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into And they shall not be able House of that Aarinst the LORD you forgive, I pray theo your
| they were driven out from Pharaoh's pre
sence. I God threateneth to send locusts. 7 Pharaoh, moved by his servants, inclineth to let the Israelites go. · 12
12 | And the LORD said unto Moses, T'he plague of the locusts. 16 Pharaoh sueth to Stretch out thine hand over the land of Egypt Moses. 21 The plague of darkness. 24 Pharaoh for the locusts, that they may come up upon sueth again unto Moses, 27 but yet is hardened.
the land of Egypt, and eat every herb of the And the LORD said unto Moses, Go in unto | land, even all that the hail hath left. Pharaoh : 'for I have hardened his heart, and 13 And Moses stretched forth his rod over the heart of his servants, that I might shew | the land of Egypt, and the Lord brought an these my signs before him:
east wind upon the land all that day, and all 2 And that thou mayest tell in the ears of that night ; and when it was morning, the thy son, and of thy son's son, what things I east wind brought the locusts. have wrought in Egypt, and my signs which 14 And the locusts went up over all the I have done among them; that ye may know land of Egypt, and rested in all the coasts of how that I am the LORD.
Egypt: very grievous were they ; before them 3 And Moses and Aaron came in unto | there were no such locusts as they, neither Pharaoh, and said unto him, Thus saith the after them shall be such. LORD God of the Hebrews, How long wilt 15 For they covered the face of the whole thou refuse to humble thyself before me? let earth, so that the land was darkened ; and my people go, that they may serve me. they did eat every herb of the land, and
4 Else, if thou refuse to let my people go, | all the fruit of the trees which the hail had behold, to morrow will I bring the locusts left : and there remained not any green thing
in the trees, or in the herbs of the field, 5 And they shall cover the face of the through all the land of Egypt.
| 16 | Then Pharaoh 'called for Moses and earth : and they shall eat the residue of that Aaron in haste; and he said, I have sinned which is escaped, which remaineth unto you against the LORD your God, and against you. from the hail, and shall eat every tree which 17 Now therefore forgive, I pray thee, my groweth for you out of the field :
sin only this once, and intreat the LORD your 6 And they shall fill thy houses, and the God, that he may take away from ine this houses of all thy servants, and the houses of death only. all the Egyptians ; which neither thy fathers, 18 And he went out from Pharaoh, and nor thy fathers' fathers have seen, since the intreated the LORD. day that they were upon the earth unto this 19 And the Lord turned a mighty strong day. And he turned himself, and went out west wind, which took away the locusts, and from Pharaoh.
cast them into the Red sea; there remained 7 And Pharaoh's servants said unto him, not one locust in all the coasts of Egypt. How long shall this man be a snare unto us? 1 20 But the LORD hardened Pharaoh's let the men go, that they may serve the LORD | heart, so that he would not let the children of their God : knowest thou not yet that Egypt Israel go. is destroyed ?
21 | And the LORD said unto Moses, 8 And Moses and Aaron were brought Stretch out thine hand toward heaven, that again unto Pharaoh : and he said unto them, there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, Go, serve the LORD your God: but 'who are even darkness which may be felt. they that shall go ?
22 And Moses stretched forth his hand ; 9 And Moses said, We will go with our toward heaven ; and there was a thick darkyoung and with our old, with our sons andness in all the land of Egypt three days: with our daughters, with our flocks and with 23 They saw not one another, neither rose our herds will we go ; for we must hold a / any from his place for three days: 'but all ; feast unto the LORD.
the children of Israel had light in their dwell10 And he said unto them, Let the Lord | ings. · be so with you, as I will let you go, and your 24 T And Pharaoh called unto Moses, and little ones : look to it; for evil is before you. said, Go ye, serve the LORD; only let your
11 Not so: go now ye that are men, and flocks and your herds be stayed : let your serve the LORD; for that ye did desire. And | little ones also go with you.
all the call thy servant thy houses, and
1 Chap. 4. 21.
2 Wisd. 16.9. 3 IIeb, cye. «lleb. who, and who, &c.
7 Ileb, that one may feel darkness,
5 lleb, hastened to call.
