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made our savour to be abhorred in the eyes entreated this people ? why is it that thou hast of Pharaoh, and in the eyes of his servants, to sent me ? put a sword in their hand to slay us.

23 For since I came to Pharaoh to speak 22 9 And Moses returned unto the LORD, in thy name, he hath done evil to this people; and said, Lord, wherefore hast thou so evil | "neither hast thou delivered thy people at all.

4 Heb. to stink. 5 Heb. delivering thou hast not delivered.

Verse 6. "Officers' – The word here is one ever we look, act an important part. The passion for shoterim, which means the writers,' from the verb TON

writing was so incorporated with the business of Egypt, !

that even now the last remains of the Egyptians, the shatar, to write. This is highly characteristic of the state

Copts, are in exclusive possession of all the secretaries | of things in Egypt. In no land of the old world was

posts, and, as it were, form a nation of scribes. (Girard in ! facility in writing so great, and the materials for writing

Descript. de l'Egypte, xvii. 192.) From all this, it is by any means so perfect as in Egypt. Stone-workers were accustomed,' says Rosellini, to engrave upon each

well urged by Hengstenberg, that these and the remaining square block an inscription in hieroglyphics; an impres

passages of the Pentateuch, which imply a great extension

of the art of writing among the Israelites in the time of sion was made upon the bricks (which besides frequently bore inscriptions); even oxen were represented the

Moses, only make known what cannot have been othersteward of the house kept a written register. They pro

wise, and are a strong confirmation of the narrative. See

his Egypt, pp. 89-91, and more particularly his elaborate bably wrote more, and on more ordinary occasions, than

chapter, Der Pentateuch und die Schreibkunst, ii. 414-502 among us.' The same author says, “ The Egyptians differ specially from all other people in that they constantly

of his Beiträge zur Einleitung ins Alte Test., 1836. cover the exterior and interior of their houses, and the 7. Straw to make brick.'-- In the note in Gen. xi. 3, walls of all the innumerable apartments of their wonderful we have shewn the use of straw in compacting sun-dried subterraneous burial places, with images and writing. bricks, as exemplified in the remains of Babylon. We Upon the implements, and even garments of the Egyptians, have little to add to that statement, unless that the stray the name of the owner is frequently wholly or in part in. is perhaps less abundant in the crude bricks of Egypt scribed. The proper name of the profession of the men is than in those of Babylon. Bricks thus compacted have written upon them on the monuments; the name of the been found bearing the stamp of kings who reigned in the animals upon their representatives, and that of implements age of Moses, and may have been, and probably were, the of every sort upon the figures which represent them. We very bricks manufactured by the Israelites. Rosellini must shut our eyes against the clearest light, if we would says, 'The bricks which are now found in Egypt belonging deny that the art of reading and writing was generally to the same period, always have straw mingled with them, studied and practised in ancient Egypt, to as great a

although in some of them that are most carefully made it degree at least as it is now among us.' (Monumenti dell' is found in very small quantities.' Monumenti dell'Egitto, Egitto, M. C. ii., pl. 3; 239, 241, 255, 272, seq.) These II. ii. 252. The straw, as formerly shewn, was to compact antiquarian drawings from the monuments furnish ample and give cohesion to the mass of clay of which they were proof that in judicial transactions every thing was trans formed, and the coarser the clay, the greater the quantity acted in writing. The scribes, who meet our eyes where- 1 of straw required to give them the necessary compactness,



