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only was their dislike to shepherds, arising from the causes impression which the scriptural accounts were likely to already stated, turned into absolute hatred ; but they were create to the disadvantage of the nation. And this is held highly suspicious of all pastoral people who came, as to be the more probable, as Manetho lived in the reign of Joseph's brethren did, from the quarter to which the ex- the very king (Ptolemy Philadelphus), under whom the pelled shepherds had withdrawn. The treatment, there translation of the Hebrew scriptures into Greek was accomfore, which they received from the governor of the land,' plished, and when these matters must have been brought as being suspected spies from the old enemies of Egypt, forcibly under the attention of the learned in Egypt. But was perfectly natural, and such as they would have been, it is necessary to distinguish. This anxiety could not without doubt, exposed to had they been really as much operate in the account which Manetho gives of the 15th strangers to Joseph as he assumed they were. Nothing dynasty, which was extinct before the Hebrews appeared could be more likely than that men of the same habits of in Egypt; whereas it does most visibly operate in his life as the expelled shepherds, and coming from the coun- | notice of the 17th dynasty. It will therefore probably try to which they had withdrawn, should be taken for a. be safest to take a middle course; accepting the notice of party of them, come 'to spy the nakedness of the land.' the 15th dynasty as true history, and regarding that of • The considerations which suggest the probability that the 17th as a distorted account of the residence of the the expelled shepherds became the Philistines and Ana Hebrews in Egypt, and their departure thence,-an ackim of Palestine, will claim consideration in the note in count framed for the purpose of casting a slur upon the Deut. ii. 3. That they were in their origin Phænicians, character of the Israelites, and of vindicating the conduct as Manetho seems to intimate, signifies little more than of the Egyptian government. The chief use of this suppothat, as he states, the invaders came from the east; that sititious 17th dynasty is that to which we have applied itis, from the land of Canaan, which they might have done namely, to fix the termination, and therefore also the without being Phænicians or Canaanites, who were not a commencement of the 511 years assigned to the rule of pastoral or nomade people, as the 'shepherds' seem to the Shepherd-kings in Egypt. have been.
We submit this view of a greatly perplexed question It is curious to observe how the Scripture and Manetho with much diffidence : but after much consideration it apcorroborate each other in respect to the Assyrians. The pears to us that thus broadly distinguishing between the first Shepherd-kings, contemporary with Abraham, were credibility due to the two dynasties-accepting the former in great fear of invasion from the Assyrians, according to and rejecting, or at least distrusting, the latter, meets Manetho; and the book of Genesis manifests the first all the difficulties by which chronologers have been perground of that fear by shewing that, in the time of Abra- plexed, and renders the portion of Manetho's fragments, bam, the Assyrians actually had established their power which we accept as true, consistent with probability, with on this side the Euphrates, and had even subdued part of the scriptural intimations, and with the information dePalestine to their yoke. See the note on Gen. xiv. 1. ducible from the monuments. Chedorlaomer and his allies were probably only prevented It will appear from the following observations of the Rev. from making a dash upon Egypt by the strong defences | R. M. Macbriar, an intelligent missionary in Egypt, that which Salatis, the first Shepherd-king, had established something like the ancient variance and dislike between along the frontier.
