Obrazy na stronie


13 If it be torn in pieces, then let him

bring it for witness, and he shall not make 1 Of theft. 5 Of damage. 7 Of trespasses. 14 Of borrowing. 16 Of fornication. 18 Of witchcraft.

good that which was torn. 19 Of bestiality. 20 Of idolatry. 21 Of 14 | And if a man borrow ought of his strangers, widows, and fatherless. 25 Of usury. neighbour, and it be hurt, or die, the owner 26 Of pledges. 28 Of reverence to magistrates. thereof being not with it, he shall surely make 29 Of the firstfruits.

it good. If a man shall steal an ox, or a 'sheep, and | 15 But if the owner thereof be with it, he kill it, or sell it; he shall restore five oxen shall not make it good : if it be an hired thing, for an ox, and four sheep for a sheep.

it came for his hire. 2 If a thief be found breaking up, and 16 | And if a man entice a maid that is be smitten that he die, there shall no blood be not betrothed, and lie with her, he shall surely shed for him.

endow her to be his wife. 3 If the sun be risen upon him, there shall 17 If her father utterly refuse to give her be blood shed for him ; for he should make unto him, he shall ‘pay money according to full restitution; if he have nothing, then he the dowry of virgins. shall be sold for his theft.

18 | Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live. 4 If the theft be certainly found in his 19 | Whosoever lieth with a beast shall hand alive, whether it be ox, or ass, or sheep; surely be put to death. he shall restore double.

20 T He that sacrificeth unto any god, 5 | If a man shall cause a field or yine save unto the LORD only, he shall be utterly yard to be eaten, and shall put in his beast, destroyed. and shall feed in another man's field ; of the 21 1 ?Thou shalt neither vex a stranger, best of his own field, and of the best of his nor oppress him: for ye were strangers in the own vineyard, shall he make restitution. land of Egypt.

6 If fire break out, and catch in thorns, 22 "Ye shall not afflict any widow, or so that the stacks of corn, or the standing corn, | fatherless child. or the field, be consumed therewith; he that | 23 If thou afflict them in any wise, and they kindled the fire shall surely make restitution. | cry at all unto me, I will surely hear their cry;

7 | If a man shall deliver unto his neigh- · 24 And my wrath shall wax hot, and I will bour money or stuff to keep, and it he stolen kill you with the sword ; and your wives shall out of the man's house; if the thief be found, be widows, and your children fatherless. let him pay double.

25 q 'If thou lend money to any of my 8 If the thief be not found, then the master people that is poor by thee, thou shalt not of the house shall be brought unto the judges, | be to him as an usurer, neither shalt thou lay to see whether he have put his hand unto his upon him usury. neighbour's goods.

* 26 | If thou at all take thy neighbour's 9 For all manner of trespass, whether it be raiment to pledge, thou shalt deliver it unto for ox, for ass, for sheep, for raiment, or for him by that the sun goeth down: any manner of lost thing, which another chal- 27 For that is his covering only, it is his lengeth to be his, the cause of both parties raiment for his skin: wherein shall he sleep? shall come before the judges ; and whom the and it shall come to pass, when he crieth unto judges shall condemn, he shall pay double me, that I will hear; for I am gracious. unto his neighbour.

28 I ''Thou shalt not revile the "gods, 10 If a man deliver unto his neighbour an nor curse the ruler of thy people. ass, or an ox, or a sheep, or any beast, to 29 | Thou shalt not delay to offer the first keep; and it die, or be hurt, or driven away, of thy ripe fruits, and of thy liquors : the no man seeing it :

firstborn of thy sons shalt thou give unto me. 11 Then shall an oath of the LORD be 1 30 Likewise shalt thou do with thine oxen, between them both, that he hath not put his and with thy sheep: seven days it shall be with hand unto his neighbour's goods; and the his dam; on the eighth day thou shalt give it me. owner of it shall accept thereof, and he shall | 31 | And ye shall be holy men unto me: not make it good.