Heli. fastened. 193
25 And Moses said, Thou must give Rus 27 | But the Lord hardened Pharaoh's also sacrifices and burnt offerings, that we heart, and he would not let them go. may sacrifice unto the LORD our God.
28 And Pharaoh said unto him, Get thee 26 Our cattle also shall go with us; there from me, take heed to thyself, see my face no shall not an hoof be left behind ; for thereof more; for in that day thou seest my face thou must we take to serve the Lord our God; / shalt die. and we know not with what we must serve the 29 And Moses said, Thou hast spoken LORD, until we come thither.
| well, I will see thy face again no more. Heb. into our hands.
Verse 7. · How long shall this man be a snare unto us ?'— | Gryllus Ægyptius, which is somewhat larger than the miniThe king's obstinacy had already nearly ruined Egypt, and gratorius. The voracity with which the Gryllus migrahe now learns that his courtiers were not at all satisfied torius eats up every thing that is green and tender, has with his continued refusal to yield to the demand of the rendered a visit from a swarm of these creatures one of the Israelites. We see the influence of this discovery upon most terrible judgments that can overtake an eastern nation, his mind, in his declared unwillingness to let them go on A more particular account of their ravages will best occur certain conditions. First, the men might have liberty to in notes to the detailed and sublime description in Joel ii. go, if they left their families and property behind (verse 21. Darkness which may be felt.'—Some understand this il); and then all the people might go, but the flocks and to mean such a darkness as obliges people to feel about for herds must remain (verse 24). The answer of Moses, that
what they want, or to guide their movements. The Henot a hoof should be left behind (verse 26), is still a pro brew will indeed bear to be rendered darkness which verbial expression in the East to imply an entire removal. causeth to feel;' but we do not see any necessity for the Mr. Roberts states, that the Hindoos say 'not a tail,' in the alteration. The expression, as it stands, is a sufficiently same sense. When the king began to relax a little from intelligible, although strong, poetical indication of a darkhis first absolute refusal, his wish naturally was to detain
ness so thick and intense as to seem almost palpable. some part of their families and property as a security for Hence the palpable obscure' of Milton. It is often their return.
dangerous to inquire too nicely how the extraordinary 12. • Locusts,' nas arbeh.—The locust, Gryllus migra manifestations of Almighty power were produced, lest the torius, belongs to the same family as the cricket and grass. fulness of that power should seem to be called into question; hopper. It is about two inches and a half in length, and for while we discover that God does often see fit to employ is for the most part green with dark spots. The mandibles natural agencies in effecting such dispensations, we are apt ! or jaws are black, and the wing coverts are of a bright | to forget too often that he does not need such agencies, even i brown spotted with black. It has an elevated ridge or when it is his pleasure to employ them. The partiality of crest upon the thorax, or that portion of the body to which this darkness, the Israelites having light in their domain, the legs and wings are attached. The locusts here men- has been considered to render this miracle particularly urtioned, are said to be unlike any that were seen before or accountable. We do not see much in this, however. In after, in size and numbers. There is another species every partial darkness the limit between it and light must found in Egypt, Barbary, and the south of Europe, the be drawn somewhere, and it was the will of God that it
should in this instance be so drawn, as to make a distinc can easily conceive that such a fog would, in a climate like tion between the Egyptians and the Hebrews. Some ex that of Egypt, fill the inhabitants with the greatest horror positors are disposed to contend for the literal palpability and apprehension; and it would be unquestionably miof this darkness, by supposing that the agency employed raculous as it regards that country, because it is what was a wind densely filling the air with particles of dust nature never spontaneously produces there. Whether the and sand, and consequently creating a great darkness. darkness were exhibited in these or any other forms, the Such winds are not unknown in the eastern deserts, and phenomenon must have been not only astounding but huthey are always very appalling, and sometimes destructive miliating to the Egyptians, since their great deity, the sun, in their effects. Others however think that a dense fog was for three days obscured of his glory; and darkness, was spread over the land ; and, without venturing to speak another of their deities, was made the instrument of their so decidedly on the subject as some commentators do, we | punishment.
