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bread, and in the seventh day shall be a feast would hardly let us go, that the LORD slew to the LORD.
all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both the 7 Unleavened bread shall be eaten seven firstborn of man, and the firstborn of beast : days; and there shall no leavened bread be therefore I sacrifice to the Lord all that seen with thee, neither shall there be leaven openeth the matrix, being males ; but all the seen with thee in all thy quarters.
firstborn of my children I redeem. 8 And thou shalt shew thy son in that L 16 And it shall be for a token upon thine day, saying, This is done because of that hand, and for frontlets between thine eyes : which the Lord did unto me when I came | for by strength of hand the Lord brought us forth out of Egypt.
forth out of Egypt. 9 And it shall be for a sign unto thee 17 | And it came to pass, when Pharaoh upon thine hand, and for a memorial between had let the people go, that God led them not thine eyes, that the Lord's law may be in thy | through the way of the land of the Philistines, mouth: for with a strong hand hath the although that was near; for God said, Lest LORD brought thee out of Egypt.
peradventure the people repent when they see 10 Thou shalt therefore keep this ordi war, and they return to Egypt: nance in his season from year to year.
18 But God led the people about, through 11 | And it shall be when the LORD shall the way of the wilderness of the Red sea : bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, as and the children of Israel went up "harnessed he sware unto thee and to thy fathers, and | out of the land of Egypt. shall give it thee,
19 And Moses took the bones of Joseph 12 That thou shalt 'set apart unto the with him: for he had straitly sworn the chilLord all that openeth the matrix, and every dren of Israel, saying, God will surely visit firstling that cometh of a beast which thou you; and ye shall carry up my bones away hast; the males shall be the Lord's.
hence with you. 13 And every firstling of an ass thou shalt 20 | And 'they took their journey from redeem with a 'lamb ; and if thou wilt not Succoth, and encamped in Etham, in the edge redeem it, then thou shalt break his neck : / of the wilderness. and all the firstborn of man among thy chil- 21 And ''the LORD went before them by dren shalt thou redeem.
day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the 14 And it shall be when thy son asketh way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give thee 'in time to come, saying, What is this ? them light; to go by day and night: that thou shalt say unto him, By strength of 22 He took not away the pillar of the hand the Lord brought us out from Egypt, cloud by day, nor the pillar of fire by night, from the house of bondage:
from before the people. 15 And it came to pass, when Pharaoh
3 Chap. 22. 29, and 34. 19. Ezek. 44. 30. ? Or, by fire in a raak. 8 Gen. 30. 25. Jo:h. 24. 32. 9 Num. 33. 6. 10 Num. 14. 14. Deut. 1. 33. Neh. 9. 19. Psal. 78. 14. I Cor. 10, 1.
4 Heb, cause to pass orer.
5 Or, hid,
6 Ileb, to-morrow.
Verse 18. · The Red sea.'-We have already explained tioned with peculiar admiration. The width of the gulf what relates to this name of the Arabian Gulf; and this contracts towards its extremities, and at its mouth is conseems the proper place to state a few particulars concerning siderably narrower than in any other part. The strait of the gulf itself. It occupies a basin, in general deep and Bab-el-Mandeb is there formed, and does not exceed fourrocky, and its length from Suez to the Straits is 1400 teen miles in breadth; beside which it is divided, at the miles, while its average breadth approaches to 150. distance of three miles from the Arabian shore, by the Throughout this great extent it does not receive the waters island of Perim. At its northern extremity the Red Sca of a single river. The western coast is of a bolder cha separates into two minor gulfs or inlets, which inclose beracter, and has a greater depth of water, than the eastern. | tween them the peninsula of Sinai. The easternmost of The gulf abounds in sunken rocks, sand-banks, and small these is that of Akabah or Ailah, called by the Greeks and islands, together with numerous coral-reefs, which in some Romans Elanites; this is only about half the extent of places rise above the water to the height of ten fathoms. 1 the other, and is rendered very dangerous by shoals and The bottom is covered abundantly with the same sub- coral-reefs. The westernmost gulf is called the Gulf of stance, as well as with marine plants, which in calm Suez, anciently Heroopolites: the ancient and modern Weather give that appearance of submarine forests and names of both inlets being from towns that formerly did, verdant meadows to which the sea probably owes its He or do now, stand at their extremities. It is the latter, brew name of Yam Suph (see note on chap. ii. 3), as well the western gulf, which was crossed by the Hebrews. It as its present Arabic name of Bahr Souf. Burckhardt is about 160 miles in length, with a mean breadth of about observes, that the coral is red in the inlet of Akabah, and thirty miles, narrowing very much at its northern extrewhite in that of Suez. The remarkably beautiful appear- | mity. The mean depth of its water is from nine to fourance which this sea exhibits has attracted notice in all teen fathoms, with a sandy bottom; and it is of much ages; and among its other characteristics, the far more safer navigation than the other. There are many indicathan ordinary phosphorescence of its waters has been men- tions which place it beyond a doubt that the Arabian Guf
The RED SEA, VIEWED FROM RAS MOHAMMED. was formerly much deeper and more extensive than at | posed between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean was present. One of the most certain proofs of this is, that formed by drifts of sand from the adjoining deserts. This, cities, which were formerly mentioned as sea-ports, are however, is an hypothesis: but there is nothing hyponow considerably inland. This is particularly the case, thetical in the statement that the gulf once extended more in the Gulf of Suez, where the shore is unusually low. | to the north than at present, at least to the limits of the That the sea formerly extended more northward than at present salt marsh ; and this fact is of importance, because present, there is much reason to conclude, from the marine it enables us to see that nothing less than a miraculous appearances of the now dry soil. There is certainly interposition of the Divine Power could have enabled the nothing in the appearance of the soil about the isthmus of Israelites to cross the bay, even at the highest of the points Suez to render it impossible that the Red Sea was formerly which has been selected by those who perhaps have been no other than a strait uniting the Mediterranean with the influenced by the wish to diminish the force of the miracle or Indian Ocean; and that the isthmus which is now inter- l' to account for it on natural principles. [APPENDIX, No. 3.)