Sneither shall ye eat any Hesh that is torn 12 And "if it be stolen from him, he shall of beasts in the field; ye shall cast it to the make restitution unto the owner thereof.

dogs. 10r, goat. 2 2 Sam. 12. 6. 8 Gen. 31, 39. Deut. 22. 28. 5 Heb. weigh. Deut. 13. 13, 14, 15. 1 Mace. 2. 24.

7 Levit. 19. 33.
12 Heb. thy fulness.

8 Zech. 7. 10. 9 Levit. 25, 36, 37. Deut. 23. 19. Psal. 15. 5.
13 Heb. tear.

14 Chap. 13. 2. 12, and 34. 19.

10 Acts 23. 5.

15 Levit. 22. 8.

11 Or, judges. Ezek. 44. 31.

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Verse 6. 'If fire break out, and catch in thorns, so that the stacks of corn, or the standing corn, or the field, be consumed therewith,' etc.—This doubtless alludes to the common practice in the East of setting fire to the dry herbage, before the commencement of the autumpal rains, under the very correct impression that this operation is favourable to the next crop. The herbage is so perfectly dry by the long summer droughts, that the fire when kindled often spreads to a great extent, and cannot be checked while it finds any aliment. The operation is attended with great danger, and requires to be performed with a careful reference to the direction in which the wind blows, and to local circumstances, that nothing valuable may be consumed in the course given to the destructive element. Such a fire, kindled accidentally or wilfully, is sometimes attended with most calamitous consequences, destroying trees, shrubs, and standing crops, and placing in considerable danger persons who happen to be abroad. Such accidents sometimes happen through the carelessness of travellers in neglecting, when they leave their stations, to extinguish the fires they have used during the night. The dry herbage towards the end of summer is so very combustible, that a slight cause is sufficient to set it in a blaze. The writer of this note can himself recollect, that when, one chilly night, he assisted in kindling a fire, for warmth, on the western bank of the Tigris, so much alarm was exhibited by the Arabs lest the flames should catch the tamarisks and other shrubs and bushes which skirt the river, that the party was induced to forego the enjoyment which the fire afforded. He has often witnessed such fires, and the appearance which they present, particularly at night, was always very striking. The height of the flame depends upon the thickness and strength of its aliment; and its immediate activity, upon the force of the wind. When there is little or no wind, the fire has no other food than the common herbage of the desert or steppe; the flame seldom exceeds three feet in height, and advances slowly and steadily like a vast tide of fire, backed by the smoke of the smouldering embers, and casting a strong light for a considerable height into the air, sometimes also throwing up a taller mass of flame, when it meets with clumps of bushes, or shrubs, which afford more substantial aliment. This taller mass lingers behind to complete its work, after the general body of fame has continued its destructive and conquering march. A high wind throws the flames forward with great fury, while, if the ground happens to be thickly set with clumps of bushes, the tall columns of flame which COMMON Dress, WITH AND WITHOUT THE OUTER ROBE. start up in the advancing fiery tide, give increased intensity to the grand and appalling effect of one of the the morning, seen great numbers of men lying about on most remarkable scenes which it falls to the lot of a tra- | the ground wrapped up in their sheep-skin cloaks. The veller to witness. In the steppes of southern Russia the poor desert Arab, whose dress is little more than a shirt writer has passed over tracts of ground, the surface of and a woollen mantle, is content to use the latter for his which had, for fifty miles or more, been swept and black bed and bed-clothes when he has nothing better. Drawing ened by the flames.

