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easily accounted for. Most of the materials fit to be ma oxide of iron; and the latter seem to be composed of the nufactured into tissues are of dull or sombre colours; and minium, cinnabar, or native vermilion, which Pliny men would naturally seize the first hints which offered of describes as being employed in painting the Ethiopian obviating the unpleasant uniformity of dress thus pro gods. The greens are a mixture of yellow vegetable pig. duced. We apprehend that the arts which relate to per ment with a copper blue. The vegetable yellow is prosonal adornment and the preparation of food have been in bably henna, which continues in extensive use, as a dye, general the first discovered, and the soonest brought to throughout the East. The yellows, which are often very perfection: and dyeing is one of this class. The juices of pure, and of a bright sulphur colour, seem also to be vegethe fruits and plants which men ate, the effect of rains table colours. The whites appear to be preparations of upon certain earths and minerals, and a variety of other | lime and gypsum ; and the blacks seem to have been in circumstances, must early have given to men some notion great variety, such as those made from the lees of wine, of the art of dyeing, and of the substances proper to be burnt pitch, charcoal or soot. Mr. Long adds, that employed. We have little information concerning the doubtless, besides the colouring substances enumerated, processes followed by the ancients in the application of various ochreous earths, red and yellow, were employed dyes. Some remarks on the mode of diversifying dresses by the painter. So they probably were by the dyer, with various colours have been given in the note to Gen. although vegetable dyes have only been detected in the xxxvii. 3: and we shall here confine our attention to mummy-cloths. We may perhaps assume that all these colours, particularly those mentioned in the text. As the colours were known to the Hebrews, as well as others Hebrews had just come from Egypt, there is no doubt which we now fail to discover in Egyptian paintings and that they employed the same colouring materials that were dyes. It is however remarkable that in the above account there in use, and it is therefore interesting to inquire what we find no mention of scarleť or purple;' and we therethese were. The following particulars on Egyptian colours fore reserve a notice of those colours for the following are principally drawn from vol. ii. of Mr. George Long's notes. Egyptian Antiquities. Any illustration which can be de -'Purple.'-The pre-eminence given at the present day rived from the colours of the cloths in which the mummies to purple as a royal colour is undoubtedly a result of the are enfolded, is, in application to the present subject, more ancient preference, which arose when the relative suvaluable than that derived from paintings. These colours periority of purple to other colours was greater than at are different, being pure yellow, brownish yellow, dark present. We have seen this colour frequently mentioned red, flesh colour, and pale brick or red colour. We are in connection with the works of the tabernacle and the not aware of any cloth wholly blue; but the selvage of dress of the high-priest; and we know that among the these cloths is sometimes adorned with blue stripes. Mr. heathen the colour was considered peculiarly appropriate Thomson describes a small pattern, about half an inch to the service of the gods. The Babylonians and other broad, as forming the edging of one of the finest of these nations used to array their gods in robes of purple. A cloths with selvages; this pattern was composed of a persuasion was even entertained that in the purple dye siripe of blue, followed by three narrow lines of the same there lay some peculiar virtue for appeasing the wrath of colour, alternating with three narrow lines of a fawn the gods. Purple was also the distinguishing mark of colour. This description agrees very nearly with that great dignities among several nations. It is said that which has been given to ourselves by a gentleman who when the beautiful purple of Tyre was first discovered, assisted at the examination of a mummy at Bombay; but, the sovereign to whom it was presented appropriated it as although in the highest degree competent to form an a royal distinction. Homer intimates that it was only opinion on the subject, he thinks the blue stripes in the worn by princes; and this limitation of its use was comBombay specimen were painted; whereas Mr. Thomson mon among other nations. A very early notice of this considers that the stripes in his specimen were formed in occurs also in Scripture, where the kings of Midian, dethe loom with threads previously dyed. Our informant, feated by