20. • Ethan, in the edge of the wilderness.'—The second there is now a square fortress with a well of bitter water day's march brought the Israelites to this place, upon the two hundred and fifty feet deep, built for the accommoborder of the desert. Encampments of caravans have indation and protection of the pilgrims on their way to and every age been regulated by the situation of watering from Mecca. It is a curious circumstance that the two places; and if we may suppose that these watering-places very different routes eastward from near On and southward have remained the same from remote ages, then we may as from Heroöpolis, equally admit of Adjeroud being the well agree with Niebuhr aud others, who have found Etham of our text. It is about twelve miles north-west Etham in the modern Adjeroud (rather Ajrúd), where | from Suez, and is literally in the edge of the desert.
there were no graves in Egypt, hast thou taken 1 God instructeth the Israelites in their journey. 5
us away to die in the wilderness ? wherefore Pharaoh pursueth after them. 10 The Israelites hast thou dealt thus with us, to carry us forth murmur. 13 Moses comforteth them. 15 God in out of Egypt ? structeth Moses. 19 The cloud removeth behind the
12 'Is not this the word that we did tell camp.' 21 The Israelites pass through the Red sea, 23 which drowneth the Egyptians.
thee in Egypt, saying, Let us alone, that we
may serve the Egyptians ? For'it had been And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, better for us to serve the Egyptians, than
2 Speak unto the children of Israel, that that we should die in the wilderness. they turn and encamp before 'Pi-hahiroth, 13 4 And Moses said unto the people, between Migdol and the sea, over against Fear ye not, stand still, and see the salvation Baal-zephon: before it shall ye encamp by of the LORD, which he will shew to you to the sea.
day: ‘for the Egyptians whom ye have seen 3 For Pharaoh will say of the children of to day, ye shall see them again no more for Israel, They are entangled in the land, the ever. wilderness hath shut them in.
14 The LORD shall fight for you, and ye 4 And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, that shall hold your peace. he shall follow after them; and I will be 15 | And the LORD said unto Moses, honoured upon Pharaoh, and upon all his Wherefore criest thou unto me? speak unto host; that the Egyptians may know that I am the children of Israel, that they go forward : the LORD. And they did so.
16 But lift thou up thy rod, and stretch 5 [ And it was told the king of Egypt that out thine hand over the sea, and divide it: the people fled: and the heart of Pharaoh and the children of Israel shall go on dry and of his servants was turned against the | ground through the midst of the sea. people, and they said, Why have we done 17 And I, behold, I will harden the hearts this, that we have let Israel go from serving us ? of the Egyptians, and they shall follow them :
6 And he made ready his chariot, and took and I will get me honour upon Pharaoh, and his people with him :
upon all his host, upon his chariots, and upon 7 And he took six hundred chosen chariots, his horsemen. and all the chariots of Egypt, and captains 18 And the Egyptians shall know that I over every one of them.
am the LORD, when I have gotten me honour 8 And the Lord hardened the heart of upon Pharaoh, upon his chariots, and upon Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he pursued after his horsemen. the children of Israel: and the children of | 19 | And the angel of God, which went Israel went out with an high hand.
before the camp of Israel, removed and went 9 But the 'Egyptians pursued after them, behind them; and the pillar of the cloud went all the horses and chariots of Pharaoh, and from before their face, and stood behind his horsemen, and his army, and overtook them : them encamping by the sea, beside Pi-hahi- 20 And it came between the camp of the roth, before Baal-zephon.
Egyptians and the camp of Israel ; and it was 10 I And when Pharaoh drew nigh, the a cloud and darkness to them, but it gave children of Israel lifted up their eyes, and, light by night to these : so that the one came behold, the Egyptians marched after them; | not near the other all the night. and they were sore afraid : and the children 21 | And Moses stretched out his hand over of Israel cried out unto the LORD.
the sea ; and the LORD caused the sea to go 11 And they said unto Moses, Because | back by a strong east wind all that night, and
Or, for whereas ye have seen the Egyptians to day, &c.