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been cursed, rejoices at the birth of his son, and hopes that this son will share his labours, and thus comfort him when he is worn out, and provide for him when he is old and
feeble. But this destroys the force of the special reference to Noah; for it is no more than any patriarchal father might have felt and said at the birth of any son.
Srooms shalt thou make in the ark, and shalt
pitch it within and without with pitch. 1 The wickedness of the world, which provoked God's wrath, and caused the flood. 8 Noah findeth grace.
15 And this is the fashion which thou shalt 14 The order, form, and end of the ark.
make it of: The length of the ark shall be
three hundred cubits, the breadth of it fifty And it came to pass, when men began to cubits, and the height of it thirty cubits. multiply on the face of the earth, and daugh | 16 A window shalt thou make to the ark, ters were born unto them,
and in a cubit shalt thou finish it above ; 2 That the sons of God saw the daughters and the door of the ark shalt thou set in the of men that they were fair ; and they took side thereof; with lower, second, and third them wives of all which they chose.
stories shalt thou make it. 3 And the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he also is flesh : yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years.
4 There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.
5 And God saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that 'every 'imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil "continually.
6 And it repented the Lord that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart.
7 And the LORD said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth; 'both man, and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air ; for it repenteth me that I have made them.
8 | But 'Noah found grace in the eyes of GoPHER-TREE. Cypress (Cupressus sempervirens). the LORD.
9 These are the generations of Noah: Noah 17 And, behold, I, even I, do bring a flood was a just man and perfect in his genera of waters upon the earth, to destroy all fleshi, tions, and Noah walked with God.
wherein is the breath of life, from under 10 And Noah begat three sons, Shem, heaven; and every thing that is in the earth Ham, and Japheth.
shall die. 11 The earth also was corrupt before God, 18 But with thee will I establish my coveand the earth was filled with violence.
nant; and thou shalt come into the ark, thou, 12 And God looked upon the earth, and, and thy sons, and thy wife, and thy sons behold, it was corrupt; for all flesh had cor wives with thee. rupted his way upon the earth.
19 And of every living thing of all flesh, 13 And God said unto Noah, The end of two of every sort shalt thou bring into the all flesh is come before me; for the earth is ark, to keep them alive with thee; they shall filled with violence through them; and, be- | be male and female. hold, I will destroy them with the earth. 20 Of fowls after their kind, and of cattle
14 I Make thee an ark of gopher wood ; | after their kind, of every creeping thing of the 10t, the whole imagiaation. The Hebrew word signifieth not only the imagination, but also the purposes and desires. 2 Chap. 3. 21. Matth. 15. 19. 9 Heb, erery day. lleb. from man unto beast. 5 Ecclus. 44. 17. 2 Pet. 2. 5.' 'Or, upright. 7 Or, froin the curta.
3 Heb. nests.
earth after his kind, two of every sort shall, and it shall be for food for thee, and for come unto thee, to keep them alive.
them. 21 And take thou unto thee of all food 22 "Thus did Noah; according to all that that is eaten, and thou shalt gather it to thee; | God commanded him, so did he.
Verse 2. Sons of God-daughters of men.'—Many Jewish | A first-rate man-of-war is between 2200 and 2300 tons ; writers, and some of the early Christian fathers, entertained and, consequently, the ark had the capacity or stowage of the notion that the sons of God' were angels, who, charmed eighteen such ships, the largest in present use, and might with the beauty of the daughters of men, united themselves carry 20,000 men, with provisions for six months, besides to them, and became the parents of a race of lawless giants the weight of 1800 cannon and all military stores. It was or heroes, who corrupted the earth. They seem to have then by much the largest ship ever built.' derived this notion from the Septuagint, in which they ap Dr. Lindsley, a writer cited more fully below, regards pear to have read ayyelor, 'angels,' instead of viol, 'sons,' this ark as illustrating the state of the arts before the as we still find in the Alexandrine and three other manu Deluge: for although it was constructed by Divine comscripts. It is now justly regarded as utterly untenable, and mand, it was done, as far as we know, without any extrais cherished only by the poets, who have made it the vehicle ordinary aid or direction. This was probably the most of imaginings more beautiful than reverent. That the astonishing structure, on several accounts, that ever rested .sons of God' were the descendants of Seth, and the on the earth or floated upon the waters-a ship of at least daughters of men' children of Cain, is not in itself incre 100,000 tous burden (?). What a specimen of architecdible, and is an ancient opinion ; but there is nothing to tural skill was not this last memento of antediluvian art! show it in the text. The obvious and reasonable sense is, Noah was its builder-its architect; he directed and suthat upright and true men (sons of God') formed ill-advised | perintended the work. Thousands of artisans, mechanics, unions with apostate and unbelieving women ( daughters of | and labourers were no doubt employed on it, who perished men'); and that the combination of influences resulting from beneath the waves which bore it from their reach and from this parentage, enabled their children to become conquerors their view for ever.' and chiefs -mighty men, men of renown.' We seem here If this writer means to imply that ship-building had made to be witnessing the first efforts of men coveting dominion considerable progress before the Deluge, this conclusion is over their fellows.
