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tating limbs. Thus the injunction may have had a specific (See Jennings' Jewish Antiquities.) These particulars allusion. But we should also view it in connection with will be found to give more than common point to the text the strong interdiction, equally in the patriarchal times, of 1 Cor. v. 7, 8. The exclusion of leaven for seven or under the law, and in the New Testament, of raw or bloody | eight days might, as Harmer observes, be attended with animal food. On this see the note on Gen. ix. 4.
some inconvenience in Great Britain, but none at all in 11. With your loins girded.'—That is, as persons pre Palestine. The usual leaven in the East is dough kept till pared for a journey. The inhabitants of the East usually it becomes sour, and which is kept from one day to another wear long and loose dresses, which, however convenient in for the purpose of preserving leaven in readiness. Thus, postures of ease and repose, would form a serious obstruc if there should be no leaven in all the country for any tion in walking or in any laborious exertion, were not some length of time, as much as might be required could easily expedients resorted to, such as those which we find noticed be produced in twenty-four hours. Sour dough, however, in Scripture. Thus the Persians and Turks, when jour is not exclusively used for leaven in the East, the lees of neying on horseback, tuck their skirts into a large pair of wine being in some parts employed as yeast. trousers, as the poorer sort also do when travelling on foot. 22. · Hyssop.'—The identification of the hyssop of ScripBut the usages of the Arabs, who do not generally use ture is one of the difficulties of Biblical botany. Since we trousers, is more analogous to the practice described in the formerly annotated thereon, the subject has obtained the Bible by 'girding up the loins.' It consists in drawing up attention of Professor Royle, who in a paper read before the skirts of the vest and fastening them to the girdle, so the Royal Asiatic Society in 1844, and in his articles as to leave the leg and knee unembarrassed when in mo Hyssop, Ysop, in the Cyclopædia of Biblical Literature, tion. An Arab's dress consists generally of a coarse shirt has done much towards the settlement of this greatly disand a woollen mantle. The shirt, which is very wide and puted matter. We are now therefore enabled to return to loose, is compressed about the waist by a strong girdle the subject with advantages not previously possessed. generally of leather, the cloak being worn loose on ordi The original word is ditx ezov, or ezob. This in the nary occasions. But in journeying or other exertion, the Greek of the Old Testament is given as GOOWTOS, yssopos ; cloak also is usually confined by a girdle to which the
which name also occurs in xix. 20. The circumstances skirts are drawn up and fastened. When manual exertion
required for the plant designated by the word, according is required, the long hanging sleeves of the shirt are also disposed of by the ends of both being tied together and thrown over the neck, the sleeves themselves being at the same time tucked high up the arm. A short passage from Antar (iv. 246), describing Jeerah's preparation for attacking a lion, will be found to illustrate this and several other passages of Scripture : «He threw away his armour and corslet, till he remained in his plain clothes with short sleeves : he tucked these up to his shoulder, and twisting his skirts round his girdle, he unsheathed his broad sword, and brandished it in his hand, and stalked away towards the lion.'
- Shoes on your feet.'-(See the note on chap. iii. 5.) This was another circumstance of preparation for a journey. At the present time Orientals do not, under ordinary circumstances, eat with their shoes or sandals on their feet; nor indeed do they wear them in-doors at all. This arises not only from the ceremonial politeness connected with the act of sitting unshod; but from the fear of soiling the fine carpets with which the rooms are covered. Besides, as they sit on the ground cross-legged, or on their heels, shoes or sandals on their feet would be inconvenient. To eat therefore with sandalled or shod feet is as decided a mark of preparation for a journey as could well be indicated. But perhaps a still better illustration is derived from the fact, that the ancient Egyptians, like the modern Arabs, did not ordinarily wear either shoes or sandals. In their sculptures and paintings very few figures occur with sandalled feet; and as we may presume, that in the course of 215 years, the Israelites had adopted this and other customs of the Egyptians, we may understand that (except by the priests) sandals were only used during journeys, which would ren
Hyssop (Capparis spinosa). der their eating the passover with sandalled feet, a still to the texts in which it occurs, are—that, as the present stronger mark of preparation than even the previous cir text implies that it should be found in Lower Egypt, and cumstance.
