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the superior ornaments, in the annexed engraving (Cut 13); have had engraved, excepting that the full sleeves do not but it is hard to say which of them it may have most re- reach below the elbow; and considering the sort of duties sembled in shape. It was not conical ; and this stipulation the priests had to perform, particularly in attending to the concerning the priest's bonnet, as distinguished from the fire of the altar, and in preparing the victims for sacrifice, mitre of the high-priest, probably indicates that to have we may be inclined to doubt the information which tells been conical. The predominance of the conical form in us that their sleeves reached to the wrist. Indeed, the the Egyptian mitres is shown by our cut. We do not Egyptian priests, in some of their ministrations, found it imagine that the mitre of the Jewish high-priest was like so convenient to have the upper part of their persons free, any of these. They were too much charged with the em that they wore an ample robe or skirt, bound round the blems and symbols of false gods to remain unaltered. But waist, and descending over the apron to the ancles, and also we think they show that the Hebrew mitre was something sustained by a strap which crossed the breast from the of the same kind, with the same arrangement of parts, and shoulders (see Figs. 2, 3, of Cut 7), and occasionally the equally imposing. Here is first the cap for the head; then, priest who offered libations and incense wore a long full garabove that, another cap, or towering ornament, of different ment, reaching from below the arms to the feet, supported colour, often of a conical shape, terminating sometimes in over the neck by straps (see Fig. 4 of Cut 7). The robe a cup or calyx. This is supported by a golden border, which covers the priest from neck to heels in Fig. 5, Cut 7, generally representing horns, and generally ornamented is seen only in processions; and this may be the woollen with a figure of the sun. Both these were idolatrous sym cloak already mentioned, since that was only laid aside on bols, the one of the moon and the other of the sun. The entering the temple. golden crown, of which Josephus speaks, appears to have - Girdle of needle-work.'—This was a piece of fine been of late introduction. But we may see that the Egyp twined linen, embroidered with blue, purple, and scarlet, tian symbols, denoting the idolatrous appropriation, were and which went around the body. Josephus says it was very markedly displaced by the plate of gold which the embroidered with flowers; and also states that it was four law directed to be tied, with a blue lace, in front of the fingers broad, and that, after being wound twice around mitre, bearing the appropriate words, 0717!? wij, Holi
the body, it was fastened in front, and the ends allowed to NESS TO JEHOVAH. And here it may be observed, that the
hang down to the feet, on common occasions; but that,
when officiating at the altar, the priest threw them over word translated plate' signifies a flower, and is rendered
his left shoulder, Maimonides says the girdle was three petal' (TréTahov), which may suggest that the plate was
fingers broad, and thirty-two cubits long; being, as its wrought with flowered work, or was itself in the form of a
length necessarily implies, wound many times around the petal. In ch. xxxix. 6, this ornament is called 72 nezer,
body. As this girdle was so narrow, its length, if this from a verb signifying to separate, and hence signifying ement be correct, will not seem extraordinary to those
a crown,' as a mark of distinction and separation. who are acquainted with the inordinate length of Oriental Although, therefore, we think that the mitre cannot be girdles, and the number of times they are carried around identified with any of our specimens, it seems to have been the body. This girdle was worn over the embroidered a head-dress much of the same class, and not differing more coat by the common priests, to whom this formed the outer from those of the Egyptian priests than these differed from garment. one another.