open to the serious objection that, in that case, those who 4. 'Giants.'-It is by no means agreed by commentators
were in ships when the flood came on, or who were able to
escape to their vessels, might, as well as Noah's family, that the word (DD) nephilim), thus translated, means men
have escaped the Deluge. And yet, again, this objection remarkable for their stature. The derivation of the word, | is open to the answer, that they must have perished from and the context in which it is here used, concur to render | want during the year in which the waters covered the it more probable that it here characterizes the men who earth; for none of the people believed in the approaching first departed from the religion taught to Adam, and who Deluge, and would not therefore have victualled their ships sustained their apostacy by acts of violence and oppres- with reference to any such contingency. It may even be sion. They were probably the men who first endea- thought that it was to ensure this result-that none should voured to gain for themselves power in the earth. Several thus escape-that the waters remained so long upon the very different words in the Hebrew, signifying eminence, | earth. For the sole object of the Flood was the destrucnot only in wickedness, but in knowledge, courage, piety, tion of every living thing,' save such as the ark contained ; virtue, etc., are equally translated by the same English and that object might have been accomplished in a much word 'giant;' and it is never safe to understand it as
shorter time, if ships had not afforded, to some, the means meaning large stature, unless the context fixes that signi of protracting for a time the struggle for existence. fication. In the present connection, apostacy seems the - Gopher wood,' or rather, Gopher-tree.'—When we leading idea.
consider that 7j and kunápiosos have the same radical 14. • Make thee an ark.'—There is much difference of opinion respecting the form of the ark. The common re
consonants, we are at once led to select a species of cypress presentations are given under the impression that it was
as the 'gopher wood,' or rather the gopher-tree in question. intended to be adapted to progressive motion; whereas no
The wood of the cypress possesses an unrivalled fame for other object was sought than to construct a vessel which
its durability, and its resistance to those injuries which are should float for a given time upon the water. For this pur
incident to other kinds of wood. The divine appointment pose it was not necessary to place the ark in a sort of boat,
had doubtless a reason founded in the nature of things, as in the common representation; and we may be content
and no better reason can be found than the matchless exwith the simple idea which the text gives, which is that of
cellence of the wood recommended. The compact and an enormous oblong box, or wooden house, divided into
durable nature of the cypress rendered it peculiarly eligible three stories, and apparently with a sloping roof. The
for sacred purposes ; hence we find it was employed in the most moderate statement of its dimensions makes the ark
construction of coffins among the Athenians, and mummyby far the largest of vessels ever made to float upon the
cases among the Egyptians. The Cupressus sempervirens, water. As the measurements are given, the only doubt is
a straight and elegant tree of the cone-bearing family, as to which of the cubit measures used by the Hebrews is
seems therefore to have the best title to the credit of having here intended. It seems that the standard of the original
furnished the material for the most important vessel that cubit was the length of a man's arm from the elbow to the
was ever constructed. end of the middle finger, or about eighteen inches. This - • Pitch.'—795 copher. The pitch here mentioned was the common cubit; but there was also a sacred cubit, was of the mineral kind, and essentially of the same nature which some call a band's breadth (three inches) larger than as that inflammable substance which is often seen bubbling the common one; while others make the sacred cubit twice up in a piece of coal when laid upon a clear fire. Naphtha, the length of the latter. The probability is that there were petroleum, mineral tar, &c., seem to be, in fact, but one two cubit measures besides the common, one being of substance in different conditions. They are all remarkable twenty-one inches, and the other of three feet. Some writers for their inflammable character. Neither the inventions of add the geometrical cubit of nine feet. Shuckford says we art nor the researches of science have discovered any other must take the common or shortest cubit as that for the ark; substance so well adapted to exclude the water and to repel and Dr. Hales, following this advice, obtains the following the injuries of worms, as the mineral pitch or bitumen. In result: It must have been of the burden of 42,413 tons. | reading the Bible in a cursory manner, we are too apt to regard the directions of the Almighty as founded upon in several of the arts, both useful and ornamental. (About some arbitrary or mysterious reason, instead of assuming, | 500 A.M.) Jabal “ was the father of such as dwell in tents, that if they are not to be accounted for upon the principles and of such as have cattle;" or, he was a famous shepherd of common sense, it is because we have failed to interpret and tent-maker, and a teacher of others. Abel had been a them rightly. The original word copher is worth remem shepherd long before. Jubal “was the father of all such bering, since it is the parent of our word cover, and is pre as handle the harp and organ;" or all stringed and all served in all the Shemitic languages, or those spoken by the wind instruments, the original terms being generic. Tubaldescendants of Shem.
