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gold, of beds of the ne cherube other

i opred the othake one chey seat.

CHAPTER XXV.

gold, of beaten work shalt thou make them, in

the two ends of the mercy seat. 1 What the Israelites must offer for the making of the 19 And make one cherub on the one end, tabernacle. 10 The form of the ark. 17 The mercy

and the other cherub on the other end : cven seat, with the cherubims. 23 The table, with the furniture thereof. 31 The candlestick, with the in

of the mercy seat shall ye make the cherubims struments thereof.

on the two ends thereof.

20 And the cherubims shall stretch forth And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, their wings on high, covering the mercy seat

2 Speak unto the children of Israel, that with their wings, and their faces shall look one they bring me an offering : 'of every man to another ; toward the mercy seat shall the that giveth it willingly with his heart ye shall faces of the cherubims be. take my offering.

21 And thou shalt put the mercy seat 3 And this is the offering which ye shall above upon the ark; and in the ark thou take of them ; gold, and silver, and brass, shalt put the testimony that I shall give

4 And blue, and purple, and scarlet, and thee. 'fine linen, and goats' hair,

22 And there I will meet with thee, and I 5 And rams skins dyed red, and badgers | will commune with thee from above the mercy skins, and shittim wood,

seat, from 'between the two cherubims which 6 Oil for the light, spices for anointing oil, are upon the ark of the testimony, of all things and for sweet incense,

which I will give thee in commandment unto 7 Onyx stones, and stones to be set in the the children of Israel. Sephod, and in the "breastplate.

23 | Thou shalt also make a table of 8 And let them make me a sanctuary ; shittim wood : two cubits shall be the length that I may dwell among them.

thereof, and a cubit the breadth thereof, and a 9 According to all that I shew thee, after cubit and a half the height thereof. the pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern 24 And thou shalt overlay it with pure of all the instruments thereof, even so shall ye gold, and make thereto a crown of gold round make it.

about. 10 1 ’And they shall make an ark of 25 And thou shalt make unto it a border shittim wood : two cubits and a half shall be of an hand breadth round about, and thou the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the shalt make a golden crown to the border breadth thereof, and a cubit and a half the thereof round about. height thereof.

26 And thou shalt make for it four rings il And thou shalt overlay it with pure | of gold, and put the rings in the four corners gold, within and without shalt thou overlay it, that are on the four feet thereof. and shalt make upon it a crown of gold round 27 Over against the border shall the rings about. .

be for places of the staves to bear the table. 12 And thou shalt cast four rings of gold 28 And thou shalt make the staves of for it, and put them in the four corners there shittim wood, and overlay them with gold, of; and two rings shall be in the one side of that the table may be borne with them. it, and two rings in the other side of it.

29 And thou shalt make the dishes thereof, 13 And thou shalt make staves of shittim and spoons thereof, and covers thereof, and wood, and overlay them with gold.

bowls thereof, ''to cover withal : of pure gold 14 And thou shalt put the staves into the shalt thou make them. - rings by the sides of the ark, that the ark may | 30 And thou shalt set upon the table shewbe borne with them.

bread before me alway. 15 The staves shall be in the rings of the 31 1 2 And thou shalt make a candlestick ark : they shall not be taken from it. | of pure gold : of beaten work shall the can

16 And thou shalt put into the ark the dlestick be made : his shaft, and his branches, testimony which I shall give thee.

his bowls, his knops, and his flowers, shall be 17 | And thou shalt make a mercy seat of of the same. pure gold: two cubits and a half shall be the | 32 And six branches shall come out of the length thereof, and a cubit and a half the sides of it; three branches of the candlestick breadth thereof.

out of the one side, and three branches of the 18 And thou shalt make two cherubims of candlestick out of the other side:

1 Heb. take for me. 2. Or, heave offering.

8 Or, of the matter of the mercy seat.

8 Chap. 35. 5.
9 Num. 7. 99.

4 Or, silk.
10 Chap. 37. 10.

5 Chap. 29. 4. Chap. 28. 15. 7 Chap. 37. 1.
1. Or, to pour out withal. 19 Chap. 37. 17.

33 Three bowls made like unto almonds, 36 Their knops and their branches shall be with a knop and a flower in one branch ; and of the same: all of it shall be one beaten three bowls made like almonds in the other work of pure gold. branch, with a knop and a flower : so in the 37 And thou shalt make the seven lamps six branches that come out of the candle- thereof: and they shall 'light the lamps stick.