40. • Bonnets.'—These bonnets, or more properly tur39. The coat of fine linen.'-As this is scarcely more bans, seem to have been like those of the high-priest, except than named by Moses, we must, therefore, resort to the that they wanted the plate of gold. Josephus, however, Jewish writers, who describe it as a long robe, fastened at says that the turban of the high-priest had a purple cover the neck, and reaching to the ancles, with sleeves reaching over it: if so, this must have constituted another distinction to the wrist. This description answers very well to the between his mitre' and the bonnets' of his sons. priestly tunics which are shewn in some of the figures wel 42. • Linen breeches'-This piece of dress was fastened
round the loins, and descended so as to cover the thighs | the prevention of such obscenities as attended the worship (compare Lev. vi. 10; Ezek. xliv, 18), reaching to the of Baal-Peor. Now such drawers were commonly worn in knees, as the Jewish writers understand. The decency of | Egypt. The sculptures and paintings of that country contheir service was given as the express reason for this, and stantly present us with figures of workmen and servants Maimonides suspects there may have been some view to who have no other article of dress than a kind of short kilt
or apron, sometimes simply bound about the loins and lapping over in front. Others have short and loose drawers; and a third kind, fitting closely and reaching to the knees, appears in the figures of some idols-as in that which we have annexed. All these were worn by the priests, in common with other persons of the upper classes, under their other robes. This last sort seems to have been peculiar to the gods and the priests, whose attire was often adapted to that of the idols they worshipped. There was this difference, that, in Israel, drawers seem to have been peculiar to the priests; whereas they were, of their different kinds, worn by all classes in Egypt.
In concluding this account of the priestly robes, it may be useful to repeat that the robes common to all were-the drawers, the cmbroidered coat, the girdle, and the turban; but, besides this, the high-priest wore the ephod, the robe of the ephod with its bells and pomegranates, the breastplate over the ephod, the shoulder-pieces of onyx-stone, and the engraved ornament of pure gold in front of his turban. The rabbins seem to have the sanction of the Scripture for their opinion, that the robes were so essential a part of the priestly character, that without them a priest had no more right than private persons, or even foreigners, to officiate at the altar. It seems that the old robes of the priests were unravelled, to be burnt as wicks for the lamps at the feast of tabernacles. What was done with those of the high-priest is not known; but analogy would seem to
render it probable that they were similarly used for the 14. DRAWERS AND GIRDLE.
lamps in the tabernacle.
8 And thou shalt bring his sons, and put 1 The sacrifice and ceremonies of consecrating the coats upon them.
priests. 38 The continual burnt offering. 45 God's | 9 And thou shalt gird them with girdles,
promise to dwell among the children of Israel. Aaron and his sons, and 'put the bonnets on And this is the thing that thou shalt do unto them : and the priest's office shall be their's them to hallow them, to minister unto me in | for a perpetual statute : and thou shalt 'conthe priest's office: "Take one young bullock, | secrate® Aaron and his sons. and two rams without blemish,
10 And thou shalt cause a bullock to be 2 And unleavened bread, and cakes un brought before the tabernacle of the conleavened tempered with oil, and wafers un gregation : and 'Aaron and his sons shall put leavened anointed with oil: of wheaten flour their hands upon the head of the bullock. shalt thou make them.
11 And thou shalt kill the bullock before 3 And thou shalt put them into one basket, the LORD, by the door of the tabernacle of the and bring them in the basket, with the bullock congregation. and the two rams.
12 And thou shalt take of the blood of the 4 And Aaron and his sons thou shalt bring bullock, and put it upon the horns of the altar unto the door of the tabernacle of the con- with thy finger, and pour all the blood beside gregation, and shalt wash them with water. the bottom of the altar.
5 And thou shalt take the garments, and 13 And "thou shalt take all the fat that put upon Aaron the coat, and the robe of the covereth the inwards, and the caul that is ephod, and the ephod, and the breastplate, above the liver, and the two kidneys, and the and gird him with the curious girdle of the fat that is upon them, and burn them upon the ephod:
altar. 6 And thou shalt put the mitre upon his | 14 But the flesh of the bullock, and his head, and put the holy crown upon the mitre. skin, and his dung, shalt thou burn with fire
7 Then shalt thou take the anointing oil, without the camp: it is a sin offering. and pour it upon his head, and anoint him. I 15 Thou shalt also take one ram; and
6 Levit, 1.4.
1 Levit, 8.2.
2 Chap. 30. 25.
Heb. bind. Heb. fill the hand of. - 5 Chap. 28. 41. 8 It seemeth by anatomy, and the Hebrew doctors, to be the midriff.
and his his head.
ingy, or And the
Aaron and his sons shall put their hands upon even of that which is for Aaron, and of that the head of the ram.
which is for his sons : 16 And thou shalt slay the ram, and thou 28 And it shall be Aaron's and his sons' shalt take his blood, and sprinkle it round by a statute for ever from the children of about upon the altar.