the natives and the pastoral tribes still subsists in that It should be particularly observed, that the country which country :-Without making any conjecture as to the origin we have noticed as the land of Goshen’seems to have been of such an antipathy, it may be remarked, that it is an unthe first which the Hyksos or Shepherds occupied when doubted historical fact that the natives of Egypt have ever they invaded Egypt, and the last from which they retired. | been famous for growing corn, and not for feeding cattle; The Egyptians were certainly not a pastoral people; and and it is probable that they have long had the same kind this being a district which had been employed for pasturage, l of shepherds as are those of the present day. These are the it had probably not begun to be occupied by the Egyptians Bedouin Arabs, a race of men distinct from every other, since the recent expulsion of their enemies. If it had, it and wholly at variance with the customs of the Egyptians. would not have been so readily assigned to the Hebrews; The latter are stunted in their growth, flat in their features, but now it was quite natural that they should be placed in and rather square in their shape; but the Bedouins are of Goshen, which a pastoral people had lately vacated. Thus, a tall, masculine, Roman form. They dwell in tents, which Goshen occurs immediately to Joseph as a suitable domain they carry about with them, and pitch wherever they can for the family of his father: and that it remained unoc- find forage for their flocks and herds. Their encampment cupied, seems to be evinced by the readiness with which resembles a tented village, and is always fixed at a distance he promises his father, in his first message, that he should from any Egyptian residence. The peasants fear the Bereside in the land of Goshen (ch. xlv. 9, 10); and the douins, and avoid them, having little communication with ground on which he made this promise seems to be ex- | them, and never approaching their temporary dwellings. plained in ch. xlvi. 34, where we perceive his conviction The latter are guarded by a great number of the fiercest that Pharaoh would at once assign that territory to them dogs. The Bedouins are generally armed with a musket, when he knew that they were shepherds. Dr. Hales very and ride on horses ; nor are they particularly scrupulous properly directs attention to the no less wise and liberal about the commission of plunder. They throw their dress policy of the Egyptian court in making this assignment of over them in a peculiar manner, so as to be distinguished Goshen to the Hebrews. This country formed the eastern in a moment by their appearance and gestures. They bring barrier of Egypt towards Palestine and Arabia--the quar their cattle for sale into the principal towns; and a small ters from which they most dreaded invasion--whose tax is paid upon each animal as it enters the gates. This nakedness was now covered, in a short time, by a nume is all the tribute which the pacha receives from them; rous, a brave, and an industrious people; amply repay nor dare he impose upon them any of the burdens which ing, by the additional security and resources which they he lays upon his native subjects. If he ventured upon this, gave to Egypt, their hospitable reception and naturaliza the whole body of the Bedouins would retire into the tion.'
desert, with their flocks and herds, to the greatest injury Thus far all appears very clear and consistent; and our of Egypt.'-(Wesleyan Mag., 1836, p. 20.) difficulties only begin when we come to Manetho's 17th A large quantity of incidental illustration on the dynasty; which, from the manner in which it mixes up same subject might also be derived from some very inand disturbs the history of the Hebrews and Egypt, has teresting papers, respecting the Arab tribes dwelling in exposed the whole of his information to great suspicion or near Egypt, inserted in the Description de l'Egypte, unreservedly avowed by Pezron, Hengstenberg, and others, commonly called the great work on Egypt,' the literary who believe that the whole is an elaborate attempt to portion of which does not generally deserve to share the mystify the portion of Egyptian history in which the Jews discredit into which the inaccuracy of some of the en. were concerned, for the purpose of doing away with the gravings of antiquities have drawn that celebrated work.
13 | And there was no bread in all the 1 Joseph presenteth five of his brethren, 7 and his | land; for the famine was very sore, so that the
father, before Pharaoh. 11 He giveth them habita- | land of Egypt and all the land of Canaan fion and maintenance. 13 He getteth all the Egyp
fainted by reason of the famine. tians' money, 16 their cattle, 18 their lands, for Pha.
14 And Joseph gathered up all the money raoh. 22 The Priests' land was not bought. 23 He letteth the land to them for a fifth part. 28 that was found in the land of Egypt, and in Jacob's age. 29 He sweareth Joseph to bury him the land of Canaan, for the corn which they with his fathers.
bought: and Joseph brought the money into Then Joseph came and told Pharaoh, and Pharaoh's house. said, My father and my brethren, and their 15 And when money failed in the land of flocks, and their herds, and all that they have, Egypt, and in the land of Canaan, all the are come out of the land of Canaan; and, be Egyptians came unto Joseph, and said, Give hold, they are in the land of Goshen.
us bread : for why should we die in thy pre2 And he took some of his brethren, even sence ? for the money faileth. . five men, and presented them unto Pharaoh. 16 And Joseph said, Give your cattle ; and
3 And Pharaoh said unto his brethren, I will give you for your cattle, if money fail. What is your occupation ? And they said 17 And they brought their cattle unto unto Pharaoh, Thy servants are shepherds, Joseph : and Joseph gave them bread in erboth we, and also our fathers.
change for horses, and for the flocks, and for 4 They said moreover unto Pharaoh, For the cattle of the herds, and for the asses: and to sojourn in the land are we come ; for thy he 'fed them with bread for all their cattle for servants have no pasture for their flocks; for that year. the famine is sore in the land of Canaan : now 18 When that year was ended, they came therefore, we pray thee, let thy servants dwell unto him the second year, and said unto him, in the land of Goshen.