thereof, that they may give light over against 34 And in the candlestick shall be four 'it. bowls made like unto almonds, with their 38 And the tongs thereof, and the snuffknops and their flowers.

dishes thereof, shall be of pure gold. 35 And there shall be a knop under two 39 Of a talent of pure gold shall he make branches of the same, and a knop under two it, with all these vessels. branches of the same, and a knop under two 40 And "look that thou make them after branches of the same,' according to the six their pattern, ''which was shewed thee in the branches that proceed out of the candlestick. | mount.

13 Or, cause to ascend, 14 Heb. the face of it. 15 Acts 7. 44. Ileb. 8.5. 16 Heb, rohich thou wast caused to see.

Verse 2. Speak unto the children of Israel,' etc.--As 1 ginally derived from patriarchal usages or tradition. On we are now to enter upon the illustration of the ritual in. this side occur such names as those of Witsius, Meyer, stitutions which the Lord judged suitable for the Hebrew and, more lately, of Dr. Woodward and Dr. Wait: and it people, our attention is called to a preliminary question of may be observed that until very recently the views of the considerable interest, and by which much discussion has great majority of writers who have occasion to notice the been first and last provoked, that is, to what extent the question take this direction. ceremonial observances, and especially the forms and ap Now this question has until recently continued to be paratus of divine worship, were similar to those of the argued entirely upon its original grounds. The advocates Egyptians; and, if a similarity existed, whether the imi of the alleged imitation have gone on illustrating the artation was with the Hebrews or the Egyptians ?

guments of Spencer, or adducing further proofs from emi.. The view which, after much anxious consideration, the nent writers; and their opponents have proceeded copying present writer was led to take of this interesting question, Witsius, or following his line of argument and evidence, was put forth in 1839 in the chapter, the Law, in the both parties appearing to be utterly unconscious of the new Pictorial History of Palestine. Since then several authors sources of evidence which have been opened within the of great credit in this country and abroad have signified present century, and by which the state of the question has more or less distinctly their adhesion to similar interpreta been entirely altered, from one of argument to one of fact. tions. And as the evidence rests on facts, capable of being These sources are found in the ancient paintings and sculpmanifested to the eye, and therefore difficult for any un tures of Egypt, which exbibit, with great minuteness of prejudiced mind to resist, it may be confidently expected detail, not only the military and civil usages of that exthat this which was a few years since the exceptional traordinary nation, but portray all the rites and ceremonies opinion, will ere long become, if it be not already, the of their religion, with all the acts which were performed, current interpretation, and will be received as an important all the utensils which were employed, and all the dresses addition to the resources for scriptural illustration which and ornaments which were worn by the Egyptian priesthave in our own time been opened up. As it is ne hood, in the services of their gods. Now, with reference cessary that the reader should possess the clue to the to this last class of subjects, it is clear that they must afford Egyptian illustration, which it is our intention to intro ample materials for settling the question as to similarity at duce; we shall here produce it in some remarks taken, least. For one who has made himself acquainted with the with slight alteration, from the work to which we have minute descriptions of the tabernacle, the utensils of wore referred.

ship, and the priestly attire, which are given in the books That a degree of similarity did exist, in some par I of Moses, will casily be able to recognise the resemblances ticulars, was early discovered by those scholars who had or differences which the Egyptian monuments offer. The made themselves acquainted with as much as could result will set the question at rest by establishing, beyond formerly be known (through the reports of Greek and all further dispute, that very important similarities do Latin writers) of the Egyptian rites and institutions. exist, and which can be denied by no one without betrayMaimonides, although a Jew, and an ardent advocate of ing great ignorance of plain matters of fact. the divine origin and anti-idolatrous object of the Mosaical A selection of the facts by which this similarity is estasystem, notices this similarity, and attributes a designed blished will presently be offered: and mean while the imitation to that system on grounds which he explains and question arises, · How this similarity was produced ?' We justifies. The same view has been ably elaborated and sce not, ourselves, how to avoid the conclusion that sustained by various writers, among which are Sir John some Egyptian practices were admitted into the Hebrew Marsham, and, above all, the eminently learned Spencer, ritual. in his great work De Legibus Hebræorum; and after him In the first place, the points in which analogies hare by Moses Lowman and others. Another class of Biblical been found are too numerous and too peculiar to have been scholars seemed to start with pain at the idea of such an | the result of accidental coincidence. imitation, and consider it a point of religious duty to con They could not have had a common origin in patriarchal tend for the originality of every pin of the tabernacle, and practice, for that practice had no ritual from which such of every thread in the dress of the high priest. They analogous usages could be transmitted. have argued either that there was no such similarity in the Those who suppose that the Egyptians copied the opposite party alleged ; or that, although some similarities similar practices from the Hebrews, fix upon the time of might be found, they must be accounted for by the supposi Joseph's power and popularity, as that when such imitation that the Egyptians borrowed from the Hebrews; or tion was most likely to have taken place. But it is forthat, all the analogics which can be discovered were ori. I gotten that the Hebrews had then none of those ritual

