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MOUNT ARARAT. is situated 32° 40' N. lat., and 61° 55' E. long. from Ferro, cone: it is also much lower (12,284 Paris feet), and its in the vast chain of Taurus and nearly in the centre be summit is clear of snow in summer. Several attempts tween the southern extremities of the Black and the Cas- have been made to reach the summit of the mountain, but pian Seas. Its perpendicular height is 16,254 Paris feet the only one crowned with success was that of Professor above the level of the sea, and 13,350 above the plains of the Parrot, who, after having failed in two attempts, was on river Aras (Araxes), and is always covered with snow, as the third enabled, according to his own account, to plant indeed is the whole mountain for three or four months in his feet upon the top of the great Ararat. This was on the year. It is a very grand object, being not merely a the 27th of September (O. S.) 1829. The summit was high summit in a chain of elevated mountains, but stand fouud to be a slightly convex and almost circular plating as it were apart and alone, the minor mountains, which form, about 200 Paris feet in diameter, composed of seem to branch out from it and decline away in the dis- eternal ice, unbroken by a rock or stone. On account of tance, being so perfectly insignificant in comparison, that the great distance nothing could be discerned with distinctthe sublime effect of this most magnificent mountain is not ness from this point. The account of this ascent was at all impaired, or its proportions hidden, by them. We published by Dr. Parrot, in his Reise zum Ararat, lately have ourselves gazed upon this mountain for days together, translated into English by Mr. Cooley. The fact of this at different distances and from various points of view, with ascent, as well as of a subsequent one said to have been intense and reverent admiration, called forth not more by made by M. Antomonoff, is not altogether free from susthe traditions connected with it, than by its surpassing picion, and is firmly denied by the natives, including even grandeur and wonderfully fine proportions. Other moun those who are described as having taken part in the adtains, more lofty, and more involved among the grandest venture, who state that the ascent was arrested at the limit scenes of this lower world,—and others not so high, but of the perpetual and solid ice which caps the top of the exhibiting more of the circumstances which we are apt to mountain. We found this alleged ascent to be discall “picturesque,' we had already seen ; but never had seen credited by all of whom we inquired in the neighbourhood any mountain which so much engaged the sentiment of ad of Ararat. It was denied as a fact, on the authority of miration, or which so much created the wish to associate it Armenians who were of the party, and denied as a possiin the mind with some circumstance of moral grandeur. It bility, in virtue of the general belief that no one is peris probably to the natural operation of some such feeling, mitted to approach the summit and view the remains of that the Aghur Dagh' owes the reputation which it enjoys the ark, which are supposed to be there preserved. of being the mountain of the ark; for in the absence of The entire aspect of the district in which the Aghur authentic tradition or historical proof, the selection would Dagh stands, underwent a great change, in an ineredibly naturally fall upon that which is not only the highest brief space of time, by an earthquake which commenced mountain in Armenia, but one of the noblest in the world. on the 20th of June (О. S.) 1840, and continued at interThis great mountain is separated into two heads, distin. vals till September. The mountain itself was shaken, and guished as the Great and Little Ararat, which may per vast masses of rock, ice, and snow, detached from its haps account for the plural expression mountains of the summit and lateral points, were thrown at one single bound text. The heads form distinct cones, separated by a wide from a height of 6000 feet into the valley of Akhori, where chasm or glen, which renders the distance between the they lay scattered over an extent of several miles. This two peaks 12,000 yards. One of them is much smaller valley was the scene of the greatest devastation, but the than the other and forms a more regular and pointed | destruction of houses and other property throughout the

district was awful. The great shock which occasioned all zling or pouring rain. The early autumnal rains begin this overthrow providentially occurred in the day-time, to fall late in October, or early in November, in frequent whence the loss of life was less than might have been ex showers; and then the land was ploughed, wheat and pected, as not more than fifty persons perished. See the barley were sowed, and the later grapes gathered. The account by Major Voskoboinikof in the Atheneum for trees lose their foliage in the latter part of November. 1841, p. 135.