cain was an “instructor of every artificer in brass and
iron;" the first smith on record; à noted manufacturer of Here, on reaching the close of the chapters which relate warlike instruments and domestic utensils; an ingenious to the Antediluvian period, it may be well to remark that artist, and a teacher of others. Agricultural implements, it offers no trace of savage life. This fact is strongly at least, must have been in use several centuries before; against the opinion that man emerged by degrees from a for Cain was “a tiller of the ground," and Adam a garcondition originally savage. It would rather appear that dener. The former, too, had built a city; and of course, savageism was a degeneracy in different families of men it may be presumed, made use of iron in sundry ways. from an original condition of some civilization. And this Savages know nothing of iron.' degeneracy may perhaps be referred to the confusion at The same writer goes on to urge various grave conBabel : for while men kept together and had but one lan siderations in favour of his conclusion, that man was in guage, they could not but maintain their original civiliza any thing rather than a barbarous state in his earliest contion; but when they were broken up into different and dition :- 1. The great age of the antediluvians, and proseparated bodies, isolated by diversity of language, the lapse | bably their greater size and strength. Many of that very of some of them into barbarism ceased to be difficult. “A small number of individuals whose age is recorded by very ingenious writer, Dr. Philip Lindsley, in an essay Moses lived nearly a thousand years; and others may have On the Primitive State of Mankind, printed in the Ame lived much longer for aught we know to the contrary. rican Biblical Repository for 1841, urges this consideration What might have been achieved in science and the arts, by arguments and facts which cannot be easily gainsaid. | by genius and perseverance, during a single life protracted He reminds us that man was created vigorous and mature through a period of eight or ten centuries, can only be in all his faculties of body and mind; ready for every work conjectured from the efforts of modern intellect, when life and duty which his station demanded; with God for his has been limited to threescore years and ten. 2. They had friend and instructor. Horticulture was his first employ stronger inducements to the erection of superior, more ment. This has never been the occupation of savage life. costly, and more capacious edifices and monuments, public Hunting, then, or the chase, could not have been the pri and private, than exist at present, for they might reasonmitive mode of procuring a subsistence; or, in other words, ably calculate to reap the benefit of their labours and exthe hunting state is not the state of nature, or of man in his penditures. 3. The supposed large population before the original natural condition. And yet savages in every age Deluge is used by Dr. Lindsley as an argument in favour and country have been and still are hunters. So that hunt of his position; for he is of those who believe that popuing may be assumed as a universal predicate or charac lation to have been immense. • Arts must flourish where teristic of savage life. Adam was therefore not a savage. population is dense. Even the necessaries of mere animal He must have been eminent in the knowledge of nature, existence could not be procured by such a multitude in a at least of zoology, if he gave significant names to all savage or uncivilized state. 4. One language before the animals. Of his first two sons, one was a farmer and the Deluge. This peculiar distinction of the antediluvians other a shepherd. Cain, the first-born of the human race, probably contributed more than any or all others to the built a city, and called it Enoch after his eldest son ; and, steady advancement in knowledge and the arts, and cerof course, must have known all the arts which such an tainly their degeneracy into savages. 5. •The earth was undertaking implies or requires. And that cities might probably more fertile, and the climate more healthful, and have been very necessary, or at least very convenient, will more auspicious to longevity, and consequently to every appear sufficiently obvious when we consider the amount of species of mental and corporeal exertion and enterprise, population which probably existed even at that early period. | than at present.' According to several profound biblical antiquaries and ex Some of the details adduced in illustration of this view positors, there might have been many hundreds of thou- | may be open to question; but enough will remain to satisfy sands. ..... Lamech, the fifth in descent from Cain, was any reasonable mind that mankind was not in an uncivi. the father of Jabal, Jubal, and Tubal-cain, who are repre- lized condition during the period from the Creation to the sented by Moses as having been extraordinary proficients Deluge. See the note on ix. 20.