also in the desert of Sinai, Lev. xiv. 4, 6, 52; Num. X. 6, 15. Put away leaven out of your houses.'— This was 18; and in the neighbourhood of Jerusalem, John xix. 22; probably to commemorate the fact that the Israelites left likewise that it should be a plant growing on walls, or in Egypt in such haste that they had no opportunity to leaven rocky places, 1 Kings iv. 33; and finally, that it should be their dough (verse 39), and were consequently obliged, in possessed of some detergent properties, although it is prothe first instance, to eat unleavened cakes (see the notes on bable that in this passage it is used in a figurative sense. Lev. ii.). The present injunction is even now attended to It should also be large enough to yield a stick; and it ought by modern Jews with the most scrupulous precision. The to possess in the Arabic and cognate dialects a nanie not master of the family searches every corner of the house materially different from that which it bears in the Hebrew. with a candle, lest any crumb of leavened bread should | No less than twenty-one different plants have been indiremain, and whatever is found is committed to the fire; i cated by different writers as the esob of Scripture, eighteen and after all, apprehending that some may still remain, he of which are enumerated by Celsius in his Hierobotanicor. prays to God that, if any leaven be still in his house, it | Dr. Royle was not satisfied with any of these ; and he was may become like the dust of the ground. Extraordinary led to suspect the existence of a plant distinct from the precautions are also used in preparing the unleavened common hyssop, though called by the same name, by findbread, lest there should be anything like leaven mixed | ing that the Arabian physician Rhazes, in his great work with it, or any kind of fermentation should take place in it. I called Hawi or Continens, describes two kinds of hyssop, one of them growing on the mountain of the temple,' that i directs our attention to another Arabian utensil, which has is, at Jerusalem. Celsius, indeed, mentions the same plant, equal, if not stronger claims to be identified with that to Hyssopus in montibus Hierosolymorum, or in Arabic Zoofa which the text refers. The Arabs use, on their journies, bu jebal al Khuds. Jerusalem is now called by the Arabs for a table-cloth, or rather table, a circular piece of leather, El Khuds, the holy,' and by Arabian writers, Beit-el the margin of which is furnished with rings, by a string Mukdis, or Beit al Mukuddus, the Sanctuary.' “Having or chain run through which, it can, when necessary, be got thus far,' says Dr. Royle, “I was led to what appears drawn up into a bag. This bag they sometimes carry full to me its discovery by a passage from Burckhardt's Travels of bread, and when their meal is over, tie it up again with in Syria, quoted by Mr. Kitto in his work on the Physical what is left. These utensils are not used for carrying Geography and Natural History of the Holy Land, p. dough; but if, when the dough happened to be kneaded, 253: Among trees and shrubs, known only by native the Bedouins were suddenly obliged to decamp, they would names and imperfect descriptions, the aszef is spoken of naturally carry it away either in the kneading-bowl or in by Burckhardt, while travelling during May in the Sinai the leathern bag in which they usually carried their bread. peninsula. On noticing its presence in Wady Kheysey, The text, as we understand it, merely indicates an exhe describes it as a tree which he had already seen in other pedient to which their haste obliged the Israelites to resort, wadys. It sprirgs from the fissures in the rock, and its and not that the utensil in question was now applied to its crooked stem creeps up the mountain side like a parasitical customary use. The Egyptians had a kneading bowl of plant. According to the Arabs it produces a fruit about wicker-work or rush-work, which might as probably as the size of a walnut, of a blackish colour, and very sweet the above have been the kneading trough in question. to the taste. The bark of the tree is white, and the branches They had also a large wooden trough, in which men trod are thickly covered with small thorns; the leaves are the dough with their feet: but this seems to have been heart-shaped, and of the same shade of green as those of only used by professed bakers, and in large establishments, the oak.'