The weather is warm by day, and cold, even frosty, at The Armenians have many religious establishments in night. Towards the end of the season, the snow begins to the neighbourhood of the mountain, on account of the fall on the mountains. holiness which they attach to it as the mountain of the • Winter' extends from the beginning of December ark. A city not far from it, called Nachshivan, they also to the beginning of February. The climate necessarily believe to be the oldest in the world, as having been varies with the situation of the country; but in general it founded by Noah when he quitted the ark. The name is becomes very cold as the season advances—particularly in said to be formed of Nach, a “ship' or ' large boat,' and the mountains, which are covered with snow, and where SCHIVAN, standing fast.

the cold, accompanied by the biting north wind, can

scarcely be borne even by natives of our northern climate. 7. Raven.' - 27 oreb, which, from its etymology, we Vehement rains, hail-storms, and falls of snow distinguish might translate the bird of night,' an appellation which this season. In the low plains the season is comparatively it owed to the tincture of its plumage, which was dark, mild; and, at the worst, days occur in which it is warm like the livery of night (or any ereb). A word of the in the open air when the sun shines and the wind does not same origin is extended by the Arabian writers to the

blow. rook, crow, and jackdaw, as well as to the raven: in fact

Cold season' extends from the beginning of February it seems to include all those species which are by Cuvier

to the beginning of April. It is cold at the beginning, but ranged under the genus Corvus. The predominant colour

gradually becomes warm, and vegetable nature assumes a of these is black, hence Ereb (the origin of the classic

revived appearance. Barley is ripe at Jericho, although Erebus), implying a sable hue, is a very proper word as a

but little wheat is in the ear. Thunder, lightning, and generic appellation corresponding to Corvus." As this bird

hail frequently occur; and at the end of the season the soon grows familiar, its docility might have induced the latter rains sometimes begin to fall. patriarch to think, that unless it found a fair resting-place,

Harvest extends from the beginning of April to the it would return again to the ark. When it is said that

beginning of June. In the first fortnight the latter rains it went forth to and fro,' we are not to suppose that the

fall heavily, but cease towards the end of April. These raven continued upon the wing for seven days and nights

rains are always chilly, and are often preceded by whirlwithout resting; for the words in the original imply a

winds, which raise great quantities of sand into the air. going forth, and returning to the same spot whence the

The results of the harvest depend on these, and on the audeparture was taken.

tumnal or early rains; which rendered them objects of

great anxiety to the Jews. The weather becomes warm 8. A dove.'—The nearest approximation to the truth as the season advances; and, with a serene sky, is genewill be, perhaps, to consider the original word (173)

rally delightful throughout Palestine. The heat is, howyonah) as a counterpart to Columba, the generic term for

ever, excessive in the great plain of Jericho, and other

large plains. On the sea-coast the heat is tempered by all the various kinds of dove with which we are acquainted.

morning and evening breezes from the sea. Different species of dove seem to be diffused over all the

Summer' comprehends the period from the beginning regions of the torrid and temperate zones. The fondness

of June to the beginning of August. The heat increases ; which these birds exhibit for home is well known, and for

and, in order to enjoy the bracing coolness of the night this reason, probably, the patriarch made choice of the

air, the inhabitants generally sleep on the tops of their dove for the purpose alluded to in the sacred narrative.

houses. 11. • An olive leaf plucked off.'That the leaf was · Hot season,' called by the Rabbins chum, or the great plucked off, is mentioned because it was only from this heat,' extends from the beginning of August to the beginfact that Noah could infer that the vegetation of the plains ning of October. During most of this season the heat is was becoming clear. That it was fresh, or green, would very intense, and even the nights can scarcely be called

alone have conveyed the assurance that it had not cool. been found floating on the water; for the olive being an The extremes of summer heat are felt in the large evergreen, its leaves will long remain fresh in water.

plains, and of winter cold, in the mountains. From April

to the middle of September there is no rain or thunder. 22. Seed-time and harvest, and cold and heat, and sum