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Prokesch says; The bricks of the first pyramid at officers. That the kings of Egypt had any thing to do Dashoor are of fine clay from the Nile mingled with with the making of bricks is not noticed by any ancient chopped straw. The intermixture gives the bricks an as writer; and this renders more interesting and important tonishing durability,

the incidental corroboration which the study of Egyp8. · Bricks.'-From ch. i. 14, we learn that Pharaoh em tian antiquities has recently produced. Wilkinson says, on bittered the lives of the Israelites with hard bondage in this point : .So great was the demand, that the Egyptian mortar and brick.' Other particnlars follow here, ac government, observing the profit that would accrue to the quainting us with the mode in which this grievous work revenue from a monopoly of them, undertook to supply of the Israelites was performed. The whole implies that the public at a moderate price, thus preventing all unbricks were in common use in Egypt. That this was the authorized persons from engaging in their manufacture. fact, we have ample means of shewing; and this is impor And in order more effectually to obtain their end, the seal tant, as it has been urged as an objection against the Pen of the king, or of some privileged person, was stamped tateuch, that the existing monuments of Egypt are not of upon the bricks at the time they were made. This fact, brick, but of hewn stone. The fact is, however, that nearly though not positively mentioned by any ancient author, is all private buildings, and some public buildings, were of inferred from finding bricks so marked, both in public and brick. Herodotus mentions a brick pyramid, which is private buildings; some having the ovals of a king, and probably one of those still standing. But we are literally some the name and titles of a priest, or other influential overwhelmed with proofs of the abundant use of bricks in person; and it is probable that those which bear no chaEgypt, when we turn to the writers who, during the present racters belonged to individuals who had obtained a percentury, have illustrated the antiquities of Egypt. Cham mission or licence from the government to fabricate them pollion, for example, speaks of a tomb built of crude brick for their own consumption.' Ancient Egyptians, ii. 79. at Sais, and a temple of brick at Wady Halfa (L'Egypte, 14. The officers ... were beaten.'This scene, in which p. 83). Rosellini says, “Ruins of great brick buildings the Hebrew officers, whom the Egyptian taskmasters had are found in all parts of Egypt. Walls of astonishing height set over their countrymen, are beaten because those under and thickness are preserved to the present time, as, for them had not performed their task in brickmaking, is example, the cireamvallation of Sais; also whole pyramids, placed vividly before us in the above engraving comas those of Faioum and Dashoor, and a great number posed from two mural paintings, one at Beni Hassan, and of the ruins of monuments, both great and small' (Monum. the other in a tomb at the pyramids; one representing the dell' Egitto, II. ii. 240). Wilkinson says :— The use of infliction of the bastinado, and the other shewing how crude brick baked in the sun, was universal in Upper and persons were stimulated to their work by the persuasive Lower Egypt, both for public and private buildings. En powers of the stick. The first of the two representations closures of gardens, granaries, sacred circuits encompassing combined in our engraving shews conclusively, that the the courts of temples, walls of fortifications and towers, mode of inflicting stripes described in Deut. xxv. 2-the dwelling houses and tombs, in short, all but the temples | guilty person being laid down flat upon the ground before themselves, were of crude bricks' (Anct. Egyptians, ii. 26). the judge and beaten—was precisely the Egyptian mode. The same author shews that building with brick was prac Wilkinson describes it in the following words: Men and tised even in very early times, since the bricks themselves boys were laid flat upon the ground, and frequently held both in Thebes and the neighbourhood of Memphis often by the hands and feet while the chastisement was adminisbear the names of monarchs who ruled Egypt in that early tered.' Ancient Egyptians, ii. 40-42. age. The fact of this abundant use of bricks in Egypt, is 19. · Your bricks of your daily task.'-It is impossible not the least interesting or important of those numerous to close these notes upon the labours of the Israelites in corroborations of the Pentateuch which the study of Egyp the brick-fields, without noticing a painting found in a tian antiquities has of late years produced.

