen: and twenty 7 And he put the staves into the rings on cubits was the length, and the height in the the sides of the altar, to bear it withal; lie breadth was five cubits, answerable to the made the altar hollow with boards.

hangings of the court. 8 And he made the laver of brass, and 19 And their pillars were four, and their the foot of it of brass, of the 'looking glasses sockets of brass four; their hooks of silver, of the women Rassembling, which assembled at and the overlaying of their chapiters and their tlie door of the tabernacle of the congregation, fillets of silver.

99 And he made the court: on the south 20 And all the pins of the tabernacle, and side southward the hangings of the court were of the court round about, were of brass. of fine twined linen, an hundred cubits: 1 21 | This is the sum of the tabernacle,

10 Their pillars were twenty, and their even of the tabernacle of testimony, as it was brasen sockets twenty; the hooks of the pil- counted, according to the commandment of lars and their fillets were of silver.

Moses, for the service of the Levites, by the 11 And for the north side the hangings were hand of Ithamar, son to Aaron the priest. an hundred cubits, their pillars were twenty, 22 And Bezaleel the son of Uri, the son of Chap. 27. 1. 20r, brasen glasses. 3 Heb. assembling by troops.

4 Chap, 27, 19.

Hur, of the tribe of Judah, made all that the thousand and three thousand and five hundred LORD commanded Moses.

and fifty men. 23 And with him was Aholiab, son of 27 And of the hundred talents of silver Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, an engraver, | were cast the sockets of the sanctuary, and the and a cunning workman, and an embroiderer sockets of the vail ; an hundred sockets of the in blue, and in purple, and in scarlet, and fine | hundred talents, a talent for a socket. linen.

28 And of the thousand seven hundred 24 All the gold that was occupied for the seventy and five shekels he made hooks for the work in all the work of the holy place, even pillars, and overlaid their chapiters, and filleted the gold of the offering, was twenty and nine them. talents, and seven hundred and thirty shekels, 29 And the brass of the offering was seventy after the shekel of the sanctuary.

talents, and two thousand and four hundred 25 And the silver of them that were num- / shekels. bered of the congregation was an hundred 30 And therewith he made the sockets to talents, and a thousand seven hundred and the door of the tabernacle of the congregathreescore and fifteen shekels, after the shekel tion, and the brasen altar, and the brasen of the sanctuary :

grate for it, and all the vessels of the altar, 26 A bekah for bevery man, that is, half a 31 And the sockets of the court round shekel, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for about, and the sockets of the court gate, and every one that went to be numbered, from all the pins of the tabernacle, and all the pins twenty years old and upward, for six hundred of the court round about.

5 Heb. a poll.

nctuar lat wereundred

Verse 8. · He made the laver of brass .... of the looking | employed in the East, where, in most parts, the dryness of alaeges of the women'-As the laver was of brass or copper. glasses y me women: zincat maith

the atmosphere exposes polished steel to the least possible it is evident that the looking-glasses,' with which it was danger from rust." In fact steel mirrors, although in some made, were of the same metal. The word · mirror 'should degree superseded by looking-glasses, continue to be exhave been used in the place of looking-ylass,' in the various tensively used in the East. After steel, in eligibility for passages where it occurs, and which are all incompatible mirrors, comes silver; and we find that silver mirrors are with the idea of glass. Thus Job (chap. xxxvii. 18), those most generally mentioned among the Greeks and · Hast thou with him spread out the sky, wbich is strong, Romans. There was also in use for the same purpose a and as a molten looking-glass ?' and an apocryphal writer mixture of copper and tin, producing a white metal which (Ecclus. xii. 11) says, " Thou shalt be unto him as if thou would seem to have been better adapted for mirrors than hadst wiped a looking-glass, and thou shalt know that his silver, although, on some account or other, it was not so rust hath not been altogether wiped away.' In all these much esteemed for the purpose. One reason probably passages a metallic mirror is obviously intended. We may was, that this metal was more liable to be tarnished than understand either that the stock of copper in the camp was those of silver, requiring to be frequently brightened so comparatively small, as to have been exhausted in the before being used. Hence it seems that a sponge with other works for the tabernacle, or else that the mirrors of pounded pumice-stone was generally suspended near the the women were particularly required for the laver as ancient mirrors. Mirrors of copper, brass, and gold, do being of a superior sort of metal. As the women who as not appear to have been much in use after the superior sembled at the tabernacle are especially mentioned, it is fitness of silver was discovered; yet there is no question : not improbable that they had been in the habit of following that copper and brass were soonest applied to this purpose, the example of the Egyptian women who took their mir and doubtless continued to be used by those who could not rors with them when they went to the temples. Moses afford silver or silvered mirrors. The use of metallic may have required them for the laver, in order to put a mirrors is now, in Europe, almost entirely confined to restop to a practice of which he did not approve.