observances for the Egyptians to imitate, nor, indeed, until country had usurped a powerful influence over their minds, after they had left Egypt. It would be difficult to assign is not only likely in itself, but is demonstrateả by the sad any subsequent date to the imitation. The Hebrew ritual, affair of the golden calf, and by subsequent manifestations as exhibited in the wilderness, was not likely to be well of a tendency towards the idolatries of Egypt. Then the known to the Egyptians; or, if known, was it at all pro worship of Egypt was full of rites, ceremonies, and appabable that this proud and highly civilized people would ratus, which, while they were considered as in themselves imitate the ritual of their escaped bondmen, against whom suitable, were also made symbolical of hidden mysteries, as their minds were probably in a state of high exasperation ? was the case with the rites of all pagan systems. Now, the And, after the Israelites had entered the Promised Land, symbolical or typical nature of the Hebrew ritual is alit was not until the time of Solomon that the Hebrew ritual lowed on all hands, and is in the fullest sense admitted by exhibited a sufficiently imposing appearance to attract the the present writer. Yet we know not that any one has attention of the Egyptians. The intercourse which then alleged that the heathen borrowed their symbolizations existed between the two countries, and the marriage of from the Jews, although the similarity is as great in this the Hebrew king to an Egyptian princess, would point to as in any other matter. this reign as by far the most favourable date for such an Thus the Hebrews, in their defection to the religion of imitation. But then-the sculptures and paintings from the Egyptians, had necessarily become habituated to a which we obtain the knowledge that analogies did actually highly ceremonial and symbolical worship, whereby their exist, date much earlier than the time of Solomon-some minds may well be supposed to have been incapacitated of them, even earlier than the departure of the Israelites from wholly returning to the plain and simple system of from Egypt. This, as we take it, is conclusive against any their fathers. The apostle Paul manifestly assigns the imitation of the Hebrew ritual by the Egyptians.

origin of the law to some defection of this nature. “WhereSuch an imitation would indeed be most improbable on fore, then, serveth the law?' he asks; and answers, ' It almost every ground on which it could be considered. was added because of transgressions.' (Gal. iii. 19.) The Egyptians were an old nation, organized in all its In this state of the case, and after the people had uninstitutions, including—we have not the least reason to equivocally evinced their tendencies by the feast of the doubt-its religious institutions and ceremonies, long be. golden calf, it seems natural and probable that a cerefore the Israelites received their ritual system ; and since, monial and symbolical form of worship should be contheir hatred and absolute prohibition of innovation and ceded to them-as like as might be, in its mere external change in all that they had organised, has been in all time forms, to that which they were predisposed to follow- but notorious, the supposed imitation would, à priori, be directed to wholly different objects, and carefully purified most unlikely, even were their relations with the Israelites from all that might, even in remote tendency, lead to equal and amicable, which they certainly were not. idolatrous or unholy associations and practices. Such a

As only visible things were capable of being so repre course was in unison with those accommodations to the sented as to furnish that positive proof of similarity to ideas and prejudices of the people, of which other exwhich we have adverted, we shall not insist upon simi- amples might be produced. We may the less hesitate about larities which do not admit of this degree of proof; this, when we reflect that the ritual law, as a whole, was although, certainly, since the existence of these establishes only intended for a particular people, and for temporary the general principle of accommodation, the existence of purposes; and we have only a right to expect to find that it other instances, not susceptible of the same kind of proof, was good and suitable for its immediate objects. This becomes the more probable, when properly supported by made it the best under all the circumstances; and a system other considerations.