1 of the maidservant that is behind the mill;
and all the firstborn of beasts. 1 God's message to the Israelites to borrow jewels of
6 And there shall be a great cry throughtheir neighbours. 4 Moses threateneth Pharaoh with the death of the firstborn.
out all the land of Egypt, such as there was
none like it, nor shall be like it any more. And the LORD said unto Moses, Yet will I | 7 But against any of the children of Israel bring one plague more upon Pharaoh, and shall not a dog move his tongue, against man upon Egypt; afterwards he will let you go or beast: that ye may know how that the hence : when he shall let you go, he shall LORD doth put a difference between the Egypsurely thrust you out hence altogether. tians and Israel.
2 Speak now in the ears of the people, and 8 And all these thy servarts shall come let every man borrow of his neighbour, and down unto me, and bow down themselves unto every woman of her neighbour, jewels of me, saying, Get thee out, and all the people silver, and jewels of gold.
that follow thee : and after that I will go 3 And the LORD gave the people favour out. And he went out from Pharaoh in a in the sight of the Egyptians. Moreover the great anger. man 'Moses was very great in the land of 9 T And the Lord said unto Moses, PhaEgypt, in the sight of Pharaoh's servants, and raoh shall not hearken unto you; that my in the sight of the people.
wonders may be multiplied in the land of 41 And Moses said, Thus saith the LORD, | Egypt. *About midnight will I go out into the midst | 10 And Moses and Aaron did all these of Egypt:
wonders before Pharaoh : and the LORD
down th all the pill som
shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that not let the children of Israel go out of his sitteth upon his throne, even unto the firstborn land.
1 Chap. 3. 22, and 12. 35. 2 Ecclus. 45. 1. 3 Chap. 12. 29. Heb, that is at thy feet. 5 Heb. heat of anger.
Verse 6. There shall be a great cry,' etc.-See the note on Gen. 1. 3. As the people went about the streets lament ing loudly, when a death took place in their houses, we may form some conception of the awful outcry which arose concurrently when all the families had a dear and lost member to lament. We must recollect that the firstborn among their sacred animals died also, which must greatly
have added to the intensity of their consternation. We are assured by Diodorus, that when a sacred animal died in a house, the affliction was greater and the lamentation louder than at the death of a child. Well then may the cry now have been such as had never before been heard in Egypt, and never would be heard again.
2 This month shall be unto you the be1 The beginning of the year is changed.
ginning of months : it shall be the first month
3 The passover is instituted, 11 The rite of the passover. 15 of the year to you. Unleavened bread. 29 The firstborn are slain. 31 3 T Speak ye unto all the congregation of The Israelites are driven out of the land. 37 They | Israel, saying, In the tenth day of this month come to Succoth. 43 The ordinance of the pass- they shall take to them every man a 'lamb, over.
according to the house of their fathers, a lamb And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron for an house : in the land of Egypt, saying,
4 And if the houshold be too little for the 1 Or, kid.
lamb, let him and his neighbour next unto 17 And ye shall observe the feast of unhis house take it according to the number of leavened bread; for in this selfsame day have the souls; every man according to his eating I brought your armies out of the land of shall make your count for the lamb.
Egypt: therefore shall ye observe this day in 5 Your lamb shall be without blemish, a your generations by an ordinance for ever. male 'of the first year: ye shall take it out 18 In the first month, on the fourteenth from the sheep, or from the goats:
day of the month at even, ye shall eat unlea6 And ye shall keep it up until the four vened bread, until the one and twentieth day teenth day of the same month: and the whole | of the month at even. assembly of the congregation of Israel shall 19 Seven days shall there be no leaven kill it 'in the evening.
found in your houses : for whosoever vateth 7 And they shall take of the blood, and that which is leavened, even that soul shall be strike it on the two side posts and on the cut off from the congregation of Israel, whether upper door post of the houses, wherein they | he be a stranger, or born in the land. shall eat it.