it over his head-for an Arab always covers his head 27. It is his raiment for his skin: wherein shall he whether he sleeps by day or night-and gathering up his sleep?'—This passage, which describes a poor man as feet, he sleeps with as much apparent ease and comfort as sleeping at night in his outer garment, exhibits one of the on a down-bed, his tough frame seeming quite unconscious many unchanging customs of the East. The Orientals of the hardness of the ground and the asperities of its generally, of whatever rank, do not undress at night. surface. There is no people of the East whose costume They merely throw off their outer and looser robes, un seems to have remained with so little alteration from the wind their turbans and vast waist-cloth, sleeping in their most ancient times as that of the inhabitants of the Aracaps, shirt, drawers, waistcoat, and gown. The poorer bian deserts; or which is so susceptible of being, in most people very often do not sleep at all in what we should cases, identified with the dress worn by the ancient Jews. call a bed. The details of their management of course We should therefore, perhaps, not be much mistaken in depend much on the particular costume of their country; considering the garment of the text as nearly resembling but, speaking generally, a poor man is quite content to the simple woollen mantle of the present Arabs. It is make his cloak and waist-cloth serve for a bed, lying on nearly square, reaching from the shoulders to the calf of one of the two and covering himself with the other, or the leg, or even to the ancles, and is about as wide as else making the cloak or the girdle alone serve all his long. A square sack-having in front a slit from top to purposes. A mat, rug, or piece of carpet is all he desires bottom, a hole at the top for the neck, and a slit on each to render his bed more luxurious. These observations side for the arms—would give a good idea of this shapeparticularly apply to the Bedouin Arabs, although true less but useful article of dress. Garments of the kind also of other Asiatics. The custom is not, indeed, peculiar indicated are of various qualities and texture. Some are to Asia; for, while travelling in Russia, we have often, on very light and fine, with embroidery in silk, silver or passing through towns and villages, at night or early in gold, on the breast and between the shoulders ; but the


common sort are coarse and heavy, commonly with alternate stripes a foot wide, of blue and white, or brown and white, but frequently all black or brown. This robe, called an abba, is commonly worn loosely on the shoulders, as the Irish peasantry wear their great coats; but when active exertion is required, it is either thrown aside, or

is drawn close around the body and fastened by a girdle, the arms being then necessarily thrust through the armholes. This article of dress is certainly as indispensable to a poor Arab, as the garment of the text could be to a poor Jew, or to an Egyptian or Syrian peasant.


handmaid, and the stranger, may be re

freshed. 11 Of slander and false witness. 3, 6 Of justice. 4 Of charitableness. 10 Of the year of rest.

13 | And in all things that I have said unto 12 of the sabbath. 13 Of idolatry. 14 Of the you be circumspect: and make no mention of three feasts. 18 Of the blood and the fat of the the name of other gods, neither let it be heard sacrifice. 20 An angel is promised, with a blessing, out of thy mouth. if they obey him.

14 I ""Three times thou shalt keep a feast Thou shalt not 'raise a false report : put not unto me in the year. thine hand with the wicked to be an un 15 Thou shalt keep the feast of unlearighteous witness.

vened bread: (thou shalt eat unleavened 2 Thou shalt not follow a multitude to bread seven days, as I commanded thee, in do evil; neither shalt thou 'speak in a cause the time appointed of the month Abib; for in to decline after many to wrest judgment : : it thou camest out from Egypt: Sand none

3 Neither shalt thou countenance a poor shall appear before me empty :) man in his cause.

16 And the feast of harvest, the firstfruits 4 1 If thou meet thine enemy's ox or his of thy labours, which thou hast sown in thy ass going astray, thou shalt surely bring it field : and the feast of ingathering, which is back to him again.

in the end of the year, when thou hast ga5 'If thou see the ass of him that hateth thered in thy labours out of the field. thee' lying under his burden, “and wouldest 17 Three times in the year all thy males forbear to help him, thou shalt surely help shall appear before the LORD God. with him.

18 I Thou shalt not offer the blood of my 6 Thou shalt not wrest the judgment of sacrifice with leavened bread; neither shall thy poor in his cause.

the fat of my 'sacrifice remain until the 7 Keep thee far from a false matter; and morning. the innocent and righteous slay thou not: for 19 % The first of the firstfruits of thy land I will not justify the wicked.

thou shalt bring into the house of the LORD 8 | And Sthou shalt take no gift: for the thy God. "Thou shalt not seethe a kid in gift blindeth “the wise, and perverteth the his mother's milk. words of the righteous.