better absolutely-as having larger objects, and as being . We have now only to state the considerations which adapted to all times and all people-would have been unmay be presumed to have determined that degree of ac suitable and bad for the limited purpose of the Mosaical commodation to Egyptian usages which we shall presently Law. endeavour to substantiate by ocular proof. And, in the Then, under these considerations, regarding the ritual first instance, it may be well to hear Maimonides :- As at law as an accommodation to the prejudices and dangers of that time the universal practice and the mode of worship the Hebrews who, as a people, were obviously not prepared in which all were educated was, that various kinds of ani to receive moral precepts and religious doctrines apart mals should be offered in the temples in which their idols from the ceremonial observances and symbolical appenwere placed, and before whom their worshippers were to dages in which the greater part of the world had then prostrate themselves and to burn incense; and as there agreed to envelope them, we shall see occasion to admire were also certain persons set apart for the service of those the wisdom with which the system founded on this contemples (which, as has been already shown, were erected | cession was adapted to their condition and capacities, and in honour of the sun and moon, and other planetary was moulded into a safeguard against idolatry, and made bodies), therefore that divine wisdom and providence of an instrument of assisting that separation of this people God, which so eminently shines forth in all his creatures, from all others, which was one of the essential conditions did not ordain the abandonment or abolition of all such of their existence as the chosen race. The manner in worship. For it is the well-known disposition of the which its circumstances were framed to shadow forth the human heart to cleave to that to which it has been habi- | more broad and spiritual dispensation which was to follow, tuated, even in things to which it is not naturally inclined. invested it in some degree with a spiritual character, To have decreed the entire abolition of all such worship which we shall hereafter have occasion to notice. And would, therefore, have been the same as if a prophet then, in order to keep the nature of the community conshould come and say, “ It is the command of God, that in stantly in view, all the ceremonial institutions had rethe day of trouble ye shall not pray, nor fast, nor publicly ference to God, not only as the sovereign of the universe, seek him; but your worship shall be purely mental, and but as the King of the nation. The Israelites were taught shall consist in meditation, not in action." On these ac. to feel that the tabernacle was not only the temple of counts the Creator retained those modes of worship, but JEHOVAU, but the palace of their King ; that the table transferred the veneration from created things and shadows supplied with wine and shew-bread was the royal table; to his own NAME, and commauded us to direct our reli- | that the altar was the place where the provisions of the gious services to HIMSELF. This learned Jew then goes monarch were prepared ; that the priests were the royal on to illustrate by examples the view he takes; and this servants, and were bound to attend not only to sacred but view seems just in itself, while it is amply confirmed by also to secular affairs, and were to receive, as their reward, evidence which did not exist, or rather had not been the first tithes, which the people, as subjects, were led to brought to light, at the time he wrote.

consider as part of the revenue which was due to God, That, during their sojourn in Egypt, the Israelites had their immediate sovereign. Other things, of a less prodeparted very widely from the patriarchal faith, and that minent and important nature, had reference to the same the pomps, processions, and imposing ordinances of that great end. (Exod. xxv. 8, 9; Lev. xxi. 6, 8, 17; Num. VOL. I.

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xxviii. 2; Deut xxiii. 4; compare Ezek. xliv. 7; and that gold was in such plenty that it was but thrice the see Jahn's Biblical Archæology, sect. 214.)

value of brass, and only twice that of iron; while silver 3. This is the offering.' - The particulars of this offer was regarded as ten times more valuable than gold. If ing are more fully detailed in ch. xxxv., and the amount only a small part of this were true, we need not be astoof the whole is summed up in xxxviii. 21, etc. From nished at the vast quantity of precious metal which the these different passages it appears that half a shekel of | Hebrews seem to have possessed. But this may otherwise silver was levied on every man above twenty years of age; be accounted for, by recollecting that the property which besides which, every one who was so inclined made volun the patriarchs left to their posterity was very considerable, tary offerings. Moses assembled the congregation (XXXV. and had doubtless been increased during their abode in 4), and mentioned what classes of articles would be re Egypt; and that, besides this, there were the valuable quired for the work of the tabernacle; and those persons articles which they demanded of the Egyptians at their who possessed any of the articles needed, offered so libe departure, the spoil taken from the king and warriors rally that more than enough was soon obtained, and Moses | drowned in the Red Sea, and the further spoil which we then forbade anything further to be brought (xxxvi. 5-7). | may suppose to have been obtained from the defeated The articles required were so various in character and Amalekites. value, that there was room for almost every person to testify 5. · Badgers' skins.'—This is a most unfortunate transhis zeal by some offering or other. The wealthy could

lation, seeing that the badger is unknown in southbring precious stones and gold, while the poorer sort mi

western Asia, and has not yet been found out of Europe. furnish the skins and spun hair of goats. The women, it