and could not have been needed where every family daily This description, although apparently incorrect in some baked its own bread. terms, as in that of tree applied to a plant creeping like a | parasitical plant, struck Dr. Royle as a characteristic de
scription of the caper-plant (Capparis spinosa), which he knew had in Arabic a name not unlike that of aszef. On this clue the learned botanist sets to work. He first makes it clear that one of the most common Arabic names of the caperplant is azuf, which is closely similar in sound, and still more similar in writing to the Hebrew ezov; and this similarity would extend equally to the writing of either of the two names in the language of the other. This similarity might certainly be accidental ; .but it cannot be accidental that the plant called azuf by the Arabs, answers to every particular which is required for the due elucidation not of one, but of every passage of the Bible in which esov is men
EGYPTIAN KNEADING-TROUGHS. tioned. The professor then produced evidence that the 37. The children of Israel journeyed from Rameses.' — azuf, or caper-plant, exists in all the required localities. Here Rameses is assumed as the point of departure ; and This evidence may be seen at length in the Journal of the therefore the identification of that spot must have a maRoyal Asiatic Society, No. xv. It is also shewn that it terial influence upon our conclusions respecting the extent grows on old walls; that detergent qualities are ascribed and direction of the journey of the Israelites from the land to it; and a curious passage in Pliny (Hist. Nat. xx. 15) of Goshen to the Red Sea. Since the French savans have proves that it was anciently of high reputation as a medi fixed at Abu Keisheid the site of the ancient Heroöpolis, cament in disorders allied to leprosy, the complaint in which the Septuagint identifies with the present Rameses (see which the esov was employed by the Israelites. That the the note on i. 11), the most able inquirers into the subject caper shrub also supplies å stick suited to the purpose of have been disposed to adopt a different route from those raising a sponge filled with vinegar to the mouth of our which had been formerly indicated : and the views of such Saviour, as he hung upon the cross, will be shewn in the men as Rosenmüller, Gesenius, Winer, Stuart, Robinson, and note on John xix. 22; and in this uniting every possible Hengstenberg, may be regarded as sufficiently indicating the condition required by the hyssop of Scripture, we may weight of modern evidence and opinion. It is to that view expect that the claim of the caper-plant to be identified we feel bound to give our adhesion; and that principally with it, will be generally regarded as sufficiently established. for two reasons which appear to us stronger than any which After the intimations which have been already given, the have ever been urged in favour of the other alternatives. plant needs no particular description. It is chiefly known These are, that the old conclusions which place the starting to us from the use of its unexpanded flower-buds, steeped point near On or Heliopolis, assume that the scene of the in vinegar, as a condiment.
intercourse of Moses with Pharaoh was at Memphis, as 34. Kneadingtroughs.'-Some other term ought perhaps stated by Josephus ; but we are assured in Ps. lxxviii. 12, to be employed, to preclude the apparent difficulty which 43, that it was at the ancient royal city of Zoan or Tanis, results from the natural habit of identifying oriental uten and we prefer the authority of the Psalmist to that of Josils with our own, when the same name is given to both. sephus. If the scene of the Lord's wonders against Pharaoh To understand the passage, we should perhaps refer to the and the Egyptians was in the field of Zoan,' it is simply existing usages among the Arabs who encamp in, or tra impossible that the point of departure should have been at verse, the very desert through which the sons of Israel are so great a distance as a place near Memphis; while the now about to pass; and then we shall find that the only determination that the point of departure was from Herontensils of analogous use, whether for kneading or for öpolis (identified with Rameses) perfectly and beautifully carrying dough, are such as the Israelites would naturally accords with the statement that Zoan was at that time the take with them, and which they could conveniently take residence of the Egyptian court. The second reason is, as a personal burden. The kneading-troughs' of the that the distance from the neighbourhood of On or HeliArabs are properly described by Shaw, as small wooden opolis to the head of the Red Sea is far too great for a body bowls, which not only serve for kneading their bread, but of people so much encumbered as the Israelites with bagfor serving up meat, and other uses for which a dish is re- gage, women, children, and slow-footed cattle to have made quired. The Arabs have few domestic utensils, and make in two days, when we find them near if not at the Red Sea, one serve many purposes, and this is one of the most gene- or even in three days; whereas the distance from Herorally useful which they possess. However, as the Israelites | öpolis is very much less, and might easily be accomplished are represented as carrying dough in their vessels, this in that time. [APPENDIX, No. 2.]