We will not hide it from my lord, how that 5 And Pharaoh spake unto Joseph, saying, our money is spent; my lord also hath our Thy father and thy brethren are come unto herds of cattle; there is not ought left in the thee:
sight of my lord, but our bodies, and our 6 The land of Egypt is before thee; in the lands: best of the land make thy father and brethren | 19 Wherefore shall we die before thine to dwell; in the land of Goshen let them eyes, both we and our land ? buy us and our dwell: and if thou knowest any men of acti- | land for bread, and we and our land will be vity among them, then make them rulers over servants unto Pharaoh : and give us seed, that my cattle.
we may live, and not die, that the land be not °7 And Joseph brought in Jacob his father, desolate. and set him before Pharaoh : and Jacob 20 And Joseph bought all the land of blessed Pharaoh.
Egypt for Pharaoh; for the Egyptians sold 8 And Pharaoh said unto Jacob, 'How old every man his field, because the famine preart thou ?
vailed over them: so the land became Pha9 And Jacob said unto Pharaoh, ?The raoh's. days of the years of my pilgrimage are an 21 And as for the people, he removed them hundred and thirty years : few and evil have to cities from one end of the borders of Egypt the days of the years of my life been, and have even to the other end thereof. not attained unto the days of the years of the 22 Only the land of the 'priests bought he life of my fathers in the days of their pil not; for the priests had a portion assigned grimage.
them of Pharaoh, and did eat their portion 10 And Jacob blessed Pharaoh, and went which Pharaoh gave them: wherefore they out from before Pharaoh.
sold not their lands. 11 | And Joseph placed his father and his 23 | Then Joseph said unto the people, Bebrethren, and gave them a possession in the hold, I have bought you this day and your land of Egypt, in the best of the land, in the land for Pharaoh : lo, here is seed for you, land of Rameses, as Pharaoh had commanded. and ye shall sow the land.
12 And Joseph nourished his father, and 24 And it shall come to pass in the increase, his brethren, and all his father's houshold, that ye shall give the fifth part unto Pharaoh, with bread, 'according* to their families. and four parts shall be your own, for seed of the field, and for your food, and for them of Egypt seventeen years : so the whole age of your housholds, and for food for your little Jacob was an hundred forty and seven years. ones.
1 Heb. How many are the days of the years of thy life? 2 Heb. 11. 9, 13. 8 Or, as a little child is nourished,
4 Heb. according to the little ones,
5 Heb. led them,
29 And the time drew nigh that Israel 25 And they said, Thou hast saved our must die: and he called his son Joseph, and lives : let us find grace in the sight of my said unto him, If now I have found grace in lord, and we will be Pharaoh's servants. thy sight, 'put, I pray thee, thy hand under
26 And Joseph made it a law over the my thigh, and deal kindly and truly with me; land of Egypt unto this day, that Pharaoh bury me not, I pray thee, in Egypt: should have the fifth part; except the land of 30 But I will lie with my fathers, and thou the 'priests only, which became not Pharaoh's. shalt carry me out of Egypt, and bury me in
27 | And Israel dwelt in the land of their buryingplace. And he said, I will do as Egypt, in the country of Goshen; and they thou hast said. had possessions therein, and grew, and multi- 31 And he said, Swear unto me. And he plied exceedingly.
sware unto him. And Israel bowed himself 28 | And Jacob lived in the land of upon the bed's head.
70r, princes. Heb, the days of the years of his life. Chap. 24. 2. 19 Heb. 11. 21.