4 For yet seven days, and I will cause it
to rain upon the earth forty days and forty 1 Noah with his family and the living creatures enter into the ark. 17 The beginning, increase, and con
nights; and every living substance that I tinuance of the flood.
have made will I destroy from off the face of
the earth. AND the LORD said unto Noah, 'Come thou 5 And Noah did according unto all that and all thy house into the ark ; for thee have the LORD commanded him. I seen righteous before me in this generation. 6 And Noah was six hundred years old
2 Of every clean beast thou shalt take to when the flood of waters was upon the earth. thee by sevens, the male and his female : 7 | And Noah went in, and his sons, and and of beasts that are not clean by two, the his wife, and his sons wives with him, into the male and his female.
ark, because of the waters of the flood. 3 Of fowls also of the air by sevens, the 8 Of clean beasts, and of beasts that are male and the female; to keep seed alive upon not clean, and of fowls, and of every thing the face of all the earth.
that creepeth upon the earth, 1 2 Pet. 2. 5. 2 Heb. seven seven. Heb, blot out.
9 There went in two and two unto Noah 1 17 9 And the flood was forty days upon into the ark, the male and the female, as God the earth; and the waters increased, and had commanded Noah.
bare up the ark, and it was lift up above 10 | And it came to pass after seven the earth. days, that the waters of the flood were upon 18 And the waters prevailed, and were in- i the earth.
creased greatly upon the earth; and the ark 11 In the six hundredth year of Noah's | went upon the face of the waters. life, in the second month, the seventeenth day 19 And the waters prevailed exceedingly of the month, the same day were all the foun upon the earth ; and all the high hills, that tains of the great deep broken up, and the were under the whole heaven, were covered. Swindows of heaven were opened.
20 Fifteen cubits upward did the waters 12 And the rain was upon the earth forty | prevail ; and the mountains were covered. days and forty nights.
21 T’And all flesh died that moved upon 13 In the selfsame day entered Noah, and the earth, both of fowl, and of cattle, and of Shem, and Ham, and Japheth, the sons of beast, and of every creeping thing that Noah, and Noah's wife, and the three wives | creepeth upon the earth, and every man: of his sons with them, into the ark;
22 All in whose nostrils was the breath 14 They, and every beast after his kind, | of life, of all that was in the dry land, and all the cattle after their kind, and every died. creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth 23 And every living substance was deafter his kind, and every fowl after his kind, stroyed which was upon the face of the ground, every bird of every 'sort.
both man, and cattle, and the creeping things, 15 And they went in unto Noah into the and the fowl of the heaven ; and they were ark, two and two of all flesh, wherein is the destroyed from the earth : and "Noah only breath of life.
remained alive, and they that were with him 16 And they that went in, went in male in the ark. and female of all flesh, as God had com- | 24 | And the waters prevailed upon the manded him: and the LORD shut him in. I earth an hundred and fifty days. Or, on the secenth day. 50r, fioodgates. Heb. wing. . 7 Wisd. 10. 4. & Heb. the breath of the spirit of life.