The word translated badger is onm lachash; and never appears (xxxv, 26), exerted themselves in spinning the

occurs but to indicate this skin covering of the tabernacle, goats' hair for the tent coverings, as women do to this day

except in Ezek. xvi. 10, where the shoes of women are in the encampments of the Bedouin Arabs. The statement in chap. xxxviii. 24-31, is very important,

said to be made of it. The ancient interpreters understand

by it a colour given to the leather, Sept. vakívõiva; Aquila as enabling us to form some idea of the expense of this costly fabric. It is there said that the gold weighed 29

and Symmachus, iávoiva; Chaldee and Syriac, rutra; and

these are followed by Bochart. (Hierozoicon, i. 989.) talents and 730 shekels; the silver, raised by a poll-tax of half a shekel, was 100 talents and 1775 shekels; and the

But this is mere conjecture, having no support either in brass (more probably copper), 70 talents and 2400 shekels.

the etymology or in the kindred dialects. On the other This enables us to form the following calculation,

hand, all the Jewish interpreters state the tachash to have estimating the talent of 3000 shekels at 125 lbs. troy

been an animal, the skins of which were used for covering weight:

the tabernacle, and also for shoes or sandals: and to this £ 8. d.

conclusion we assent. But it is not easy to arrive at a Gold, at 41. per ounce . 175,460 0

A 0

determination respecting the sort of animal indicated. Silver, at 5s. per ounce . 37,721 17 6

large number of interpreters think it was some kind of Brass (or copper), at ls. 3d. per lb.

fish, and Gesenius, with many others, is in favour of the avoirdupois

138 6 0

seal, which, he says, we know not why, has much affinity with the badger. 'If the word has anything to do with

badgers, we may as well even take it to indicate the badger Total . £213,320 3 6 Now we have to consider that this is the value of only

itself; but if it does not denote a badger, the seal is not the raw material of the metals employed in the structure of

more probably the true animal from having any affinities the tabernacle; and when we add the value of the wood,

with a badger, which affinities have, however, no existence the curtains, the dress of the high-priest with its breast

but in the mind of the writer. Besides seals, as well as plate of precious stones, the dresses of the common priests,

several other aquatic animals in which the tachash has been and the workmansbip of the whole-it must be considered

sought, do not exist in the Indian, the Arabian, or the Pera moderate estimate if we regard the total expense of this

sian Seas; nor is it probable that in remote ages they frefabric as not less than 250,000l., however much more it

quented the south-eastern extremity of the Mediterranean, may have been. This mode of estimating value is, how

where the current sweeps all things northward ; and still

less that they nestled in the lakes of the Delta, where cro. ever, very fallacious, on account of the difference in the real value of the precious metals in different times and

codiles then abounded. Still, a covering of fish skin countries. There are no very accurate data on which we

might have been very suitable for protecting the rich might be enabled to estimate the actual value of those

envelopes of the holy edifice from wet; and Niebuhr menmetals to the Israelites themselves. In Western Asia, at

tions a species of dolphin (delphinus) or porpoise known

in the Red Sea, and called by the Arabs tuhash and dukash, present, the precious metals have a much higher actual value than in Europe ; and, judging from existing and

which may deserve consideration, seeing that the same past analogies, we might infer that the tabernacle was

people make small round bucklers, and sandal soles of the much more costly at the time of its erection, than it would

hout's skins, which is a cetaceous animal, perhaps identical even appear under estimates framed with reference to the

with that of Niebuhr, if both do not resolve themselves present value of the precious metals. But, on the other

into that which Ehrenberg first accurately distinguished hand, it is not impossible that, in Arabia and Egypt, gold

and described under the name of Halicora Hemprichii. and silver were even of much less value than at the pre