No cloud is to be seen during May, June, July, and Aumer and winter.'-Here six divisions of the natural year

gust; but there is a copious dew at night. These dews, are indicated ; and it seems that the Jews adopted the

| however, only compensate for the want of rain to the more same division of the seasons, in reference to the labours of

hardy plants. As the season of heat advances, vegetable agriculture, which formed the principal employment of

life is dried up, and the face of the earth assumes a parched the mass of the population. The same divisions are still

and dry appearance, except where watered by streams or in use among the Arabs. A few particulars concerning

by human labour. There is a longer statement on the the period and natural phenomena of each season in the subject of this note in the Rev. T. H. Horne's · Critical Holy Land may be usefully given. The same statement

Introduction to the Scriptures,' from which the above facts applies more or less to the adjoining regions.

are abridged, with little alteration, and one still more Seed-time' extended from the beginning of October to copious, describing the climate, and processes of agriculthe beginning of December. During this season the ture from month to month, in our own Physical History weather is various, very often misty, cloudy, with miz- l of Palestine.


And God blessed Noah and his sons, and 1 God blesseth Noah. 4 Blood and murder are for said unto them, "Be fruitful, and multiply,

bidden. 8 God's covenant, 13 signified by the rain-and replenish the earth.
bow. 18 Noah replenisheth the world, žo planteth
a vineyard, 21 is drunken, and mocked of his son,

2 And the fear of you and the dread of 25 curseth Canaan, 26 blesseth Shem, 27 prayeth you shall be upon every beast of the earth, for Japheth, 29 and dieth.

and upon every fowl of the air, upon all that 1 Chap. 1. 28, and 8. 17.


moveth upon the earth, and upon all the fishes | creature of all flesh; and the waters shall no of the sea; into your hand are they delivered. more become a flood to destroy all flesh.

3 Every moving thing that liveth shall be 16 And the bow shall be in the cloud; and meat for you; even as the 'green herb have I will look upon it, that I may remember the I given you all things.

everlasting covenant between God and every 4 *But flesh with the life thereof, which is living creature of all flesh that is upon the the blood thereof, shall ye not eat.

earth. 5 And surely your blood of your lives will 17 And God said unto Noah, This is the I require; at the hand of every beast will I token of the covenant, which I have estarequire it, and at the hand of man; at the blished between me and all flesh that is upon hand of every man's brother will I require the the earth. life of man.

18 | And the sons of Noah, that went 6 *Whoso sheddeth man's blood, by man forth of the ark, were Shem, and Ham, and shall his blood be shed : "for in the image of Japheth: and Ham is the father of Canaan. God made he man.

19 These are the three sons of Noah: and 7 And you, be ye fruitful, and multiply; of them was the whole earth overspread. bring forth abundantly in the earth, and mul- | 20 | And Noah began to be an husbandtiply therein.

man, and he planted a vineyard : 8 | And God spake unto Noah, and to his 21 And he drank of the wine, and was sons with him, saying,

drunken; and he was uncovered within his 9 And I, behold, I establish my covenant tent. with you, and with your seed after you;

22 And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw 10 And with every living creature that is the nakedness of his father, and told his two with you, of the fowl, of the cattle, and of brethren without. every beast of the earth with you; from all 23 And Shem and Japheth took a garthat go out of the ark, to every beast of the ment, and laid it upon both their shoulders, earth.

and went backward, and covered the naked11 And 'I will establish my covenant with ness of their father; and their faces were you; neither shall all flesh be cut off any backward, and they saw not their father's more by the waters of a flood ; neither shall nakedness. there any more be a flood to destroy the 24 And Noah awoke from his wine, and earth.

knew what his younger son had done unto him. 12 And God said, This is the token of the 25 And he said, Cursed be Canaan; a covenant which I make between me and you servant of servants shall he be unto his brcand every living creature that is with you, for perpetual generations :

26 And he said, Blessed be the Lord God 13 I do set my bow in the cloud, and it of Shem; and Canaan shall be "his servant. shall be for a token of a covenant between me 27 God shall • 'oenlarge Japheth, and he and the earth.

shall dwell in the tents of Shem; and Canaan 14 ?And it shall come to pass, when I shall be his servant. bring a cloud over the earth, that the bow 28 9 And Noah lived after the flood three shall be seen in the cloud :

hundred and fifty years. 15 And I will remember my covenant, 29 And all the days of Noah were nine which is between me and you and every living hundred and fifty years : and he died.