9 Wisd, 10. 4. 2 Pet. 2. 5.
Verse 2. • Every clean beast.'-It is not necessary to conclude that the terms.clean' and unclean,' in this verse, express fitness or unfitness for food. The expressions do not impair the alleged probability that animal food was not used before the Deluge. Since the institution of sacri. fice existed in the antediluvian period, there must have |
been a distinction between the beasts that were proper, and those unsuitable to be offered. The former are here supe posed to be described as .clean,' and the latter « unclean.' -a term which probably comprehends all carnivorous auimals.
month, on tne seventeenth day of the month, 1 The waters asswage. 4 The ark resteth on Ararat. | upon the mountains of Ararat
ī The raven and the dove. 15 Noah, being com- 5 And the waters decreased continually manded, 18 gooth forth of the ark. 20 He buildeth until the tenth month: in the tenth month, on an altar, and offereth” sacrifice, 21 which God the first day of the month, were the tops of accepteth, and promiseth to curse the earth no more.
the mountains seen. AND God remembered Noah, and every 6 9 And it came to pass at the end of living thing, and all the cattle that was with forty days, that Noah opened the window of him in the ark : and God made a wind to the ark which he had made: pass over the earth, and the waters asswaged ; ' 7 And he sent forth a raven, which went
2 The fountains also of the deep and the forth to and fro, until the waters were dried windows of heaven were stopped, and the rain | up from off the earth. from heaven was restrained;
1 8 Also he sent forth a dove from him, to 3 And the waters returned from off the see if the waters were abated from off the earth 'continually: and after the end of the face of the ground; hundred and fifty days the waters were 9 But the dove found no rest for the sole abated.
| of her foot, and she returned unto him into 4 | And the ark rested in the seventh | the ark, for the waters were on the face of the
1 Heb. in going and returning. ? Heb. were in going and decreasing. Heb, in going forth and returning,
whole earth : then he put forth his hand, and leaf pluckt off: so Noah kuew that the wa. took her, and pulled her in unto him into ters were abated from off the earth. the ark.
12 And he stayed yet other seven days; and sent forth the dove; which returned not again unto him any more.
13 | And it came to pass in the six hundredth and first year, in the first month, the first day of the month, the waters were dried up from off the earth: and Noah removed the covering of the ark, and looked, and, behold, the face of the ground was dry.
14 And in the second month, on the seven and twentieth day of the month, was the earth dried.
15 | And God spake unto Noah, saying,
16 Go forth of the ark, thou, and thy wife, and thy sons, and thy sons wives with thee.
17 Bring forth with thee every living thing that is with thee, of all flesh, both of fowl, and
of cattle, and of every creeping thing that Syriax Dove (Turtur risorius).
creepeth upon the earth; that they may breed 10 And he stayed yet other seven days; abundantly in the earth, and be fruitful, and and again he sent forth the dove out of the ark; multiply upon the earth.
11 And the dove came in to him in the | 18`And Noah went forth, and his sons, evening; and, lo, in her mouth was an olive and his wife, and his sons wives with him :
19 Every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl, and whatsoever creepeth upon the earth, after their ‘kinds, went forth out of the ark.
20 I And Noah builded an altar unto the LORD; and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl, and offered burnt offerings on the altar.
21 And the LORD smelled a sweet savour; and the LORD said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake; for the 'imagination of man's heart is evil from his youth; neither will I again smite any more every thing living, as I have done.
22 "While the earth remaineth, seedtime and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer
and winter, and day and night shall not OLIVE (Olea Europa a).
6 Heb. a savour of rest. 7 Chap. 6. 5. Matth. 15. 19. 8 Heb. As yet all the days of the earth.
4 Heb, cuused her to come.
3 Heb. families.
Verse 4. The mountains of Ararat,'—that is, not a, tains which the sacred historian had in view. The tramountain called Ararat, but one of the mountains of a dition is however very old which points to the mountain country called Ararat. This country of Ararat is also called by the Armenians Mācis, ard by the Turks Aghurmentioned in 2 Kings xix, 37, Isa. xxxviii. 38, and Jer. Dagh, meaning the Heavy or Great Mountain, and the li. 27. That it means Armenia, or a district of that faint resemblance of which to Ararat is merely accidental. country, is a very old belief, which has every probability Europeans, however, always in haste to embody uncertain as well as general opinion in its favour, and which we find conclusions in fixed names, call it Ararat, and to them it no reason to disturb. We may therefore assume that the will never be known by any other name. This name is ark rested on the mountains, or rather among the moun- | not given to it in Armenia, although it is the general betains-for no one particular mountain is specified-of lief of Western Asia that it is the mountain of Noah's Ark. Armenia. But we have no historical or geographical data The particular mountain to which people of different which would enable us to identify the mountain or moun- | nations and religions concur in awarding this distinction,