20 q '?Behold, I send an Angel before 9 T Also thou shalt not oppress a stran thee, to keep thee in the way, and to bring ger: for ye know the heart of a stranger, thee into the place which I have prepared. seeing ye were strangers in the land of 21 Beware of him, and obey his voice,

provoke him not; for he will not pardon your 10 4 And six years thou shalt sow thy | transgressions : for my name is in him. land, and shalt gather in the fruits thereof: 22 But if thou shalt indeed obey his voice,

11 But the seventh ycar thou shalt let it and do all that I speak; then I will be an rest and lie still ; that the poor of thy people | enemy unto thine enemies, and ''an a may eat: and what they leave the beasts of | unto thine adversaries. the field shall eat. In like manner thou shalt 23 ''For mine Angel shall go before thee, deal with thy vineyard, and with thy 'olive- and 2°bring thee in unto the Amorites, and

the Hittites, and the Perizzites, and the 12 7 '°Six days thou shalt do thy work, and Canaanites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites : on the seventh day thou shalt rest : that thine and I will cut them off. ox and thine ass may rest, and the son of thy 24 Thou shalt not bow down to their gods,

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i Or, receive. 2. Heb. answer. 3 Deut. 22. 4. Or, wilt thou cease to help him i or, and wouldest cease to leave thy business for

him; thou shalt surely leave it to join with him. 5 Deut. 16. 19. Ecclus. 20. 29. 6 IIeb. the seeing. 7 Heb, soul. & Levit. 25, 3. 9 Or, olive trees. 10 Chap. 20. 8. Deut. 5. 13. Luke 13. 14. 11 Deut. 16. 16. 19 Chap. 13. 3, and 34,18.

13 Deut. 16. 16. Ecclus. 35. 4. 14 Or, feast. 15 Chap. 34. 26. 16 Deut. 14. 21. 17 Chap. 33. 2.
18 Or, I will afflict them that afflici thee.

is Chap. 33. 2.

20 Josh. 24. 11.

nor serve them, nor do after their works : | thee in one year ; lest the land become des'but thou shalt utterly overthrow them, and solate, and the beast of the field multiply quite break down their images.

against thee. 25 And ye shall serve the LORD your God, 30 By little and little I will drive them out and he shall bless thy bread, and thy water; from before thee, until thou be increased, and and I will take sickness away from the midst inherit the land. of thee.

31 And I will set thy bounds from the Red 26 "There shall nothing cast their young, | sea even unto the sea of the Philistines, and nor be barren, in thy land : the number of thy from the desert unto the river: for I will dedays I will fulfil.

liver the inhabitants of the land into your 27 I will send my fear before thee, and will hand ; and thou shalt drive them out before destroy all the people to whom thou shalt thee. come, and I will make all thine enemies turn 32 2*Thou shalt make no covenant with their as backs unto thee.

them, nor with their gods. 28 And I will send hornets before thee, 33 They shall not dwell in thy land, lest which shall drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, they make thee sin against me: for if thou and the Hittite, from before thee.

serve their gods, oit will surely be a snare 29 I will not drive them out from before / unto thee. 21 Deut. 7. 25. 22 Deut. 7. 14.

23 Heb, neck.

24 Josh. 24. 12. 25 Chap. 34. 15. Deut. 7. 2.

26 Deut. 7. 16.

Josh. 23. 13.

Judg. 2. 3.