tomb at Thebes, of which a drawing and an explanation 10. • Thus saith Pharaoh.'-From all that passes on were first furnished by Rosellini, who gives to his descripthis occasion, it is manifest that the bricks were made tion the title of an Explanation of a picture representing under the immediate direction of the king through his | the Hebrews as they were engaged in making brick.' Of

a tomb at paintings, one at Rengraving co

the labourers, some are employed in transporting the clay finished brick. 2. We have in this painting an explain vessels, some in intermingling it with the straw; others nation with regard to the Egyptians who accompanied the are taking the bricks out of the mould and placing them Israelites in their Exodus. Of these Egyptians we first in rows, still others with a piece of wood upon their backs read in Exod. xii. 38 : “And also a great rabble (2727) and ropes on each side, carry away the bricks already | went up with them.” In Num. xi. 4: “ The mixed Egypburned or dried. Their dissimilarity to the Egyptians

tian populace (9PIDX7) led astray the Israelites in the appears at the first view : the complexion, physiognomy

desert to discontentment.” In Deut. xxix. 11-let it be and beard permit us not to be mistaken in supposing them

observed how accurately these reniote and disconnected to be Hebrews. They wear at their hips the apron which

passages agree with each other, the Egyptian slaves apis common among the Egyptians, and there is also repre

pear as very poor, as the lowest servants, as hewers of sented as in use among them a kind of short trowsers or

wood and drawers of water. The designations rabble and drawers, after the fashion of the Did (that is, the

populace, in their first passages, also shew that these atbreeches' of Exod. xxviii. 42). Among the Hebrews, four tendants of the Israelites belonged to the lowest grades of Egyptians, very distinguishable by their mien, figure and

society. Just such people we should naturally expect to colour (which is of the usual reddish brown, while the

find in Egypt. Their existence is the necessary conseothers are of what we call .flesh colour') are seen. Two

quence of strictly marked castes of society. The monuof them, one sitting and the other standing, carry a stick ments, indeed, place vividly before us most manifest in their hand, ready to fall upon two other Egyptians, who distinctions in station. A part of the people appear to be are here represented like the Hebrews, one of them carry

in the same deep degradation that now presses upon the ing upon his shoulder a vessel of clay, and the other re

Fellahs. According to Herodotus (ii. 47), the caste of turning from the transportation of brick, carrying his swineherds, a native tribe, was unclean and despised in empty vessel to get a new load. Here we have a lively

Egypt. All intercourse with the rest of the inhabitants, illustration of the taskmasters and of the beating described

even entrance into a temple, was forbidden! The conin v. 14. The tomb in which this picture is found be

tempt in which they were held was not, certainly, the longed to a high court-officer of the king, named Rochscere,

consequence of their occupation, but their occupation of the and it was made in the reign of Thothmes IV., who was

disdain which was felt for them. Already unclean, they contemporary with Moses. The question, How came this

had no reason for avoiding the care of unclean animals. painting in the tomb of Rochscere, Rosellini answers :

But full light must fall upon these notices of the Penta• He was the overseer of the public buildings, and had con

teuch through our painting. We see upon it Egyptians sequently the charge of all the works undertaken by the

who are placed entirely upon an equality with the hated king. There are found represented therein still other

and despised strangers. What is more natural than that a objects of a like nature; two colossal statues of kings, a considerable part of these Egyptians, bonnd close to their sphinx, and the labourers who hewed the stone-works companions in sorrow by their common misery, should which he, by virtue of his office, had caused to be executed

leave with them their native land, such now to them only in in his life-time. To the question, How came the repre name.' Wilkinson admits the importance of this painting sentation of the labours of the Israelites at Thebes ? the

for the illustration of the Pentateuch, as representing answer is: “We need not suppose the labours were per

foreign captives engaged in labours similar to those of the formed in the very place where they are represented, for Israelites : but he hesitates to say that they really were IsRochscere was overseer of the royal buildings throughout raelites, on grounds which seem to have been satisfactorily the land, and what was done in the circuit of his operations disposed of by Hengstenberg, to whose interesting book, would, wherever performed, be represented in his tomb

Egypt and the Books of Moses, we must refer the reader. at Thebes. It is also not impossible that the Hebrews That too much attention has not been bestowed upon this rewent even to Thebes. In Exod. v. 12, it is said, that they markable picture, will appear from the following words of scattered themselves throughout the whole land of Egypt, Heeren: If this painting represents the servitude of the in order to procure straw.