Israel : for it is an heave offering : and it 17 And thou shalt cut the ram in pieces, I shall be an heave offering from the children and wash the inwards of him, and his legs, and of Israel of the sacrifice of their peace offerput them unto his pieces, and 'unto his head. ings, even their heave offering unto the LORD.
18 And thou shalt burn the whole ram 29 And the holy garments of Aaron upon the altar : it is a burnt offering unto | shall be his sons' after him, to be anointed the LORD: it is a sweet savour, an offering therein, and to be consecrated in them. made by fire unto the Lord.
30 And "that son that is priest in his stead 19 And thou shalt take the other ram; shall put them on seven days, when he cometh and Aaron and his sons shall put their hands into the tabernacle of the congregation to upon the head of the ram.
minister in the holy place. * 20 Then shalt thou kill the ram, and take 31 And thou shalt take the ram of the of his blood, and put it upon the tip of the consecration, and seethe his flesh in the holy right ear of Aaron, and upon the tip of the place. right ear of his sons, and upon the thumb of 32 And Aaron and his sons shall eat the their right hand, and upon the great toe of flesh of the ram, and the bread that is in the their right foot, and sprinkle the blood upon basket, by the door of the tabernacle of the the altar round about.
congregation. 21 And thou shalt take of the blood that is 33 And they shall eat those things whereupon the altar, and of the anointing oil, and with the atonement was made, to consecrate sprinkle it upon Aaron, and upon his gar and to sanctify them: but a stranger shall not ments, and upon his sons, and upon the gar eat thereof, because they are holy. ments of his sons with him: and he shalĩ be 34 And if ought of the flesh of the conhallowed, and his garments, and his sons, and secrations, or of the bread, remain unto the his sons' garments with him.
morning, then thou shalt burn the remainder 22 Also thou shalt take of the ram the fat | with fire: it shall not be eaten, because it is and the rump, and the fat that covereth the holy. inwards, and the caul above the liver, and the | 35 And thus shalt thou do unto Aaron, two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and to his sons, according to all things which and the right shoulder; for it is a ram of I have commanded thee : seven days shalt consecration:
thou consecrate them. 23 And one loaf of bread, and one cake of 36 And thou shalt offer every day a buloiled bread, and one wafer out of the basket lock for a sin offering for atonement: and of the unleavened bread that is before the thou shalt cleanse the altar, when thou hast LORD:
made an atonement for it, and thou shalt 24 And thou shalt put all in the hands of anoint it, to sanctify it. Aaron, and in the hands of his sons; and 37 Seven days thou shalt make an atoneshalt ''wave them for a wave offering before ment for the altar, and sanctify it ; and it the LORD.
shall be an altar most holy : whatsoever 25 And thou shalt receive them of their toucheth the altar shall be holy. hands, and burn them upon the altar for a | 38 | Now this is that which thou shalt burnt offering, for a sweet savour before the offer upon the altar ; 'two lambs of the first LORD: it is an offering made by fire unto the year day by day continually. LORD.
39 The one lamb thou shalt offer in the 26 And thou shalt take the breast of the morning; and the other lamb thou shalt offer ram of Aaron's consecration, and wave it for at even : a wave offering before the Lord: and it shall 40 And with the one lamb a tenth deal of be thy part.
flour mingled with the fourth part of an bin 27 And thou shalt sanctify the breast of of beaten oil; and the fourth part of an hin of the wave offering, and the shoulder of the wine for a drink offering. heave offering, which is waved, and which is 41 And the other lamb thou shalt offer at heaved up, of the ram of the consecration, éven, and shalt do thereto according to the
9 Or, upon. 10 Heb. shake to and fro. 11 Heb. he of his sons. 19 Levit. 8, 31. Matth. 12. 4. 13 Numb. 28. 3.
meat offering of the morning, and according to 44 And I will sanctify the tabernacle of the the drink offering thereof, for a sweet savour, congregation, and the altar: I will sanctify an offering made by fire unto the LORD. also both Aaron and his sons, to minister to
42 This shall be a continual burnt offering me in the priest's office. throughout your generations at the door of 45 And I will dwell among the children the tabernacle of the congregation before the of Israel, and will be their God. LORD: where I will meet you, to speak there | 46 And they shall know that I am the unto thee.