Gideon, are described as being clad in purple however, most decidedly agrees in the opinion of Mr. raiment. (Judges viii. 26.) It seems to us very likely Thomson, that the blue colour was formed by indigo; and that, as there were several purples held in various degrees as indigo is an Indian product, this is in further evidence of estimation, it was only some particular shade of purple of the existence of an early intercourse with India. In that was reserved for a godlike or royal distinction. It is digo is indeed mentioned in the Periplus as one of the important to understand that the word 'purple' in ancient articles exported from India to Egypt; and we cannot writings does not denote one particular colour. Pliny arrive at any better probability than that the “ blue' of mentions the difference between some of the purples: one the text was indigo. As to the other colours found in the was faint, approaching to our scarlet, and this was the mummy-cloths, Professor John, of Berlin, by whom they least esteemed ; another was a very deep red, approaching have been analysed, considers the pure yellow to have to violet; and a third was of a colour compared to that of been dyed with henna-leaves : this plant is also a native | coagulated ballock's blood. The most esteemed Tyrian of India, but is now, as well as indigo, cultivated in Egypt. purple seems to have been of this last colour. We say The brownish-yellow he conceives to be a watery extract the most esteemed,' because it appears that even the of madder, with the addition of henna-leaves and tama Tyrian purple was not one particular colour, but a class of rinds: the dark flesh-red colour also from madder: and animal dyes as distinguished from vegetable-varying in Mr. Thomson believes the pale brick or red colour to have shade of purple, from the most faint to the most intense. been dyed with safflower. Here then we have a list com It is to be understood, however, that all the Tyrian purposed exclusively of vegetable dyes; though perhaps it is ples were more esteemed than other colours, although they too much to infer that such dyes only were used by the differed in degrees of value. Of the vegetable purples we Egyptians for their cloths. We may perhaps extend the know nothing. Most of our information relates to the list by referring to the indubitably ancient paintings in purples of the Phænicians. Whether theirs was the the tombs at Thebes; for some of these colouring matters * purple' of the text it is impossible to determine ; but it might be, and doubtless were, applied also to cloths, par is not unlikely, as their discovery of this colour, or class ticularly if we believe that the colours of cloth were in of colours, is of very remote antiquity; and, at all events, very early times diversified by painting. These colours a short statement concerning the Tyrian purples will be then are found to be black, blue, red, green, and yellow, generally applicable, as they were doubtless as much eswhich are always kept distinct and never blended. These teemed, whenever they became known, by the Hebrews as have been also analysed by Professor John, who pro- by other nations; and they may be understood as the nounces the blues, of which there are a lighter and darker purples' in future portions of the sacred books, if not in shade, to be oxides of copper, a metal which abounds in the present. These dyes were obtained from several Egypt. Belzoni, however, declares for indigo. The reds varieties of shell-fish, comprehended under two species; may be divided into brown-reds and brick-coloured reds. | one (buccinum) found in cliffs and rocks; and the other The colouring material of the former is a brown-red of (purpura or pelagia), which was the proper purple-fish,
not contend on this point, hesitate to say whether crimson or scarlet is intended by the word in the text, and by its equivalents in other languages. Besides the dye produced by the murex, a crimson or deep scarlet colour was known in ancient times, obtained from an insect akin to the American cochineal, but producing a much inferior colour. This insect was called hermes (whence our words carmine, crimson) by the Arabs; and coccus by the Greeks and Romans. It was the female of this remarkable insect that was employed, and though with us supplanted by the cochineal (Coccus cacti), is still used for the purpose in India and Persia. It attains the size and form of a pea, is of a violet-black colour, covered with a whitish powder, adhering to plants, chiefly various species of oak, and so closely resembling grains that their insect nature was not known for many centuries. This insect is widely distributed over many parts of the south-eastern countries of the ancient world, and it occurs abundantly in Palestine, being found there upon the Quercus coccifera, or kermes oak.