flecting telescopes. The mode of compounding the metals Artificial mirrors seem to have been made as soon as of which these mirrors are made, and of polishing them of men began to exercise their ingenuity on metals and a proper form, is an art of great nicety. stones. Every solid body capable of receiving a polish There is some difficulty in determining when glass mirwould be more or less suitable for this purpose; hence the rors were invented. Pliny alludes to attempts made at earliest mirrors of which we possess any information were Sidon to form mirrors with glass, but in what manner does of metal. When men began to work metals, it must soon not appear; and if the attempts had produced any approxihave been discovered that the hardest white metals re mation to our mirrors, they would surely have superseded flected more distinct images, when polished, than any those of metal, which they were so far from doing that, others. Of all the metals known to the ancients steel was whatever they were, they never came into use. With the the best calculated for the purpose; but Beckmann says exception of this notice in Pliny, there is no trace of glass that he can discover no indications that steel mirrors were mirrors till the thirteenth century, after which they are in use among them; and he thinks that its liability to con spoken of in the clearest manner, and continue to be mentract rust and to become tarnished, prevented this other tioned in every century, and at last mirrors of metal wise desirable metal from being employed for the purpose. passed entirely out of notice. That the practical invention We rather differ from him in this particular. The mention of glass mirrors cannot be much earlier than the date here of rust in the above quotation from the Apocrypha seems assigned, seems to be evinced by the fact, mentioned by to imply that the mirror there in view was of steel; and Beckmann, that glass mirrors continued to be very scarce although it be true that the Greeks and Romans did not in France in the fourteenth century. Those of metal were use such mirrors, it does not follow that they were not l still in common use, and the mirror of even the queen,

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Anne of Bretagne, consort of Louis XII., was of this de- / because, had they been so engaged, their service in so scription. On the history of mirrors, see further in Beck- public a capacity must, on some occasion or other, in the mann's Hist. of Inventions, vol. iii. See also Goguet, course of so large a volume as the Bible, which abounds in i. 371; Harmer, iv. 332-334; Burder's Oriental Customs, descriptions of and allusions to the external worship of the i. 37: ii. 52, etc.

Hebrews, could not but have come under notice. Some

think, from the mention of the laver, that they might have — Of the women assembling, which assembled at the door

been partly employed in washing the feet of the priests of the tabernacle of the congregation.'—This is a difficult

and Levites, as it seems from 1 Sam. xxv. 41; Luke vii. text, and it would require a somewhat extensive paraphrase

4; 1 Tim. v. 10, that it was often the occupation of women to bring out its full meaning to those unacquainted with

to wash the feet of men. It is certain, however, that the the Hebrew langauge. First, the word xy tzaba, de

ancient Jews did not at all suppose that the service of these notes military service, a going forth to war. Here it is women had any connection with the external rites of rendered • assembled ;' then as a substantive plural it de- worship; but they understood that it had reference to notes those who go forth to war, or render military ser- spiritual service rendered at the sanctuary. This appears vice; and being here feminine, it is rendered 'the women from the paraphrase in the Septuagint, which substitutes who assembled. Better, the female servants who served," • fasting' for service;' as well as by that of Onkelos, who etc. It is clear that the original, primarily applicable to translates the same word by • to pray.' Aben Ezra undermilitary service, is by a figure applied first to the militia stands it in the same way: • They came down to the sacra of the priests and Levites, whose leader and standard tabernacle to pray and hear the word of the law. But of bearer was the God of Israel. (Num. iv. 23, 35, 43; viji. special importance for the understanding. what their ser25.) In addition to the sacred host, composed of men, vice was,' is the third passage which bears upon this inthere appears in our text a corresponding one consisting of stitution, which shews that it continued to the time of women; and the manner in which it is spoken of shews Christ. It is found in Luke iii. 37, where it is said of that it was a general, important, and formally recognised Anna,' who departed not from the temple, but served God institution. That it did not end with Moses, is shewn with fastings and prayers night and day. The relation of from 1 Sam. ii. 22, where it is stated among the great this passage to the present text is the more distinct when crimes of the sons of Eli, that they corrupted the women we compare it with the translation of the Seventy and of who served at the gate of the tabernacle. What was the Onkelos. If we take these into account, we shall find a nature of their service is not distinctly declared, but may reference to the Jewish institution in 1 Tim. v. 5. •Now be collected from circumstances. That it was not in any she that is a widow indeed, and desolate, trusteth in God, way directly connected with the ritual worship—that is to and continueth in supplications and prayers night and day.' say, that they were not in any sensepriestesses, such as A reference which implies that the service of these women we find among the heathen, is certain; not only because was rendered not with the hands but with the heart, all the functions of that service are assigned to men, but | Hengstenberg is disposed to urge that the institution had