Verse 19. · Buy us and our land for bread, and we and our them a produce-rent, and were exempt from any charges land will be servants unto Pharaoh.'—The transaction re to the support of the state. This being the case, the people corded in the passage (v. 18-26) from which this text is taken, of Egypt, when they offered to give up the property in has received most remarkable illustration from the opera chief of their lands to the crown, and to become its tenants, tions of the present Pasha of Egypt. By a simple decree had already before their eyes an example of the operation he declared himself the sole owner of all the lands in of that system under which they were willing to be placed ; Egypt; and the people, of course, became at once only his and, considering the splendour of the Egyptian court, and tenants at will, or rather his slaves. It was at the entreaty the cost of its establishments and undertakings, and the of the people themselves that Joseph bought the Egyptians taxation upon the independent landowners which was neand their land for Pharaoh, so that the land became Pha cessary to support them, we may have reason to more than raoh's ;' but he gave them bread in return, to sustain them suspect that they had little cause to feel their condition and their families in the time of famine. Only the land superior to that of the tenants of the hierarchy, with their of the priests he bought not;' but the modern Pharaoh single payment of a certain and moderate rent, which rose made no exception, and stripped the mosques and other or fell with the abundance or scarcity of the season. Upon religious and charitable institutions of their landed endow the whole, therefore, while they no doubt knew that their ments as mercilessly as the rest. Joseph also gave the proposition would be acceptable to the king, we see ground people seed to sow; and required for the king only a fifth to conclude that the operation would on their part be of the produce, leaving four-fifths to them as their own regarded under any circumstances without repugnance. property ; but now, although seed is in like manner given | Among the settled nations of the East it has always been out, yet every village is compelled to cultivate two-thirds the disposition to identify the state with the king, and for of its lands with cotton and other articles solely for the every one to consider that in serving the king he serves Pasha; and also to render back to him in the form of taxes the state; and therefore any regard for the liberties of the and exactions in kind, a large proportion of the produce of people is, perhaps, a thing impossible to an Oriental. We the remaining third. And further, not only is every indi have no wish to attribute it to Joseph; it being quite sufvidual made responsible for the burdens laid upon himself, ficient to satisfy us, if the statements which we have offered but also, as the inhabitant of a village, he is bound to make tend to acquit him of that political injustice which has been good, in part or in whole, as the case may be, the delin laid to his charge. We think he acted fairly ;-not unquency or arrears of every other inhabitant. Sometimes, mindful of the king's interests, on the one hand, nor, on too, a village which has paid up all its own dues, is com the other, desiring to take an undue advantage of the pelled to make good the arrears of another village. As people's wants. might be expected, in such a state of things, there is among Only two items of the charge against Joseph remain to the peasantry an utter depravation of morals and degrada be noticed. When this bargain had been completed, we are tion of character. See Robinson's Biblical Researches in told (v. 21) that, •As for the people, Joseph removed them Palestine, i. 42.
into cities from one end of the borders of Egypt even unto 20. · Joseph bought all the land for Pharaoh.'— the other end thereof,' Whence it has been most strangely One who writes upon the transactions recorded in these imagined that he removed them from their original seats verses, is under much temptation to digress into the history to distant towns; whereas, it plainly enough means no of the land-tenures of Egypt, as made known to us by He inore than that, having now undertaken to feed the people rodotus and Diodorus. But our limits do not render it from his granaries, he desired them to remove from the convenient, nor is it necessary for our purpose, to take open country in every district, where all agricultural notice of more than the chapter before us specifies. It may labour was at a stand, to the cities of these several districts suffice to mention, that the facts of these later historians in which the granaries were situated, for the convenience may be easily shown to be in unison with those which this of distributing the corn to them. This was done throughearlier account supplies, while the essential spirit is per out all the country. The other charge is, that, while he fectly the same. It appears, then, that the history of these thus dealt with the people, he took care to court the favour transactions exhibits the sacerdotal aristocracy as a distinct of the priestly aristocracy, with which he was himself conbody of landed proprietors from those with whom Joseph nected by marriage, by not interfering with their posseshad to deal. Now these priestly proprietors did certainly sions, but supplying them freely from the public stores at a later day, and, from circumstances, we judge it to be with such corn as they required. The answer to this-is, sufficiently certain that they did before, farm out their that the facts are true, but the inferences wrong. The estates to cultivators, or hereditary tenants, who paid priests were from time immemorial entitled to receive an