Verse 14. · Three times shalt thou keep a feast unto me in which such occasions seemed to offer; and long experience the year.'— These three feasts were Passover, the feast of of the efficacy of the Divine Protection ultimately taught Pentecost, and the feast of Tabernacles, each of which con the Jews to repair to the appointed place, without the least tinued for a week These were the Great Festivals' of the apprehension for the safety of their homes. Jews. Every male was then obliged to repair to the place The other objection is, how such vast multitudes could more pre-eminently consecrated to the worship of Jehovah find provisions and accommodation in the town where they -at first to the tabernacle, and afterwards to the temple at congregated. The best answer will be found by a reJerusalem. The women, although not required to go, fre ference to the existing practice of the Mohammedans who quently attended at the Passover, but seldom at the other annually repair to Mecca. The account is derived from feasts. We read of Samuel's mother going with her hus our countryman Pitt, who was there towards the end of the band, and our Saviour's mother in after-times did the seventeenth century; but the statement, in its general feasame. The design of this concourse was apparently to tures, is equally applicable at present. After describing unite the Hebrews among themselves, and to counteract | Mecca as a mean and inconsiderable town, he observes that the tendency to separation, which the division into dis | four caravans arrive there every year, with great numbers tinctly marked tribes was calculated to produce. On those of people in each. The Mohammedans say that not fewer occasions, notwithstanding their petty differences, they than 70,000 persons meet at Mecca on such occasions; and must have been led to feel that they were indeed brethren although he did not think the number when he was there, and fellow-citizens; and that this was really the case, ap- so large as this, it was still very great. Now the question pears from the fact, that after the separation of the tribes recurs, how this vast multitude could find food and accominto two kingdoms, the founder of the new kingdom (Je modation at so small and poor a place as Mecca ? The folroboam) became so alarmed on viewing the probable lowing, from our author, is a sufficient answer :- As for moral effect of the continued resort of his subjects to Jeru house-room, the inhabitants do straiten themselves very salem, the capital of the elder kingdom, that he set up much, in order at this time to make their market. As for golden calves in Dan and Bethel with the principal view, it such as come last after the town is filled, they pitch their would seem, of inducing the people to hold their annual tents without the town, and there abide until they remove meetings at places within his own dominions (1 Kings towards home. As for provision, they all bring sufficient xii. 25-33). It is also not unlikely that these meetings of with them, except it be of flesh, which they may have at different tribes, three times a year in the same place, tended Mecca; but all other provisions, as butter, honey, oil, very much to promote internal commerce among the Jews, olives, rice, biscuit, etc., they bring with them as much as enabling the different tribes to interchange their several will last through the wilderness, forward and backward, as commodities with each other, by which these frequent well as the time they stay at Mecca; and so for their journeys would be rather a profit than an expense to them. camels they bring store of provender, etc., with them.' Such a procedure was at least obvious, and is at this day Ali Bey confirms this account. He says, indeed, that the exemplified in the case of the Mohammedan pilgrims to pilgrims often bring to Mecca rather more food than they Mecca.

are likely to need, and when there, they compute how Some objections have been made with reference to these much they shall want during their stay and on their frequent concourses of all the male inhabitants in one return, and, reserving that, sell the remainder to great adplace. The first is the unreasonableness of leaving their vantage. He adds, Every hadgi (pilgrim) carries his families and homes unprotected, and exposed to the incur provisions, water, bedding, etc., with him, and usually sions of the hostile people on their borders. The answer three or four diet together, and sometimes discharge a is, that they were not unprotected. They had the very poor man's expenses the whole journey for his attendance best protection. It was expressly promised by God that | upon them.'