20 Ye shall eat nothing leavened ; in all 8 And they shall eat the flesh in that night, l your habitations shall ye eat unleavened roast with fire, and unleavened bread; and bread. with bitter herbs they shall eat it.
21 9 Then Moses called for all the elders 9 Eat not of it raw, nor sodden at all with of Israel, and said unto them, Draw out and water, but roast with fire ; his head with his take you a "lamb according to your families, legs, and with the purtenance thereof.
and kill the passover. 10 And ye shall let nothing of it remain 22 °And ye shall take a bunch of hyssop, until the morning; and that which remaineth and dip it in the blood that is in the bason, of it until the morning ye shall burn with and strike the lintel and the two side posts fire.
with the blood that is in the bason; and none 11 I And thus shall ye eat it; with your of you shall go out at the door of his house loins girded, your shoes on your feet, and until the morning. your staff in your hand ; and ye shall eat it 23 For_the Lord will pass through to in haste : it is the Lord's passover.
smite the Egyptians; and when he seeth the 12 For I will pass through the land of blood upon the lintel, and on the two side Egypt this night, and will smite all the first posts, the LORD will pass over the door, and born in the land of Egypt, both man and will not suffer the destroyer to come in unto beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I your houses to smite you. will execute judgment: I am the LORD.
24 And ye shall observe this thing for an 13 And the blood shall be to you for a ordinance to thee and to thy sons for ever. token upon the houses where ye are : and 25 And it shall come to pass, when ye be when I see the blood, I will pass over you, coine to the land which the LORD will give and the plague shall not be upon you 'to de you, according as he hath promised, that ye stroy you, when I smite the land of Egypt. shall keep this service.
14 And this day shall be unto you for a | 26 "And it shall come to pass, when your memorial; and ye shall keep it a feast to the children shall say unto you, What mean ye LORD throughout your generations ; ye shall by this service ? keep it a feast by an ordinance for ever.
27 That ye shall say, It is the sacrifice of 15 9 Seven days shall ye eat unleavened the Lord's passover, who passed over the bread; even the first day ye shall put away houses of the children of Israel in Egypt, leaven out of your houses : for whosoever when he smote the Egyptians, and delivered cateth leavened bread from the first day until our houses. And the people bowed the head the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off and worshipped. from Israel.
28 And the children of Israel went away, 16 And in the first day there shall be an and did as the Lord had commanded Moses holy convocation, and in the seventh day there and Aaron, so did they. shall be an holy convocation to you; no man 29 q "And it came to pass, that at midner of work shall be done in them, save that night the LORD smote all the firstborn in the which every man must eat, that only may be land of Egypt, '?from the firstborn of Pharaoh done of you.
that sat on his throne unto the firstborn of the
9 Heb. son of a year. 7 Levit. 23. 5. Num. 28. 16.
3 Heb. bctueen the tico erenings.
8 Or, kid. 9Heb, 11. 28.
10 Josh. 4. 6.
5 Heb. for a destruction.
il Chap. 11. 4.
6 Heb. soul. 1. Wisd, 18. 11.
as 2 Also a land be gones were
nt out of
there that every manier het ne
captive that was in the 'dungeon; and all i 40 1 Now the sojourning of the children the firstborn of cattle.
of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was ''four hun30 And Pharaoh rose up in the night, he, dred and thirty years. and all his servants, and all the Egyptians ; | 41 And it came to pass at the end of the and there was a great cry in Egypt; for there four hundred and thirty years, even the selfwas not a house where there was not one dead. same day it came to pass, that all the hosts
31 | And he called for Moses and Aaron of the LORD went out from the land of by night, and said, Rise up, and get you forth Egypt. from among my people, both ye and the | 42 It is ''a night to be much observed unto children of Israel ; and go, serve the LORD, the LORD for bringing them out from the land as ye have said.
of Egypt: this is that night of the LORD to 32 Also take your flocks and your herds, as be observed of all the children of Israel in ye have said, and be gone ; and bless me also. | their generations.