taken by fishing in the sea. The Murex trunculus of Lin. næus and Lamarck has been demonstrated to have been the species used by the ancient Tyrians, by Dr. Wilde, who found a concrete mass of the shells in some of the ancient dye-pots sunk in the rocks at Tyre. These ish were found on the coasts of the Mediterranean and Atlantic, and locally differed in the tint and value of the dye which they furnished. The Atlantic shells afforded the darkest colour; those on the Italian and Sicilian coasts, a positive violet or purple; and those of the Phæniciau shore itself, and in general the southern coast of the Mediterranean, yielded scarlet colour. The most celebrated in the Mediterranean were those from the coasts of Sicily and the Peloponnesus; and in the Atlantic those from the shores of Britain. The dyeing matter must have been very expensive, as each fish only furnished a very minute quantity of juice, pressed from a white vein or vessel in the neck, and which could only be obtained while the animal was alive. The rest of the fish was useless. The juice of this fish is not now used in dyeing; the art of preparing it is lost, apparently in consequence of dyes, as good or better, having been discovered, which can be obtained with much less trouble and expense. The Phænicians excelled all other people in the use of this colouring matter, whence arose the great fame which the purples and scarlets of Sidon and Tyre enjoyed in ancient times; so that they were much in request among great people, and formed the prevailing fashion among the higher ranks of society. The beauty and variety of colours, it would seem, was more the result of art than a natural property of the material. The desired hue was obtained by the application of differently tinted juices, the hue being varied by the order of application. The mixing and preparation required for the intended result was a work demanding much care and skill; the process being of course varied according to the hue to be obtained. The Phænicians are also understood to have possessed the art of throwing a peculiar lustre into their colours by making other tints play over it, producing what is called a 'shot colour. This perhaps was the great secret of their art. The most esteemed purple stuffs were those which were · twice dyed ; and as this seems to be noticed in the sacred text as a distinction of the stuffs there mentioned, we might take this as an intimation that the dyes were Phænician; but on this point it is not necessary to insist. The Phænician dyeing seems to have been at all times performed in the wool. It appears that the purple dye was applied to all sorts of stuffs, linen, cotton, and, in later times, silk; but its most usual application was to woollen, which, being manufactured from the fine wool of Arabia, possessed a value not entirely owing to the rich dye with which it was imbued. It was probably the merit of the fabric and the colour combined, which obtained for the dyed stuffs of Tyre the high reputation which they would not have enjoyed on either account separately.
- Scarlet.'—There has been some difference of opinion about this colour: some think that it is merely one of the Phænician purples produced from the shell-fish; for it is certain that among the number was a bright colour, approaching either to a crimson or scarlet, and which seems to have been held in considerable esteem. Others, who do
Coccos Ilicis, ON A BRANCH. The word rendered . scarlet' in the text and elsewhere in the books of Moses is either "Vj shani, crimson,' alone, as in Gen. xxxviii. 28-30, where the Sept. has kórkivor. and the Vulgate coccus ; or w nysin tolath shani, 'worm.
the Pentateuch, except in Lev. xiv, 4, 6, 14, 49, 51; Num. iv. 8, where the words are transposed, and we read nysin 'yu shani tolath, crimson-worm.' These words are somewhat variously rendered in the Septuagint by κόκκινον, diversified by the various additions of διπλούν HEKA wouévoy, KAútov, kawotóv, olayevnouévov; and by the Vulgate, vermiculus, coccus, coccus bis tinctus, and coccus vermiculus. In a few places of the later Scriptural books we have yin alone ; and in such places the Septuagint has kóxkivov, and the Vulgate has rermiculus in Isa, i. 8; croceis in Sam. iv. 5, and coccineis in Nah. ii. 3. In the New Testament KÓKKivos is throughout used for scarlet.' The first of the Hebrew words po is genera!ly derived from 173 shanah, “to repeat;' and is thus interpreted to mean double-dyed;' and it is commonly stated that the scarlet was in fact produced by
a twofold operation : but Gesenius seems to shew that this! tians in the time of Moses; for the Israelites must have statement is applicable only to the Tyrian purple, and carried it along with them from Egypt;--that the Arabs re