no man should desire their land’ during their absence *17. Three times in the year all thy males shall appear (ch. xxxiv. 24); that is, that their homes should be secure before the Lord God.' That is, they should three times from any hostile invasion. And, in fact, their enemies a year-at the Passover, Pentecost, and Feast of 'Tabernever did avail themselves of the apparent advantages nacles, repair to the place of the tabernacle (afterwards the Temple) to render their personal homage to the Divine required the great men of the land to pay their attendance King, the symbols of whose presence abode there; and to on the king at the three great festivals of Christmas, form the habit of obedience, and cultivate the feeling of Easter, and Whitsuntide, as well to honour his person and dependance upon Him. All experience teaches that such adorn his court, as to consult about the affairs of the king. habits and sentiments are best maintained by personal dom. At these times the kings were wont to appear unattendance upon a superior. This must be added to the armed, and with all the insignia of majesty, till the time considerations stated in the preceding note. Examples are of Henry II., who, in the year 1158, keeping his Christmas not wanting in which human kings have required the same then at Worcester, took the crown off his head, and laid it kind of personal attendance from at least certain classes of upon the altar; after which the crown was no more worn their subjects at particular seasons of the year, generally at on such occasions. (See Hody's English Councils, 57, religious festivals. In our own country ancient custom | 140.)


of the covenant, which the Lord hath made 1 Moses is called up into the mountain. 3 The people

with you concerning all these words. promise obedience. 4 Moses buildeth an altar, and

9 | Then went up Moses, and Aaron, twelve pillars. 6 He sprinkleth the blood of the Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders covenant. 9 The glory of God appeareth. 14 Aaron of Israel : and Hur have the charge of the people. 15 Moses

10 And they saw the God of Israel : and goeth into the mountain, where he continueth forty days and forty nights.

there was under his feet as it were a paved

work of a sapphire stone, and as it were the And he said unto Moses, Come up unto the body of heaven in his clearness. LORD, thou, and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, 11 And upon the nobles of the children of and seventy of the elders of Israel ; and wor Israel he laid not his hand : also they saw ship ye afar off. .

God, and did eat and drink. 2 And Moses alone shall come near the 12 | And the LORD said unto Moses, LORD: but they shall not come nigh; neither | Come up to me into the mount, and be there : shall the people go up with him.

and I will give thee tables of stone, and a law, 3 | And Moses came and told the people and commandments which I have written ; all the words of the Lord, and all the judg that thou mayest teach them. ments: and all the people answered with L 13 And Moses rose up, and his minister one voice, and said, 'AÎl the words which the Joshua : and Moses went up into the mount Lord hath said will we do.

of God. 4 | And Moses wrote all the words of the | 14 And he said unto the elders, Tarry ye LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and here for us, until we come again unto you: builded an altar under the hill, and twelve and, behold, Aaron and Hur are with you: pillars, according to the twelve tribes of | if any man have any matters to do, let him Israel.

come unto them. 5 And he sent young men of the children | 15 | And Moses went up into the mount, of Israel, which offered burnt offerings, and and a cloud covered the mount. sacrificed peace offerings of oxen unto the 16 And the glory of the Lord abode upon LORD.

| mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six 6 And Moses took half of the blood, and | days: and the seventh day he called unto put it in basons; and half of the blood he Moses out of the midst of the cloud. sprinkled on the altar.

17 And the sight of the glory of the LORD 7 And he took the book of the covenant, was like devouring fire on the top of the and read in the audience of the people : and mount in the eyes of the children of Israel. they said, 'All that the LORD hath said will I 18 And Moses went into the midst of the we do, and be obedient.

cloud, and gat him up into the mount: and 8 And Moses took the blood, and sprinkled “Moses was in the mount forty days and forty. it on the people, and said, Behold 'the blood | nights.

1 Verse 7. Chap. 19. 8. Deut. 5, 27. 2 Verse 3. 3 1 Pet. 1. 2. Heb. 9. 20. Chap. 34. 28. Deut. 9. 9.

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Verse 10. 'Sapphire' 790, sappir.

cnnis The Crook and I ness.
The Greek and | ness

The oriental sapphire is of a sky-blue, or fine azore

colour, whence the prophets described the throne of God Latin names are obviously derived from the Hebrew, odnoas being of the colour of sapphire (Ezek. i. 26, and x. 2). Delpos, sapphirus. Next after the diamond it is the most va Pliny says, that in his time the best sapphires came from juable of the gems, exceeding all others in lustre and hard- Media.

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