8 Chap. 1. 29. 3 Levit. 17. 14. Matth. 26. 52. Rev. 13. 10. 5 Chap. 1. 87. m. 54. 9. 7 Ecclus. 13. 11, 12.

8 Heb. Chenaan,

9 Or, servant to them,

10 Or, persuade.

Verse 4. · Flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood reminded of the practice among the Abyssinians, as rethereof, shall ye not eat.'--This and the corresponding pro. corded by Bruce and Salt. Bishop Gleig, in a note to his hibitions in the Law are generally understood by the Hebrew edition of Stackhouse, mentions that not very many years doctors to interdict the cutting off the flesh of any still ago it was customary among the poor people in some parts living creature, and eating it while the life, i.e. the blood, of the Highlands of Scotland, to bleed their cattle occawas in it. Many Christian interpreters concur in this sionally, and dress their blood for food. Burckhardt sense, believing that there were in those times people so | informs us that the Bedouins are in the constant habit of savage and barbarous that they ate flesh raw, while it was eating on the spot the raw and reeking liver of whatever yet warm and palpitating from the living beast. We animals they kill. A wise and civilizing legislator would have no doubt that this law, by directing the flesh to be | endeavour to give some comprehensive rule to discourage perfectly exsanguinated before it was eaten, designed to such practices as have the very reverse of a humanizing exclude a large class of barbarous and sanguinary usages | effect. which had previously prevailed. The reader may be! 13. I do set my bow in the clouds.'-Different opinions have been entertained respecting the sense in which these | fully improved the time and means which they enjoyed. words are to be taken. Some of the older writers thought They knew that they were to be the depositaries of all the that the covenant now established gave the first existence knowledge and attainments of past ages, and to become the to the rainbow. And now that the physical operations of instructors of future generations. They were familiar the material world are better understood, and it is known with the cities, edifices, and other productions of the old that the rainbow is an effect which must, unless a special world. The ark itself was many years in building before miracle were interposed, result from certain conditions of their eyes. They lived together a year within its capa. the atmosphere, it has been sometimes imagined that the cious bosom, where they had the finest opportunity possible conditions under which this phenomenon is produced, did for the study of zoology; and next to Adam they were not exist before the Deluge. It is supposed that there probably better versed in that department of natural science may have been no rain. This conjecture is founded upon than any other mortals have ever been..... But let us what we have shown to be an erronevus interpretation of return to the mountains of Armenia, and see the little Gen. ii. 5, 6. Abarbanel ingeniously supposes that, al remnant of the human family issuing from the ark, and though the rainbow existed, it was not visible till after the commencing a new career, in which probably not a vestige Deluge-the mists and vapours which rose before that remained to awaken melancholy recollections or tender event being of so dense a nature, that the refraction of the associations not a relic of that grandeur and magnificence sun's rays upon the cloud could not be seen from the sur on which they had formerly gazed with admiration, or face of the earth. All this seems, however, little better contemplated with sentiments of unutterable compassion in than ingenious trifling. The inore closely the meaning of view of that awful catastrophe which they saw would the words are examined, the inore manifest it will appear speedily overwhelm their vain and guilty possessors. How that the real meaning is that which would be conveyed by long the ark itself continued as a monument of art, or a this paraphrase — The bow which of old I have set memorial of divine vengeance or divine mercy, or as a (any, not •I do set') in the cloud, I do now appoint for a

model of great design and exquisite skill in architecture,

whether for ship-building and naval enterprise, or for sign of the covenant,' etc. As the rainbow becomes visible

temples, towers, public or private edifices, Moses has not when on the one side the rain-clouds are about to with

told us, and tradition is not worth regarding. Noah, we draw, while on the other the sun re-appears, a more signi.

are informed, became a husbandman. He began the ficant sign of this covenant cannot be imagined.