ceived the name “kermes,' with the dye, from Armenia likes rather to derive the word from the Arabic in and Persia, where it was indigenous, and had been long shany, to shine,'' to be bright;' because scarlet garments
known; and that name banished the old name in the East, were admired for their brightness. But we are not
as the name “ scarlet'has in the West. The kermes was satisfied that the ancient colour was, like our own, distin perhaps not known in Arabia; at least it was not inguished from all others by the specific quality of bright
digenous, as the Arabs appear to bave no name for it. ness; and we feel assured that the ancient colour, which
Kermes signifies always red dye; and when pronounced we translate by ' scarlet,' was double-dyed as well as the
short it becomes deep red, Beckmann thinks that in later purple, the colour being indeed but a lighter shade of the
times the Tyrian purples were superseded by the improve
ments of this dye; but we do not feel satisfied with his purple. As to the other word ysin tola, it certainly
authorities for this conclusion. The kermes itself has now denotes a worm, grub, or insect : and, as we have seen, long been superseded by the American cochincal, which is the Septuagint and Vulgate plainly understood by it far superior to any pigment employed in ancient times for the coccus, from which the ancients procured a blood dyeing reds. Indeed we have perhaps little cause to red crimson (not a scarlet) dye. Beckmann states that regret the loss or disuse of any ancient dye, particularly in the epithet vermiculatus was applied to it during the bright reds, which owe so much to discoveries of chemiddle ages, when the fact became generally understood, mistry, that we have every reason to conclude them inand that hence is derived the word vermilion. Hence finitely superior to any which ancient art could produce. the Hebrew word must be taken as denoting both the Pliny complains that scarlet dyes could not be made sufcoccus itself and the deep red, a rich crimson which ficiently durable and adhesive; and the statements in was derived from it, and which in Cant. iv. 3, is compared ancient authors as to the brilliancy of scarlet may be to the colour of beautiful lips. And such was the sig admitted by recollecting that they had nothing better with nification of the word • scarlet' at the time the authorized which to compare it. The Roman sumptuary laws version was made, rather than the colour now distin. allowed any body to wear 'scarlet;' but purple was, as in guished by that name, and which was then unknown. other countries, limited to great dignitaries. On the
Professor Tychsen says that tola was the ancient general subiect of this and the preceding note, see Bochart, Phænician name for this dye used by the Hebrews, and Hierozoicon, ed. Rosenmüller, iii. 675; Braunius, Vestitu even by the Syrians; and is employed by the Syrian Sacerdotum, p. 187, seq.; Amati, De Restitutione Purputranslator in Isaiah i. 18. After the Captivity, the Jews rarum, 1785; Capelli, De Antiqua et Nupera Purpura ; more commonly used the Aramaan word zehori. The Rosa, Dissertazione delle Porpore degli Antichi, 1785; same learned orientalist thinks that the dye was dis. Beckmann, History of Inventions ; Goguet, Origine des covered by the Phænicians; and supposing the identity of Lois, ii. 92-98; Heeren, Ideen, 1. ji. 88, 899.; Wilde, Narthe Scripture scarlet' with the kermes established, very | rative of a Voyage, ii. 482; Kitto's Physical History of properly concludes that the kermes dye was known before Palestine, p. 249; and Denham's article, PURPLE, in the time of Moses ;-that the dye was known to the Egyp- | Cyclop. of Biblical Literature,
5 And they spake unto Moses, saying, 1 The offerings are delivered to the workmen. 5 The
The people bring much more than enough for liberality of the people is restrained. 8 The curtains the service of the work, which the LORD comof cherubims. 14 The curtains of goats' hair. 19 | manded to make. The covering of skins. 20 The boards with their 6 And Moses gave commandment, and they sockets. 31 The bars. 35 The rail. 37 The
caused it to be proclaimed throughout the hanging for the door.
camp, saying, Let neither man nor woman Then wrought Bezaleel and Aholiab, and make any more work for the offering of the every wise hearted man, in whom the LORD sanctuary. So the people were restrained put wisdom and understanding to know how from bringing. to work all manner of work for the service of 7 For the stuff they had was sufficient for the sanctuary, according to all that the LORD all the work to make it, and too much. had commanded.