The Arabs of Sinai at this day make their sandals of its sent time. Although it is true that mines of gold or

skin; which, however, is perhaps too thick and clumsy for silver are not now known or worked in Arabia, we are not

the female shoes spoken of in Ezek. xvi. 10. If the animal bound to reject the concurrent testimony of the ancient

was not an aquatic creature, but a quadruped, the range of writers, whose statements, after allowing for exaggeration,

indeterminate inquiry is too extensive to bring us to any purport that the precious metals were there more abundant

satisfactory conclusion. It must probably have been a than in any other known country, and were indeed so

clean animal, of some kind or other, as we can scarcely common as to remind us of things as the Spaniards found

suppose that the skin of an unclean animal would be used them in Mexico and Peru. Diodorus mentions a river in

for the sacred coverings. This consideration alone would Debæ (Hedjaz) that abounded in small lumps of most

dispose of the badger, and of many other animals that beautiful gold. Arrian, Strabo, Agatharchides, and

have been suggested by different interpreters. others, describe in glowing terms the wealth of the settled 5. Shittim wood' - Dow shittim, otherwise nou. Arabians in precious metal. The pillars of their houses shittah (as in Isa. xli. 19), seems to have been some tree were resplendent with gold and silver (like the pillars of that grew in the desert in which the Israelites were enthe tabernacle); they had vessels and domestic utensils of camped. In the passage of Isaiah, just referred to, it is the same metals; and their persons were profusely adorned mentioned as a tree worthy of planting. The proper with various oriental ornaments, composed of the same Hebrew name was probably shintah, formed from the substances, and also of precious stones. It is even said Egyptian word sharet, the double t being substituted for

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the nt, for euphony and easier pronunciation. The Arabs 1 was calculated to afford, He condescended to give them in pronounce the Egyptian name as sont, and apply it to a the Shekinah, or miraculous light, as a manifest and unspecies of acacia (Acacia seyal), which grows rather questionable symbol of His presence with them; and since abundantly in the valleys of Arabia Petræa. There is the service rendered to him was to be of a ritual nature, he little doubt that this was the Hebrew Shittim, unless in directed that a suitable abode should be prepared for this deed the word be a general term for acacias in general. Presence. There he would keep the state of a court, as We think it likely that it denoted both the A. seyal and supreme civil magistrate and King of Israel; from thence A. gummifera, which are both abundant in this region. he would issue his laws and commandments, as from an These are the species that yield the gum arabic. The oracle; and to that place, where their King abode, and A, seyal grows to the height of twenty or twenty-five feet, where their God manifested his presence, they were, as to and affords a wood better suited than any other this region their kebla, to turn their faces in all their service and their yields for the purposes of the Israelites. The Arabs of worship. The east, the point of sun-rising, was the kebla Sinai peninsula burn it into charcoal, which they take for of those who worshipped the host of heaven; and it is prosale to Egypt, where fuel of every kind is very scarce. bably for this reason that the front of the tabernacle and