allowance of provisions from the government, the rents of abortive, and would probably be the signal for his downtheir lands being applied to the support of the temples and fal; while the kind and beneficent relations which sub. the public worship; and certainly it would not have been sisted between the priests and the people, who regarded just to deprive them of their subsistence when their own their lands as a property devoted to sacred uses, would prolands lay unproductive. Besides, the priestly nobles filled bably have rendered such an interference as little popular all the high offices of state, were constantly about the king with the mass of the Egyptian community as with the as his counsellors and companions- the king himself being aristocracy. Under such circumstances, we see nothing so high-priest by virtue of his office: and, as Joseph must | very blamable in this part of Joseph's conduct. Pictorial have been assured, the manifestation of any disposition to | History of Palestine, ii. 125, 126. interfere with their privileges would most certainly be |
10 Now the eyes of Israel were 'dim for
age, so that he could not see. And he brought 1 Joseph with his sons visiteth his sick father. 2 Jacob ||
them near unto him; and he kissed them, and strengtheneth himself to bless them. 3 He repeateth the promise. 5 He taketh Ephraim and Manasseh
embraced them. as his own. 7 He telleth Joseph of his mother's 11 And Israel said unto Joseph, I had not grave. 9 He blesseth Ephraim and Manasseh. I thought to see thy face..
thought to see thy face: and, lo, God hath 17 He preferreth the younger before the elder. 21
shewed me also thy seed. He prophesieth their return to Canaan.
12 And Joseph brought them out from And it came to pass after these things, that between his knees, and he bowed himself with one told Joseph, Behold, thy father is sick : | his face to the earth. and he took with him his two sons, Manasseh 13 And Joseph took them both, Ephraim and Ephraim.
in his right hand toward Israel's left hand, 2 And one told Jacob, and said, Behold, and Manasseh in his left hand toward Israel's thy son Joseph cometh unto thee : and Israel right hand, and brought them near unto him. strengthened himself, and sat upon the bed. 14 And Israel stretched out his right hand,
3 | And Jacob said unto Joseph, God Al- and laid it upon Ephraim's head, who was the mighty appeared unto me at 'Luz in the land younger, and his left hand upon Manasseh's of Canaan, and blessed me,
head, guiding his hands wittingly; for Ma4 And said unto me, Behold, I will make | nasseh was the firstborn. thee fruitful, and multiply thee, and I will 15 And 'he blessed Joseph, and said, make of thee a multitude of people ; and will | God, before whom my fathers Abraham and give this land to thy seed after thee for an | Isaac did walk, the God which fed me all my everlasting possession.
life long unto this day, 5 And now thy 'two sons, Ephraim and 16 The Angel which redeemed me from all Manasseh, which were born unto thee in the | evil, bless the lads; and let my name be land of Egypt before I came unto thee into named on them, and the name of my fathers Egypt, are mine; as Reuben and Simeon, Abraham and Isaac; and let them grow into they shall be mine.
a multitude in the midst of the earth. 6 And thy issue, which thou begettest 17 And when Joseph saw that his father after them, shall be thine, and shall be called | laid his right hand upon the head of Ephraim, after the name of their brethren in their inhe it displeased him: and he held up his father's ritance.
hand, to remove it from Ephraim's head unto 7 And as for me, when I came from Padan, Manasseh's head. 'Rachel died by me in the land of Canaan in 18 And Joseph said unto his father, Not the way, when yet there was but a little way so, my father: for this is the firstborn ; put to come unto Ephrath : and I buried her | thy right hand upon his head. there in the way of Ephrath; the same is 19 And his father refused, and said, I know Beth-lehem.
it, my son, I know it: he also shall become a 8 And Israel beheld Joseph's sons, and people, and he also shall be great: but truly said, Who are these ?
his younger brother shall be greater than he, 9 And Joseph said unto his father, They and his seed shall become a multitude of are my sons, whom God hath given me in this nations place. And he said, Bring them, I pray thee, 20 And he blessed them that day, saying, unto me, and I will bless them.
| In thee shall Israel bless, saying, God make Chap. 28. 13, and 35. 6. 2 Chap. 41.50 Josh. 13. 7. 3 Chap. 35. 19. Heb. heavy. 5 Heb. 11. 21. Heb. as fishes do increase.