8 [ 'And every wise hearted man among 2 And Moses called Bezaleel and Aholiab, them that wrought the work of the tabernacle and every wise hearted man, in whose heart | made ten curtains of fine twined linen, and the Lord had put wisdom, even every one blue, and purple, and scarlet: with cherubims whose heart stirred him up to come unto the of cunning work made he them. work to do it:
9 The length of one curtain was twenty and 3 And they received of Moses all the offer- eight cubits, and the breadth of one curtain ing, which the children of Israel had brought four cubits: the curtains were all of one size. for the work of the service of the sanctuary, to | 10 And he coupled the five curtains one make it withal. And they brought yet unto unto another: and the other five curtains he him free offerings every morning.
coupled one unto another. 4 And all the wise men, that wrought all 11 And he made loops of blue on the edge the work of the sanctuary, came every man of one curtain from the selvedge in the coufrom his work which they made ;
| pling : likewise he made in the uttermost side 1 Chap. 26. 3, 4.
of another curtain, in the coupling of the which is toward the north corner, he made second.
twenty boards, 12 "Fifty loops made he in one curtain, and 26° And their forty sockets of silver; two fifty loops made he in the edge of the curtain sockets under one board, and two sockets which was in the coupling of the second : the under another board. loops held one curtain to another.
27 And for the sides of the tabernacle 13 And he made fifty taches of gold, and westward he made six boards. coupled the curtains one unto another with the 28 And two boards made he for the corners taches : so it became one tabernacle.
of the tabernacle in the two sides. 14 9 And he made curtains of goats' hair 29 And they were coupled beneath, and for the tent over the tabernacle : eleven cur coupled together at the head thereof, to one tains he made them.
ring: thus he did to both of them in both the 15 The length of one curtain was thirty corners. cubits, and four cubits was the breadth of one 30 And there were eight boards; and their curtain : the eleven curtains were of one sockets were sixteen sockets of silver, under size.
every board two sockets. 16 And he coupled five curtains by them 31 9 And he made "bars of shittim wood; selves, and six curtains by themselves. five for the boards of the one side of the taber
17 And he made fifty loops upon the utter nacle, most edge of the curtain in the coupling, and 32 And five bars for the boards of the other fifty loops made he upon the edge of the cur side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the tain which coupleth the second.
boards of the tabernacle for the sides west18 And he made fifty taches of brass toward. couple the tent together, that it might be 33 And he made the middle bar to shoot one.
through the boards from the one end to the 19 | And he made a covering for the tent other. of rams' skins dyed red, and a covering of 34 And he overlaid the boards with gold, badgers' skins above that.
and made their rings of gold to be places for 20 And he made boards for the taber the bars, and overlaid the bars with gold. nacle of shittim wood, standing up.
35 | And he made a vail of blue, and 21 The length of a board was ten cubits, purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen: and the breadth of a board one cubit and a with cherubims made he it of cunning work. half.
36 And he made thereunto four pillars of 22 One board had two tenons, equally dis- shittim wood, and overlaid them with gold: tant one from another : thus did he make for their hooks were of gold ; and he cast for all the boards of the tabernacle.