We are told in v. 37, and in Num. xxxiii. 3, that the Lord directed the latter, ch. xiii. 17, 18. This would ap. Israelites departed from Rameses on the fifteenth day of pear to have been a known and travelled way, by which the first month, on the morrow after the Passover.' It is passed doubtless the commerce that must have subsisted therefore not improbable that, in expectation of the per between Egypt and Arabia, and leading probably around mission of Pharaoh to depart, so often foretold by the Lord, the present head of the Red Sea, at the same, or nearly the the Israelites were already congregated at Rameses, during same point where the caravans now pass. the continuance of the previous plague. This probability -- 'to Succoth.'--The Hebrew word signifies booths, is strengthened by the fact that Pharaoh had already seve being probably nothing more than a usual place of encampral times given his permission, although he always retracted ment. It is useless to make any attempt to identify it. it when the plague had ceased. Before the last great plague, - about six hundred thousand.' -We learn, from moreover, the Israelites were directed to borrow of their Numb. i., that the statement of males, exclusive of women neighbours jewels of gold and silver (xi. 2, 4), in order to and children, applies to males above twenty years of age. be ready to depart at a moment's warning. It would there | Now Mr. Rickman, in the Introduction to the Population fore seem reasonable to suppose that the people were already Returns, shews that the number of males above twenty collected at Rameses as a rendezvous, waiting the signal of years of age is, as nearly as possible, one half that of the their departure from their leader, like the great Hadj total number of males; the whole male population of Israel, caravans of modern days; that they there celebrated the would then, on this principle, amount to 1,200,000; and, passover on its first institution, slaying the lamb in the if we add an equal number for females, the entire male afternoon of the fourteenth, and eating it in the ensuing and female population of the Hebrew nation, at the time of night, which — according to the Hebrew computation, the departure from Egypt, will not be less than 2,400,000. which began a new day at sunset-was the night of the The only reduction of which this number seems suscepfifteenth. Moses and Aaron being called to the king soon tible results from the conclusion that mankind were at that after midnight, and instantly dismissed by him, would be period longer lived than at present; which enables us to able, by those means of expeditious travel which Egypt conjecture that the males above twenty considerably exsupplied, to reach the waiting Israelites early the next ceeded those under that age. But if we make a large morning; and after some time spent in starting so large a allowance on this account, it can scarcely be supposed that body of people, there would still be sufficient of the fif the total number falls much short of two millions, exclusive teenth day remaining to enable them to make a day's jour. of the mixed multitude' that went up with them. This is ney as long as the first day's journey of any caravan, certainly a most extraordinary increase, and can only be which is always comparatively short. But this would not accounted for by a reference to the purposes of God, who have been possible had the distance between Zoan, where designed that, while in Egypt, the Hebrews should grow the king held his court, and Rameses, where the Israelites into a nation. It is thought by some that there must be were encamped, been so great as the distance between an error in the numbers. It might be so understood if Tanis and Heliopolis, which is nearly sixty miles; and it were an unconnected text; but the reading here is supabout twice the distance of Hermoöpolis from Tanis : this ported by a whole series of distinct enumerations in latter distance is itself so great, that the history must needs Numb. i. ; the sum of which, exclusive of the tribe of Levi, be embarrassed by the slightest addition to it; for we amounts to 603,550. This was at the commencement of cannot avail ourselves of the extension of time which Dr. the second year from the departure, and exhibits a detailed Robinson gains by supposing that the night of the Passover coincidence which precludes the idea of a corruption, was the night preceding, and not that following the day whether accidental or wilful, in the present text, unless we i of the fourteenth, whereby he gains the whole of the four also are prepared to admit the corruption of a whole series teenth day and the fifteenth night for the journey of Moses of numbers in the census of Numb. i., and also in that of and Aaron, and the preparations for departure. This is Numb. xxxvi. not only an error in itself, but is wholly at variance with 40. · Four hundred and thirty years.'- This is not to be those impressions of haste which the narrative conveys. literally understood; for their actual stay did not exceed 215 Another argument is that persons awaiting orders from Zoan years. This must therefore include the whole period from were not likely to have their rendezvous at so great a dis the time that Abraham entered the land of Canaan to the tance from that place, away from the direction of their time of the departure of his descendants from Egypt. There journey, as this would have been. Whereas Heroöpolis is, in fact, an apparent omission in the text, which the was not only so much nearer, but was, so far, on the nearest Samaritan and Septuagint supply, and by which our version way from Zoan towards the desert and the Red Sea.
ought to be corrected. It would then read thus:--The From Rameses, Moses had before him the choice of two | sojourning of the children of Israel, and of their fathers roads to Palestine; the direct one, along the coast of the which they sojourned in the land of Canaan, and in the Mediterranean to el-Arish, and the more circuitous one land of Egypt, was four hundred and thirty years.' by the head of the Red Sea and the desert of Sinai. The
Egypt, out of the house of "bondage ; for by
strength of hand the Lord brought you out I The firstborn are sanctified to God. 3 The memorial of the passover is commanded. 11 The firstlings of
from this place : there shall no leavened bread beasts are set apart. 17 The Israelites go out of | be eaten. Egypt, and carry Joseph's bones with them. 20 They | 4 This day came ye out in the month Abib. come to Etham. 21 God guideth them by a pillar 5 And it shall be when the LORD shail of a cloud, and a pillar of fire.
bring thee into the land of the Canaanites, And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, and the Hittites, and the Amorites, and the
2 'Sanctify unto me all the firstborn, what Hivites, and the Jebusites, which he sware soever openeth the womb among the children unto thy fathers to give thee, a land flowing of Israel, both of man and of beast: it is mine. with milk and honey, that thou shalt keep
3 | And Moses said unto the people, Re- this service in this month. member this day, in which ye came out from 6 Seven days thou shalt eat unleavened Chap. 22. 29, and 34, 19. Levit. 27. 26. Num. 3. 13, and 8. 16. Luke 2. 23.
2 Heb. serrants.