children of Israel in these labours, it is equally important The points of resemblance between this scene and the for exegesis and chronology. For exegesis, because it would labours of the Israelites are many, and some of them have be a strong proof of the antiquity of the Mosaic writings, been indicated in the above description. Two more, and especially of the book of Exodus, which, in the first pointed out by Hengstenberg, are important, and well and fifth chapters, gives a description which applies most worthy of attention : 1. It is said in the narrative, that the accurately to this painting, even in unimportant particulars. Israelites were subjected to severe labour in mortar and For chronology, since it belongs to the eighteenth dynasty, brick. Just so this servile labour appears throughout this under the dominion of Thothmes Mæris, about 1740 before painting as two-fold: some are employed upon the clay | Christ, and therefore would give a fixed point both for from which the bricks are made, and some upon the ' profane and sacred history.'


4 And I have also established my covenant 1 God reneweth his promise by his name JEHOVAH. with them, to give them the land of Canaan,

14 The genealogy of Reuben, 15. of Simeon, 16 of the land of their pilgrimage, wherein they Levi, of whom came Moses and Aaron.

were strangers. Then the Lord said unto Moses, Now shalt 5 And I have also heard the groaning of thou see what I will do to Pharaoh : for with the children of Israel, whom the Egyptians a strong hand shall he let them go, and with a keep in bondage; and I have remembered my strong hand shall he drive them out of his land. covenant.

2 And God spake unto Moses, and said 6 Wherefore say unto the children of Isunto him, I am the LORD:

rael, I am the Lord, and I will bring you out 3 And I appeared unto Abraham, unto from under the burdens of the Egyptians, and Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of God I will rid you out of their bondage, and I will Almighty, but by my name JEHOVAH was redeem you with a stretched out arm, and I not known to them.

with great judgments :

7 And I will take you to me for a people, years of the life of Kohath were an hundred and I will be to you a God: and ye shall thirty and three years. know that I am the LORD your God, which I 19 And the sons of Merari ; Mahali and bringeth you out from under the burdens of Mushi ; these are the families of Levi accordthe Egyptians.

ing to their generations. 8 And I will bring you in unto the land, 20 And 'Amram took him Jochebed his concerning the which I did 'swear to give it father's sister to wife; and she bare him to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob; and I Aaron and Moses: and the years of the life will give it you for an heritage: I am the | of Amram were an hundred and thirty and LORD.

seven years. 9 And Moses spake so unto the children 21 And the sons of Izhar; Korah, and of Israel : but they hearkened not unto Moses Nepheg, and Zithri. for 'anguish of spirit, and for cruel bondage. 22 And the sons of Uzziel ; Mishael, and

10 À And the LORD spake unto Moses, Elzaphan, and Zithri. saying,

23 And Aaron took him Elisheba, daugh11 Go in, speak unto Pharaoh king of ter of Amminadab, sister of Naashon, to wife; Egypt, that he let the children of Israel go and she bare him Nadab, and Abihu, Eleazar, out of his land.

and Ithamar. 12 And Moses spake before the LORD, | 24 And the sons of Korah; Assir, and saying, Behold, the children of Israel have | Elkanah, and Abiasaph: these are the faminot hearkened unto me; how then shall Pha- | lies of the Korhites. raoh hear me, who am of uncircumcised lips ? 25 And Eleazar Aaron's son took him one

13 And the Lord spake unto Moses and of the daughters of Putiel to wife ; and she unto Aaron, and gave them a charge unto the bare him Phinehas : these are the heads of children of Israel, and unto Pharaoh king of the fathers of the Levites according to their Egypt, to bring the children of Israel out of families. the land of Egypt.

26 These are that Aaron and Moses, to 14 1 These be the heads of their fathers' whom the LORD said, Bring out the children houses: "The sons of Reuben the firstborn of Israel from the land of Egypt according to of Israel ; Hanoch, and Pallu, Hezron, and their armies. Carmi : these be the families of Reuben. 27 These are they which spake to Pharaoh

15 1 *And the sons of Simeon ; Jemuel, and king of Egypt, to bring out the children of Jamin, and Ohad, and Jachin, and Zohar, Israel from Egypt: these are that Moses and and Shaul the son of a Canaanitish woman : | Aaron. these are the families of Simeon.