them four sockets of silver. 23 And he made boards for the tabernacle ; 37 | And he made an hanging for the twenty boards for the south side southward : | tabernacle door of blue, and purple, and
24 And forty sockets of silver he made scarlet, and fine twined linen, of needlework ; under the twenty boards; two sockets under | 38 And the five pillars of it with their one board for his two tenons, and two sockets hooks : and he overlaid their chapiters and under another board for his two tenons. their fillets with gold : but their five sockets less than 250,0001., which, although for a fabric so small sions some difficulty in the notion that plates of metal were and even portable, is fully one-third the expense of St. employed; but even admitting that such plates could be Paul's Cathedral (which was 736,7521.). This, however. made sufficiently fast to smooth surfaces of wood, he doubts is not the whole truth; nor are these the only circum- whether any plates, however thin, could be so applied as stances to be taken into account in forming such estimates; to fit and exhibit accurately carved wooden figures and the value of the precious metals, and the cost of labour flower-work, as in 1 Kings vi. 35. And, with regard to and food, which together constitute the standards of value, the parts of the tabernacle, had they been covered with may have been, and probably were, so different in those | plates of gold, would they not have been too heavy for ancient times, that the sum stated may at its then value | transportation, particularly as several of them were to be have been equal to the whole of the sum required for the carried on the shoulders of men ? He also states his imerection of St. Paul's, just as that latter sum represents per pression, that the twenty-nine talents and odd shekels of haps double the amount in present value; for competent gold could scarcely have been sufficient to cover with judges have declared that such a building as St. Paul's plates of gold all the articles above enumerated after so could not now he completed for less than twice the sum for many vessels and other things had been made with pure which it was built.
25 And for the other side of the tabernacle, were of brass.
Chap. 25, 28, and 30. 5. 6 Heb, the work of a needle-worker, or, embroiderer.
3 Heb. twinned.
Verse 5. · The people being much more than enough for the males above 20 years of age who came out of Egypt, the service of the work.:-It is desirable to form some idea whose number was 603,550; the whole number of which, not only of the extent to which the liberality of the people at five shillings the ounce, would be 37,721l. The BRASS, was exemplified in providing the materials for this great or rather copper, was 70 talents and 24,000 shekels, which, work; but of the cost which this remarkable undertaking if valued at 18. 3d. the pound avoirdupois, would be worth involved. This is less difficult than might at first view 1381. The amount of these several items would be appear; as the quantities of the articles which constituted 213,3201. But this account is only for the metals, and its chief value are stated or admit of easy calculation. The does not include the curtains of the inclosure, the coverGOLD weighed 29 talents and 730 shekels, or 87,730 ings of the tabernacle, the dress and jewels of the highshekels, if we allow 3000 shekels to the talent of 125 lbs. priest, the dresses of the priests, and the value of the time, This, at the usual reckoning of four pounds the ounce, skill, and labour employed in the work. The whole of would have the present value of 175,5001. The silver was this may, on a very moderate estimate, be taken to have 100 talents and 1775 shekels, being a half shekel from all ' raised the value of the whole in our present money to not
gold. Upon the whole, Professor Tychsen thinks that the 34. · He overlaid the boards with gold.'— The ques Hebrews understood both the arts of gilding and of overtion arises whether in this place and elsewhere gilding, laying with plates of metal, and that we must be left to or actual overlaying with plates of metal, is intended. It infer from analogy and probability which process of the is observable that the word ' gilding' never occurs in our two was employed in particular cases. translation, but overlaying' often; and yet there is no Some of these arguments seem to us to deserve great reason to question that the Hebrews were at some time or attention, and we have little hesitation in allowing their other acquainted with gilding, and it is therefore difficult application to the temple of Solomon in the instances to to conclude that in all cases where the word 78tzippah which Professor "Tychsen adverts; and, although with occurs it means only overlaying with plates of metal; and somewhat more hesitation, we may allow that collateral this may be the rather questioned, since the Septuagint
considerations give some probability to their application renders it by Kataxpuebw, 'to gild,' and is followed in even to a structure so much more ancient and so different this by the Vulgate. Modern translators have, however,
as the tabernacle. One of these considerations is, that generally adopted the ambiguous expression,' to overlay;'
gilding did not in ancient times imply so much inferiority yet one of them, Michaelis, uses the term to gild’in ap