LORD their God, that brought them forth out 43 | And there I will meet with the chil of the land of Egypt, that I may dwell among dren of Israel, and 'the tabernacle shall be them: I am the LORD their God. sanctified by my glory.
14 Or, Israel.
15 Levit. 26. 12. 2 Cor. 6. 16.
Verse 13. · The fut that covereth the inwards, and the caul that is above the liver.'— The fat that covereth the inwards' is the fat thin membrane extended over the intestines, and attached to the concave part of the liver, called the omentum, or caul. And by the caul above the liver.' is commonly understood, after the Septuagint, the great lobe of the liver (major lobus hepatis), which, although part of the liver itself, may very properly be rendered the lobe over' or 'by the liver.''Às to the caul, it was a common offering in the sacrifices of the ancient
heathen; and Strabo remarks, that the Persians, in their sacrifices, offered nothing else upon the altar. Calmet, who gives these instances in his Commentaire Littéral, cites Athenæus in evidence that the ancients ate the liver covered with, or enfolded in, the caul: and he thinks it probable that the liver of the victim was, in the same manner, wrapped up in the caul before it was laid upon the altar; and that this is what Moses means by the .caul above' or upon the liver.
petual incense before the LORD throughout
your generations. 1 The altar of incense. 11 The ransom of souls.
9 Ye shall offer no strange incense thereon, 17 The brasen laver. 22 The holy anointing oil. 34 The composition of the perfume.
nor burnt sacrifice, nor meat offering ; neither
shall ye pour drink offering thereon. And thou shalt make an altar to burn incense 10 And Aaron shall make an atonement upon : of shittim wood shalt thou make it. upon the horns of it once in a year with the
2 A cubit shall be the length thereof, and blood of the sin offering of atonements : once a cubit the breadth thereof; foursquare shall in the year shall he make atonement upon it it be: and two cubits shall be the height there throughout your generations : it is most holy of: the horns thereof shall be of the same. unto the LORD.
3•And thou shalt overlay it with pure gold, 11 | And the LORD spake unto Moses, the 'top thereof, and the sides thereof round saying, about, and the horns thereof; and thou shalt 12 "When thou takest the sum of the chilmake unto it a crown of gold round about. dren of Israel after their number, then shall
4 And two golden rings shalt thou make to they give every man a ransom for his soul it under the crown of it, by the two corners unto the LORD, when thou numberest them; thereof, upon the two sides of it shalt thou that there be no plague among them, when make it; and they shall be for places for the thou numberest them. staves to bear it withal.
13 This they shall give, every one that 5 And thou shalt make the staves of shittim , passeth among them that are numbered, half wood, and overlay them with gold.
a shekel after the shekel of the sanctuary : 6 And thou shalt put it before the vail that (''a shekel is twenty gerahs :) an half shekel is by the ark of the testimony, before the shall be the offering of the LORD. mercy seat that is over the testimony, where I 14 Every one that passeth among them will meet with thee.
that are numbered, from twenty years old and 7 And Aaron shall burn thereon #sweet in- | above, shall give an offering unto the LORD. cense every morning: when he dresseth the 15 The rich shall not "give more, and the lamps, he shall burn incense upon it.
poor shall not "give less than half a shekel, 8 And when Aaron 'lighteth the lamps 'at when they give an offering unto the Lord, to even, he shall burn incense upon it, a per- | make an atonement for your souls. 1 Heb. roof. 2 Heb. walls. 8 Heb. ribs. 4 Heb. incense of spices. 3 Or, setteth up. 6 Heb. causeth to ascend.
7 Heb. between the two evens.
8 Num. 1. 2. 5. 9 Heb. them that are to be numbered.
12 Heb. diminish.
10 Levit. 27. 25. Num. 3. 47.
Ezek. 45. 12.