33 And the Egyptians were urgent upon. 43 | And the LORD said unto Moses and ! the people, that they might send them out of Aaron, This is the ordinance of the passover:
the land in haste; for they said, We be all | There shall no stranger eat thereof: dead men.
44 But every man's servant that is bought 34 And the people took their dough before for money, when thou hast circumcised him, it was leavened, their "kneading - troughs then shall he eat thereof. being bound up in their clothes upon their 45 A foreigner and an hired servant shall shoulders.
not eat thereof. 35 And the children of Israel did according · 46 In one house shall it be eaten ; thou to the word of Moses; and they borrowed of shalt not carry forth ought of the flesh abroad the Egyptians "Sjewels of silver, and jewels of out of the house ; o'neither shall ye break a gold, and raiment :
bone thereof. 36 And the Lord gave the people favour 47 All the congregation of Israel shall in the sight of the Egyptians, so that they keep it. lent unto them such things as they required. 48 And when a stranger shall sojourn with And they spoiled the Egyptians.
thee, and will keep the passover to the LORD, 37 TAnd the children of Israel jour let all his males be circumcised, and then let neyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six him come near and keep it; and he shall be hundred thousand on foot that were men, be | as one that is born in the land : for no uncirside children.
cumcised person shall eat thereof. 38 And 'a mixed multitude went up also 49 One law shall be to him that is home. with them; and flocks, and herds, even very born, and unto the stranger that sojourneth much cattle.
among you. 39 And they baked unleavened cakes of 50 Thus did all the children of Israel ; as the dough which they brought forth out of the LORD commanded Moses and Aaron, so Egypt, for it was not leavened; because they did they. . were thrust out of Egypt, and could not tarry, 51 And it came to pass the selfsame day, neither had they prepared for themselves any that the Lord did bring the children of Israel victual.
out of the land of Egypt by their armies. 13 Heb. house of the pit. 14 Or, dorgh. 15 Chap. 3. 22, and 11. 2. 16 Num. 33. 3. 17 Heb. a great mixture.
buite of the houserth ought of the maten; thou
18 Gen. 15. 13. Acts 7. 6. Galat. 3. 17.
19 Heb. a night of observations.
29 Num. 9.12.
John 19. 36.
21 Heb. do it.
Verse 8. • Biller herbs,' Dining merorim.-The word of horse-radish), a species of nettle, and bitter coriander literally means bitters;' and as the expression is so gene
(or, according to some, wild lettuce). They are to be used ral, our translation is right in not professing to define the
in a fresh or dried state, but not pickled, boiled, or cooked particular species. We cannot but think that it was in
in any way. They may be combined to the size of an tended to leave it free to the Hebrews to use whatever
olive, and the obligation is discharged if the stalks of them bitter herbs could be obtained, or that seemed snitable. The
i only have been used.' Hebrew doctors, however, allege that five particular herbs 9. • Eat not of it raw.'--'This injunction is understood, are intended, any of which, or the whole of them, raight like some others, to be intended to create a marked disbe eaten with the paschal lamb. The following is the tinction between this observance and those connected with clause of the Mishna which relates to the subject (Pesa idolatrous worship. The ancient heathens in their idolachim, ii. 6): The obligation of eating bitter herbs at the trons feasts and sacrifices, particularly those of the Grecian Passover may be discharged with the following herbs; Bacchus--which feasts had their origin in Egypt, Bacchus namely, with lettuce, wild endive, and garden endive (or as himself being merely an adaptation of the Egyptian Osiris some take it, the carduus marrubium, others the green tops | --tore the victims in pieces, and ate the raw and palpi.