world (as the phrase is) as Adam and his sons had done 20. • Noah began to be a husbandman.'-It is well to con

before him, by cultivating the earth. Here there is no sider that after the flood had subsided, mankind had not approach to savage life.' to begin life anew ; but that through the family of Noah, 21. · He drank the wine, and was drunken.'-It is imposwhatever civilization, and whatever knowledge in the arts sible not to respect the feeling which has led some interbelonging to it, existed before the Deluge, were undoubt- preters of Scripture to assume that Noah was ignorant of edly preserved by that family, and transmitted by it to the potent qualities of the fermented juice of the grape, the new generations. That Noah and his family were and that he was surprised by an intoxication which no civilized men, well versed in the arts of life, is very clear previous observation had led him to dread or to expect. Is from their history. If, therefore, we are entitled to in- it probable that in the long ages before the Deluge, accident fer that civilization prevailed during the ages from the had never disclosed the quality of fermented vegetable juices, Creation to the Flood, we can be perfectly certain that the which it so soon afterwards made known to him? Besides, savageism which still prevails in some countries, is not a does not the act of planting a vineyard, imply this previous type of the original condition of man, from which he has, knowledge, and indicate an intention to make wine. Meu in some times and countries, emerged, but is a degeneracy may plant some vines for the sake of eating grapes or in certain tribes and nations from the original condition. sherbets; but vineyards bave never been planted for any This is so obvious a consequence of the belief that all other purpose than to make wine with the fruit. Just as the existing races of mankind are descended from Noah, we plant orchards only when we intend to make cider, that it is surprising to hear grave Christian writers, and for any purpose of lesser delectation are content with and even divines, talk of the progress of man froin a con a few apple-trees in our gardens. dition of original savageness. Dr. Lindsley, whose dis- | Excellent wine is still made in the district of Ararat in sertation On the Primitive State of Mankind we have Armenia, and vineyards are abundant. Whether the vine cited under chap. vi., observes, that when Noah entered grows wild in Armenia, the writer of this note could not the ark he was 600 years old, and his sons little short of determine, having traversed the country in winter. It 100. They, therefore, had time and opportunity suffi probably does; for in a previous autumn he had gathered cient to become intimately acquainted with all the arts very small but good grapes from wild viues, growing on and learning which the antediluvians possessed. And we the banks of unfrequented streams in the neighbouring may reasonably conclude that they diligently and success- | country of Georgia.


4 And the sons of Javan; Elishah, and 1 The generations of Noah. 2 The sons of Japheth. | Tarshish, Kittim, and Dodanim.

6 The sons of Ham. 8 Nimrod the first monarch. 5 By these were the isles of the Gentiles 21 The sons of Shem.

divided in their lands; every one after his Now these are the generations of the sons of tongue, after their families, in their nations. Noah, Shem, Ham, and Japheth : and unto 6 1 ?And the sons of Ham; Cush, and them were sons born after the flood.

Mizraim, and Phut, and Canaan. 2 | 'The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and 1 7 And the sons of Cush ; Seba, and Havilah, Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Sabtah, and Raamah, and Sabtechah: and Meshech, and Tiras.

and the sons of Raamah ; Sheba, and Dedan. 3 And the sons of Gomer; Ashkenaz, and 1 8 And Cush begat Nimrod : he began to Riphath, and Togarmah.

be a mighty one in the earth. 11 Chron. 1.5 i Chron. 1. 8.

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9 He was a mighty hunter before the families, after their tongues, in their countries, LORD: wherefore it is said, Even as Nimrod and in their nations. the mighty hunter before the LORD.

21 T Unto Shem also, the father of all the 10 And the beginning of his kingdom was children of Eber, the brother of Japheth the *Babel, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, elder, even to him were children born. in the land of Shinar.

22 The children of Shem; Elam, and 11 Out of that land 'went forth Asshur, Asshur, and 'Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram. and builded Nineveh, and 'the city Rehoboth, | 23 And the children of Aram ; Uz, and and Calah,

Hul, and Gether, and Mash. 12 And Resen between Nineveh and 24 And Arphaxad begat ''Salah; and Calah : the same is a great city.

Salah begat Eber. 13 And Mizraim begat Ludim, and Ana- 25 “And unto Eber were born two sons : mim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim,

the name of one was Peleg; for in his days 14 And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (out was the earth divided ; and his brother's name of whom came Philistiin,) and Caphtorim. was Joktan.