9. The tabernacle.' – Temples certainly existed in temple fronted the east, so that those who worshipped God, Egypt, and, very possibly, in Palestine, before the date of in his courts, must needs turn their faces to the west. We the Exode. It is, however, evident that the Israelites have been astonished to see this stated as a difference from were not in a condition to erect a temple until they were Egyptian practice. It is, in fact, an agreement. Most of settled in the Promised Land; and if, therefore, they were the temples front the east, like the tabernacle and Soloduring their sojournings to have any analogous fabric, it mon's temple. But it may be doubted that the Egyptians must needs be such as they could transfer from one place had any general kebla, as the direction of their temples is to another. Such was the tabernacle. Many considera not uniform. tions might be adduced to show the probability that sacred For descriptive particulars of the tabernacle, see the note tents or tabernacles were not previously unknown among on xxvi. 30. But we may here generally remark that both nomade nations. The opinion as to the absolute originality in the tabernacle and in the Egyptian temple, the area was of this fabric, and of the things which belonged to it, might an oblong square, the front portion of which was occupied in former times be safely entertained, but, in the present by a court or courts, where the worshippers attended, and comparatively advanced state of our information, is no where sacrifice was offered. The sacred apartments in longer tenable. We believe, most truly, that the taber- / both were at the remoter extremity, the Most Holy being nacle was made according to the model or pattern’ shown the smallest and the innermost. Into these sacred chamto Moses in the mount. The exhibition of such a model bers, among both the Hebrews and Egyptians, none but was necessary, that he might learn what parts of analogous priests were admitted, being, as we have shown, not infabrics ought to be avoided, and what might safely be tended for the worship of the people, but for the residence adopted; but it does not, therefore, follow that this fabric of the god, and for the performance of such services as was to be unlike anything that had been previously seen. only his high and chosen servants were entitled to render. We quite relinquish the illustrations of similarity which The walls of the Egyptian temples were covered within have been adduced by previous writers--and forego the sup and without with relievo or intaglio sculpture, the former port which might seem to be offered by Amos, v. 26 and Acts | generally painted in brilliant colours. And it seems a vii. 40, which describe the Israelites as bearing idol taber singular coincidence that the most splendid hangings of nacles in the wilderness; because we think that they were the tabernacle-being the veils and the inner curtain not such tabernacles as that to which our attention is now which, within, formed the ceiling, and covered the plated turned, but rather shrines borne about entire, such as we boards outside-were wrought with figures of cherubim. It meet with in all idolatrous nations, and which generally is possible that, in this and in other instances, the pre-occontained an image or symbol of the god. It is, however, cupation by the figures of cherubim was designed to prewrong to say there was nothing like it-and that the taber vent the introduction of such idolatrous scenes and symbols nacle was the only fabric which had to be taken to pieces, in as the Egyptians were wont to exhibit on the walls of their order to be removed, and the only one which was not merely temples. a tent (allowing these were sacred tents), but a wooden We have already exhibited the idea of the tabernacle as frame-work, covered with skins and cloths. It might partly that of a palace for the King. This will seem pereasily be shown how natural it was that there should be fectly clear to any one who carefully considers the terms sacred tents among a nomade people; and even at this day in which the tabernacle and even the temple are compared among a people to whom, least of all, any communication and referred to throughout the Scriptures. We are conwith the Jews can be traced, namely, the eastern Tartars, vinced that this view is essential to the right understandthe sacred tabernacles are, like their own dwellings, made ing of these structures and of the things which belonged to of a frame-work of wood, with a covering of felt, the them. This has also been the opinion of the Jews themwhole being taken to pieces when removed. (Voyages chez selves, who are certainly not disposed to under-rate or deles Peuples Kalmucks et les Tartares, Berne, 1792; and secrate those fabrics, the mere memory of which is, to this Calmuc Tartary, by H. A. Zwick and J. G. Schill, London, day, their glory and their pride. It was therefore with 1831.) Here, then, we have an intimation that such a surprise and regret that, a few years back, in the heat of a fabric is proper to a nomade people who support any form | biblical controversy, we saw this idea scouted as a profane of religious service. The tabernacle could not be of thing by some good and useful men, our respect for whom Egyptian origin, for the Egyptians already had temples of could not prevent us from seeing that they knew not of stone. But this tabernacle had little in tommon with those what they spoke. It is partly for this reason that we have in use among the nomades, savein its adaptation for removal, desired to bring more strongly and distinctly before our and in its framework of wood, and its coverings. Its ge readers a view which it might otherwise have only seemed neral form, and the distribution of its parts, is similar to necessary to assume or indicate. that of an Egyptian temple.

Now, then, if the tabernacle were the king's palace, it is It will be seen that we are disposed to regard the taber reasonable to carry out the analogy, and regard the uten. nacle (and afterwards the temple) as like other parts of the sils which belonged to it as the palace furniture, and the ritual-an accommodation, or rather an appropriation to priests as its servants and officers. This view is so clearly right objects-of ideas which then prevailed in the world, developed by Rabbi Shem Tob (cited by Outram, On and with which the minds of the Israelites were thoroughly Sacrifices, i. 3) in his comment où Maimonides, that we saturated. The heathen boasted of the presence of their shall take his statement as an introduction to the account gods among them in their temples and tabernacles; and as, we have now to give of the sacred utensils. perhaps, the Hebrews could not, more than they, take in • God, to whom be praise, commanded a house to be the idea of God's universal presence, or derive from it the built for him resembling a royal palace. In a roya] satisfaction which the notion of his peculiar local presence palace are to be found all the things that we have men

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