16 And thou shalt take the atonement 27 And the table and all his vessels, and money of the children of Israel, and shalt ap- the candlestick and his vessels, and the altar point it for the service of the tabernacle of the of incense, congregation ; that it may be a memorial unto 28 And the altar of burnt offering with all the children of Israel before the LORD, to his vessels, and the laver and his foot. make an atonement for your souls.
29 And thou shalt sanctify them, that they 17 9 And the LORD spake unto Moses, may be most holy: whatsoever toucheth them saying,
shall be holy. 18 Thou shalt akso make a laver of brass, 30 And thou shalt anoint Aaron and his and his foot also of brass, to wash withal: and sons, and consecrate them, that they may mithou shalt put it between the tabernacle of the nister unto me in the priest's office. congregation and the altar, and thou shalt put | 31 And thou shalt speak unto the children water therein.
of Israel, saying, This shall be an holy anoint19 For Aaron and his sons shall wash their ing oil unto me throughout your generations. hands and their feet thereat :
32 Upon man's flesh shall it not be poured, 20 When they go into the tabernacle of the neither shall ye make any other like it, after congregation, they shall wash with water, that | the composition of it: it is holy, and it shall they die not; or when they come near to the be holy unto you. altar to minister, to burn offering made by 33 Whosoever compoundeth any like it, or fire unto the Lord:
whosoever putteth any of it upon a stranger, 21 So they shall wash their hands and their shall even be cut off from his people. feet, that they die not: and it shall be a | 34 | And the LORD said unto Moses, statute for ever to them, even to him and to Take unto thee sweet spices, stacte, and onycha, his seed throughout their generations.
and galbanum ; these sweet spices with pure 22 | Moreover the LORD spake unto Moses, frankincense : of each shall there be a like saying,
weight : 23 Take thou also unto thee principal 35 And thou shalt make it a perfume, a spices, of pure myrrh five hundred shekels, and | confection after the art of the apothecary, of sweet cinnamon half so much, even two hun- stempered together, pure and holy: dred and fifty shekels, and of sweet calamus 36 And thou shalt beat some of it very two hundred and fifty shekels,
| small, and put of it before the testimony in the 24 And of cassia five hundred shekels, after tabernacle of the congregation, where I will the shekel of the sanctuary, and of oil olive meet with thee: it shall be unto you most an hin:
holy. 25 And thou shalt make it an oil of holy 37 And as for the perfume which thou shalt ointment, an ointment compound after the art make, ye shall not make to yourselves accordof the 'apothecary: it shall be an holy anoint- ing to the composition thereof: it shall be ing oil.
unto thee holy for the LORD. 26 And thou shalt anoint the tabernacle of 38 Whosoever shall make like unto that, the congregation therewith, and the ark of the to smell thereto, shall even be cut off from his testimony,
15 Heb, salted.
Verse 1. An altar to burn incense upon.'--This altar of scribe the whole altar as overlaid with gold. In verse 6 shittim wood covered with pure gold, whence it is some- it is directed that the altar should be placed, before the times distinguished as the golden altar,' was very small, | vail,' that is, the veil separating the most holy from the being little more than half a yard square; but it was holy place. The Rabbins understood that the table of higher in proportion than the other altars, being twice as shew-bread stood at the distance of two cubits and a half high as broad. Like the altar of burnt offerings, it had from the north wall of the holy place, and the candlestick • horns,' with an ornamental rim (crown'), like the ark | Opposite to it at an equal distance from the south wall, the and table of shew-bread; it had also rings with staves by altar of incense being in the middle between them. Jowhich it might be carried from place to place. The word sephus seems to concur; and from comparing these staterendered "top,' in verse 3, has been variously understood : ments with the text, we consider that it stood equidistant the Septuagint and Vulgate make it a grate;' others sup from the table and candlestick, but nearer to the veil than pose it was a vessel containing the fire upon the altar: but either. It would seem. from verses 7 and 8, as it only the as the word (23 gag) means in other places the flat roof of high-priest was allowed to offer incense on this altar; but a house, we have little doubt that it here means merely the this is not the only instance in which the functions allotted upper surface of the altar itself; and this reading best agrees with the context, the intention of which is to de- | priest certainly did perform this service on great occa