15 | And Canaan begat 'Sidon his first-1 26 And Joktan begat Almodad, and Sheborn, and Heth,

leph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah, 16 And the Jebusite, and the Amorite, 27 And Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah, and the Girgasite,

28 And Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba, 17 And the Hivite, and the Arkite, and 29 And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab: the Sinite,

all these were the sons of Joktan. 18 And the Arvadite, and the Zemarite, | 30 And their dwelling was from Mesha, and the Hamathite: and afterward were the as thou goest, unto Sephar a mount of the east. families of the Canaanites spread abroad.

31 These are the sons of Shem, after their 19 And the border of the Canaanites was families, after their tongues, in their lands, from Sidon, as thou comest to Gerar, unto after their nations. 'Gaza; as thou goest, unto Sodom, and Go 32 These are the families of the sons of morrah, and Admah, and Zeboim, even unto Noah, after their generations, in their nations : Lasha.

and by these were the nations divided in the 20 These are the sons of Ham, after their earth after the flood.

3 Gr. Babylon. Or, he went out into Assyria. 5 Or, the streets of the city.

6 Heb. Tzidon.

11 1 Chron. 1. 19.

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81 Chron. 1. 17.

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10 Heb. Shelah.

Verse 1. · The generations.'—The list of names con- | manifest that all are not mentioned : and we have no tained in this chapter, barren as it may seem to common means of ascertaining how many are omitted. Thus of readers, is to those who search into the origin and anti the sons of Japhet, the line is pursued only in Gomer and quities of nations, an ancient fragment of the deepest Javan; Magog, Madai, Tubal, Meshech, and Tiras, are interest, which claims and has obtained the most profound dropped without any mention of their issue. Ham had and anxious consideration. The learned Bochart, in his four sons, of three of these the sons, or rather clannish or Phaleg, brought to bear on the subject all the resources of national descendants, are specified; but to Phut, the fourth, his consummate tact and vast erudition; and his labours no posterity is assigned. Shem had five sons, but the deleft comparatively little for others to accomplish. Later scendants of only two of them are recorded. It cannot be inquirers have corrected some errors into which he fell, supposed that those whose sequence is cut off, died without have amended some of his details, and in some cases have children; for we have evidence that nations of great hissuggested better alternatives; but the questions suggested torical importance may be traced up to them. 3. The in this chapter remain substantially as settled by him. immediate descendants of Shem, Ham, and Japheth, are, The latest writer on the subject is Dr. J. Pye Smith, in except in the instance of Nimrod and a few more, some of the article .NATIONS, DISPERSION OF,' in the Cyclop. of | which are doubtful, given by names not personal, but deBibl. Literature. This article contains an enumeration, with signative of tribes or nations, or their countries. Thus all the best authenticated identifications, of the nations named those terminating in the plural im, and those specified by in this chapter ; and, to save the space which a multitude the Gentilian adjective, the Jebusite, the Hivite, etc. of separate notes on every dame would occupy, we shall The following is the enumeration here referred to, with presently insert this enumeration in a somewhat condensed identifications embodying the results of great research, the form. It is, of course, based upon Bochart, but incor particulars of which may be seen in the works of the porates such of the improvements suggested by Michaelis, authors already named :-. Rosenmüller, Gesenius, Robinson, and Baumgarten, as I. Sons of JAPHETH, the lapetus of the Greeks. approve themselves to the judgment of the learned writer. i. Gomer. This name is traced in the Kimmerii of

Before proceeding to this list, it should be understood, Homer and Herodotus ; the Gomares (romapeis, Josephus, 1. That the enumeration comprises only nations existing Antiq. i. 6), whence Kelts, Gauls, Galatians; the Kymry; in the time of Moses, and probably of them only such as all the Celtic and Iberian tribes, Welsh, Gaelic, Irish, were more conspicuous, as more or less connected with the Breton; the Cimmerian Bosphorus, Crimea. history of the Israelites. 2. It does not appear that the Sons of Gomer :enumeration is complete even as regards the nations ex 1. Ashkenaz. Axeni, inhabitants of the southern coasts isting in the time of Moses. Of each of the sons of Noah) of the Euxine Sea, where we find a country Askania, and it gives the sons, but their sons (Noah's grandsons) it is ' a river Askanius, and a large part of Armenia; the Basques

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