to overlaying with plates as at present; for the ancient plication to the boards of the tabernacle. When Beckmann
gold-beaters had not the art of reducing the gold-leaf to was writing his article on gilding, he applied to Professor
anything like the tenuity which may now be produced, Tychsen to furnish him with some information as to the
and hence the ancient gilding was thick, durable, and rich. Scriptural notices on the subject. The professor, in his
Another is, that the art of gilding was of very high anreply, states the instances in which gilding or overlaying
| tiquity in Egypt. Herodotus mentions Egyptian statues are mentioned. They are, in the works of the tabernacle:
| ornamented with gilding; and he also mentions that he --the ark, which was covered with gold within and with
saw in the palace of Sais a cow of richly gilded wood, out, and also the staves which belonged to it-the table of
which had been made, in times long anterior to his own, shew-bread, with its staves-the altar of burnt incense
by Mycerinus (the son of Cheops, the pyramid-builder) to the boards which formed the sides and the west end of the
enclose the mummy of his daughter. Even at this day we tabernacle; these were forty-eight in number, each having
find traces of gilding on mummies and mummy-cases, and a surface of about forty-three feet and a half: besides
in some instances the mummies appear to have been gilt
all over. (See Long's Egyptian Antiquities, ii. 144.) which, there were the five bars on each side, which bound the whole together, and the pillars at the east end, which
Goguet thinks, indeed, that gilding was not known to the were also overlaid with gold. Then in Solomon's temple,
Greeks in the time of Homer. We do not feel that this the parts overlaid with gold were--the whole inside of the
position is fairly established by the instance he adduces ; house (1 Kings vi. 21, 22): the altar of incense (verse
and if it were so, it is not only easy to conceive, but is cer20-22): the wooden cherubim, above seventeen feet in
tainly true, that the Egyptians had at that time long been
acquainted with many arts which were not yet known to height (verse 28): the floor (verse 30): the doors of the
the Greeks. Goguet's instance is, that when the heifer oracle, on which were carved cherubim, palm-trees, and open flowers, so that the covering gold accurately exhibited
which Nestor was about to offer to Minerva had, according
to custom, its horns ornamented with gold, the process fol. the figures of the carved work (verse 32-35). • Now,' proceeds the professor, the question is, whether all these
lowed by the operator, who came with anvil, hammer, and were gilt, or covered, or overlaid with plates of gold. I
pincers, is evidently not that of gilding, but of overlaying
with plates of metal. See Origine des Lois, ii. 209. am acquainted with no work in which this subject is professedly discussed, and therefore I submit the following
37. • He made an hanging for the tabernacle door of blue, remarks to your consideration: The expression continually
and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen, of needleused for overlaying is 723, the original meaning of which
worki-Mr. Morier, in his Second Journey through Persia,
makes the following observation with a view to the illusin the Arabic, live, “ to be bright, clear," seems still to tration of this text. When travelling near Lahar, in the remain. The signification therefore is, " to make clear, to
north of Persia, he stopped at an encampment of the render bright;" but, as is commonly the case, nothing de
Eelauts, or Tartar nomades, inhabiting that country, to
examine the tent of the chief. cisive can be obtained from this etymology; for it is
It was composed of a
wooden frame of circular laths, which was fixed on the equally applicable to gilding as to overlaying with gold.'
ground, and then covered over with large felts, that were In some following observations the professor omits to avail himself of the important corroboration of his own view
fastened down by a cord ornamented with tassels of various (that the word translated to overlay' means only' to
colours. A curtain curiously worked by the women with
coarse needlework, of various colours, was suspended over render bright') which is afforded by the fact, that when
the door. In the King of Persia's tents, magnificent overlaying is undoubtedly intended, as in overlaying the
perdahs, or hangings of needlework, are suspended, as altar of burnt offering with plates of copper, quite another
well as on the doors of great mosques in Turkey; and word is used (hun) than that which refers to the cover
these circumstances combined, will perhaps illustrate the ing of the wood-work with gold. Upon the whole, “ hanging for the tabernacle door,” etc. To this we may Tychsen concludes, from a comparison of the different add, that curtains for the doors are not confined to tents in passages, that gilding is sometimes intended, rather than Persia. They are also used in summer for the doors of overlaying with plates of metal. He considers that the the sitting-rooms of palaces and private residences, and the drying of the wood, and the softness of gold, which, in re climate and peculiar customs of the country, certainly gard to staves, floors, etc., would soon be rubbed off, occa | render them preferable to wooden doors in the warm season.