an ascetic character, from the fact-in connection with holy places, in which these women had their ahode.' Exod. xxv. 1, where Moses is required to take from the (Herodotus, i. 181, 182; i. 54, 56.) It is true that Dio. Israelites' free-will offerings for the construction of the dorus does ascribe impurities to the women of the Egyptian sanctuary—that the article which the holy women gave temples; but we can detect the source of his misapprehenwas their mirrors, their means of pleasing the world. sion, which is contradicted not only by Herodotus, but by This giving up the use of the mirror was, he says, the the testimony of the monuments. Rosellini refutes it; and same to them as the leaving of the hair to grow was in Wilkinson characterises it as 'a ridiculous story which the case of the Nazarites, by which they gave a practical could only have originated in the depraved notions and demonstration that they, for the time in which this was ignorance of the Greeks ; fond of the marvellous, and potodone, renounced the world, in which the cutting off the rious as they were for a superficial acquaintance with the hair belongs to the properties of social life, so that they customs of foreign nations.' (Anct. Egyptians, i. 259.) might serve God only. The new use to which Moses de The characteristic peculiarities in which the Israelitish voted the mirrors also denotes that the offering of them agrees with the Egyptian institution of holy women aphad this significance. This gives, in addition to the nega pear to be these :-1. That the women were not priestesses, tive, the positive reason: not for the world, but for God, discharged no functions which could be called sacerdotal, ought we to adorn ourselves, and seek to please him alone. and took no part in the essential acts of public worship, Compare 1 Pet. iii. 3, 4, where, besides the general pur other than by attendance as special votaries. 2. That the port, the phrase • the holy women of old” is of peculiar women were mostly persons of consideration :-that they significance. That the institution had, in its origin, an were so among the Hebrews is indirectly shewn by the Egyptian reference is very probable, without argument, offering of mirrors, which at a much later period are menfrom the circumstance that it was in all probability not tioned in Scripture as articles of luxury : (Isa. ii. 23.) introduced by Moses by a law, but was found by him as and that they were so among the Egyptians, appears not an already existing institution. It evidently arose of only from the testimony of Strabo, but from the clear eviitself from the Israelitish manner of life, and since they dence of the Scriptures. Wilkinson, while speaking of the stood under manifest Egyptian influences, one should ex- | tombs of the holy women, described by Diodorus, which, pect to find an Egyptian institution after which the Israel. are now seen at Thebes, in a valley 3000 feet behind the itish one was in form copied, while the spirit of both in ruins of Medeenet Haboo, says, 'The sculptures shew that stitutions must necessarily be as different as was the service they were women of the highest rank, since all the occuof the Holy One of Israel from the natural religion of pants of these tombs were either the wives or daughters of Egypt. This expectation is accordingly realised. The | kings.' 4. That the holy women were, among the Hebrews, ancient Greek writers attest the presence of holy usually unmarried or widows, is affirmed by the Jewish women,' that is, of women specially devoted to the service writers, and is rendered probable by the texts which have of the gods, in the Egyptian temple; and yet they were not been adduced ; and that such women among the Egyptians -as among other heathen-priestesses; neither did they were unmarried is affirmed by Herodotus (i. 182), and also exemplify that impurity of life which was in other nations, by Strabo, who adds the interesting fact, that they were as now in Hindustan, connected with such devotement. not forbidden to marry when they wished, although when On this point Herodotus is very explicit: * Among the any one did so, a great lamentation was made for her as Egyptians impurity is excluded from the circuit of the for one dead.

CHAPTER XXXIX.

in ouches of gold, graven, as signets are graven, 1 The cloths of service and holy garments. 2 The

The with the names of the children of Israel. ephod. 8 The breastplate. 22 The robe of the ephod.

1 7 And he put them on the shoulders of the 27 The coats, mitre, and girdle of fine linen. 30 ephod, that they should be stones for a "meThe plate of the holy crown. 32 All is viewed and morial to the children of Israel ; as the LORD I approved by Moses.

commanded Moses. And of the blue, and purple, and scarlet, they 8 | And he made the breastplate of cunmade cloths of service, to do service in the holy ning work, like the work of the ephod ; of gold, place, and 'made the holy garments for Aaron ; blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined as the LORD commanded Moses.

linen. 2 1 And he made the ephod of gold, blue, 1 9 It was foursquare; they made the breastand purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen. / plate double: a span was the length thereof,

3 And they did beat the gold into thin and a span the breadth thereof, being doubled. plates, and cut it into wires, to work it in the 10 And they set in it four rows of stones : blue, and in the purple, and in the scarlet, the first row was a “sardius, a topaz, and a car-, and in the fine linen, with cunning work. buncle : this was the first row.

4 They made shoulderpieces for it, to couple 1 11 And the second row, an emerald, a sap- Į it together : by the two edges was it coupled | phire, and a diamond. together.

| 12 And the third row, a ligure, an agate, 5 And the curious girdle of his ephod, that and an amethyst. was upon it, was of the same, according to the 13 And the fourth row, a beryl, an onyx, work thereof; of gold, blue, and purple, and and a jasper : they were inclosed in ouches of scarlet, and fine twined linen ; as the Lord gold in their inclosings. commanded Moses.

14 And the stones were according to the 6 *And they wrought onyx stones inclosed names of the children of Israel, twelve, ac

Chap. 31. 10, and 35. 19. 2 Chap. 28. 9. Clap. 28. 12. Or, ruby.

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