28 9 And it came to pass on the day when 16 ( And these are the names of sthe sons the LORD spake unto Moses in the land of of Levi according to their generations ; Ger Egypt, shon, and Kohath, and Merari : and the years 29 That the LORD spake unto Moses, of the life of Levi were an hundred thirty and saying, I am the LORD : speak thou unto seven years.

Pharaoh king of Egypt all that I say unto 17 The sons of Gershon; Libni, and Shimi, according to their families. . 30 And Moses said before the LORD, Be


18 And the sons of Kohath; Amram, and hold, I am of uncircumcised lips, and how Izhar, and Hebron, and Uzziel : and the shall Pharaoh hearken unto me? I Heb, lift up my hand. 2 Heb. shortness, or, straitness. 3 Gen. 46. 9. I Chron. 5. 3. 1 Chron. 4. 24. 5 Num. 3. 17. i Chron. 6. 1.

6 Num. 26. 57.

i Chron. 6. 2.

7 Chap. 2, 2. Num. 26. 59.

8 Num. 25. 11.

Verse 3. By my name JEHOVAH was I not known | import, reply, that there is no evidence that the book of to them.'—This declaration has attracted much attention, Genesis was written till after this revelation had been made and excited much discussion. Its plain and literal import to Moses; and, writing afterwards, he would naturally use would seem to be that the august name of JEHOVAH is now proleptically, in designating God, the name thus made for the first time revealed, and was not previously known known to him; and that it was most proper that he should even to the patriarchs. But in point of fact, we find in do so, as he would thus remind the Israelites that the God the book of Genesis that the name was known to and used who had from early times interested himself in their race,

the patriarchs, but by the first human pair. I and who was the lord of heaven and earth, was the very The first time of its occurrence, indeed, is not in a descrip same who brought them forth out of Egypt, and who, just tive passage, but in a declaration uttered by Eve on oc- before that deliverance, made known to them this great casion of the birth of Cain (Gen. iv. 1). To this, those name as that by which he would especially be called in who believe the words are to be taken in their literal memory of that event. Those who take this view urge,

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further, that it would have been needless, if not imperti- 22, 23. See Bush's Notes on Exodus, i. 81-84. New nent, for Moses to have asked, "What is thy name?' in York, 1843.. iii. 13, if the name had been already known, for he had With respect to the name itself, it will probably be satisbeen previously informed that the Being who talked with factory to state the results of the elaborate investigation him was no other than the God of his fathers, the God of which Hengstenberg has instituted in his Authentie des PenAbraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob' (v. 6). tateuches. He first settles the question whether the word The argument drawn from the fact that the patriarchs ac is of foreign or Hebrew origin. He investigates the tually used the name in addressing God, as in Gen. xv. 21, Egyptiau and Phænician claims, and rejects them as inadis disposed of by those who take this view, by alleging that missible. The claim set up for a Chinese origin, and the a later writer has in those places substituted Jehovah' for derivation from Jovis, are hardly worthy of notice. The * Elohim,' or Adonai,' which Moses undoubtedly wrote: word is undoubtedly of Hebrew etymology. The learned and the variation of several of the ancient versions from writer then proceeds to examine the correct punctuation of the present Hebrew reading is adduced in support of this the word. He agrees with Ewald and other eminent auopinion. Others understand the words as implying, not thorities in concluding that the vowels in present use are that the literal name Jehovah' was unknown to the pa taken from Adonai, and that the original pronunciation triarchs, but that its true, full, and complete import, its force, must, from the analogy of the language, have been YAHVEH burden, and perfect significance, was not before known; whereas now and hereafter, the chosen people should

verb 717 havah, to be, and meaning properly, the existing, come to know this great name, not in the letter merely,

literally he will exist. but in the actual realization of all that it implied: for it

He considers Exod. ii. 14, And

God said unto Moses, 'I am what I am,' or 'I will be what I not only denoted God's eternal existence, but also his un

will be,' as implying immutability. In the words of Auguschangeable truth and omnipotent power, which gave being

tin in loc., . It is the name of unchangeableness.' For all to his promises by the actual performance of them. Now,

things that are mutable cease to be what they were, and although Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob had received promises, yet had they not enjoyed the things promised.

begin to be what they were not. Immutability is peculiar They believed in these things, but they had not lived to

to essential truth. He has the property of existence to

whom it is said, “Thou shalt change them, and they shall see the actual accomplishment of them. But the time was

be changed ; but thou art the same. What is ‘1 am that now come when God would be known by his name Jehovah, in the doing of what he had before decreed, and in

I am,' but • I am eternal'? What is ‘I am that I am,' but

"I cannot be changed'? •The existing and the unchangthe accomplishment of all that he had promised. It is

ing,' he considers equivalent in meaning, and as expressing strongly in corroboration of this view, that in the words

the sentiment of the text. which immediately follow, and which may be regarded as exegetical of the title under consideration, God proceeds

20. · Father's sister.'—The Septuagint and the Syriac to assure the Israelites that he will make good his promise both read, 'uncle's daughter.' by establishing his covenant. It is much in accordance 30. 'I am of uncircumcised lips.'-Moses thus expresses with this view that God is often said to make his name of figuratively, what he had said before more plainly, • I am Jehovah known by bringing to pass the grand predicted not eloquent,' or rather, ‘not of ready utterance.' 'In conevents of his providence. See Exod. vii. 5, 7; Ezek. sequence of uncircumcision being considered not only xxviii. 22. Other arguments and illustrations in favour of impure but dishonourable, the term 'uncircumcised' is this view might be produced. The result from the whole frequently applied as an expression of degradation and is, that the words here used are to be understood not as reproach to the Philistines and other neighbouring nations an absolute, but as a comparative negative. That the of the Jews; and we also find it often applied, as here, literal name of Jehovah was known to the patriarchs, is figuratively to imply any thing impure, useless, dangerous, clear from Gen. ix. 26; xv. 2; xxii. 14; xxvii. 7; or defective. Thus we read of uncircumcised ears' (Jer. xxviii, 20, 21.

vi, 10), that is, ears averse to instruction ; and of uncirSuch comparative modes of speech are not unfrequent in cumcised hearts' (Lev. xxvi. 41), or hearts intractable and Scripture. A remarkable instance occurs in Jer. vii. I inattentive.


| children of Israel, out of the land of Egypt 1 Moses is encouraged to go to Pharaoh. 7 His age.

by great judgments. 8 His rod is turned into a serpent. 11 The sorcerer's

5 And the Egyptians shall know that I am do the like. 13 Pharaoh's heart is hardened. 14 the LORD, when I stretch forth mine hand God's message to Pharaoh, 19 The river is turned upon Egypt, and bring out the children of into blood.

Israel from among them. And the LORD said unto Moses, See, I have 6 And Moses and Aaron did as the LORD made thee a god to Pharaoh : and Aaron commanded them, so did they. thy brother shall be thy prophet.

7 And Moses was fourscore years old, and 2 Thou shalt speak all that I command Aaron fourscore and three years old, when thee : and Aaron thy brother shall speak they spake unto Pharaoh. unto Pharaoh, that he send the children of 18 And the LORD spake unto Moses and Israel out of his land.

unto Aaron, saying, 3 And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, and | 9 When Pharaoh shall speak unto you, multiply my signs and my wonders in the saying, Shew a miracle for you : then thou land of Egypt.

shalt say unto Aaron, Take thy rod, and 4 But Pharaoh shall not hearken unto you, cast it before Pharaoh, and it shall become a that I may lay my hand upon Egypt, and bring forth mine armies, and my people the 1 10 And Moses and Aaron went in unto

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