7 Heb. fuiness."
thee as Ephraim and as Manasseh : and he set 22 Moreover I have given to thee one porEphraim before Manasseh.
tion above thy brethren, which I took out of 21 | And Israel said unto Joseph, Behold, I the hand of the Amorite with my sword and I die: but God shall be with you, and bring with my bow. you again unto the land of your fathers.
Verse 20. He set Ephraim before Manasseh.'—Here we | We have some trace of this in the old Saxon tenure called have two instances of a preference given to the younger • Borough English ;' which Sir William Blackstone conover the elder son; or rather, we have two instances com jectures may be traced to the Tartars, among whom the bined : for not only does Jacob give to Joseph, his young elder sons, as they grew up to manhood, migrated from est son but one, the double portion of the elder son, through their paternal tents with a certain allowance of cattle ; Ephraim and Manasseh, but also, of these two, prefers the while the younger son continued at home, and became heir younger to the elder. The fact seems to be, that although to the remaining possessions of his father. there was a general understanding as to the prior claims of | 22. · Which I took out of the hand of the Amorite.'-- In the first-born, the father retained the absolute power of several passages of Scripture we find, as here, incidental making whatever distribution of the inheritance seemed allusions to facts which are not included in the regular proper to himself. We have already remarked upon the narrative. We have no previous notice of any land taken different treatment which the sons of Abraham and Jacob by Jacob from the Amorites. It is conjectured that, after by their respective concubines received ; to which we the patriarch’s removal to another part of the country, the have now to add this instance of preference; and, on turu Amorites appropriated the parcel of ground near Shechem, ing to the book of Job, which is supposed to have been which he had bought of Hamor, and which he afterwards written in patriarchal times, we observe that the eminent recovered by force of arms. This place was certainly in person to whom it refers even gives to his daughters an the inheritance of Joseph's sons (Josh. xvii, 1, and lix. 7), equal share in the inheritance with their brothers (Job there also Joseph's bones were ultimately deposited (Josh. xlii. 15). This frequent preference which is exhibited for xxiv, 32); and in John iv. 5, this is expressly described the younger son, may remind us that such a preference as the parcel of ground which Jacob gave to his son became a principle of inheritance among some nations. | Joseph.
8 1 Judah, thou art he whom thy brethren
shall praise : thy hand shall be in the neck of 1 Jacob calleth his sons to bless them. 3 Their blessing
thine enemies; thy father's children shall bow in particular. 29 He chargeth them about his burial. 33 He dieth.
down before thee.
9 Judah is a lion's whelp: from the prey, AND Jacob called unto his sons, and said, my son, thou art gone up: he stooped down, Gather yourselves together, that I may tell he couched as a lion, and as an old lion; who you that which shall befal you in the last days. shall rouse him up?
2 Gather yourselves together, and hear, ye 10 The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, sons of Jacob; and hearken unto Israel your nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until father.
Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gather3 1 Reuben, thou art my firstborn, my | ing of the people be. might, and the beginning of my strength, the 11 Binding his fole unto the vine, and his excellency of dignity, and the excellency of ass's colt unto the choice vine ; he washed his power:
garments in wine, and his clothes in the blood 4 Unstable as water, 'thou shalt not excel ; of grapes: because thou 'wentest up to thy father's bed; 12 His eyes shall be red with wine, and his then defiledst thou it: he went up to my teeth white with milk. couch.
13 | Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of 54 Simeon and Levi are brethren ; 'in- | the sea ; and he shall be for an haven of ships ; struments of cruelty are in their habitations. and his border shall be unto Zidon.
6 O my soul, come not thou into their 14 | Issachar is a strong ass couching secret; unto their assembly, mine honour, be | down between two burdens : not thou united : for in their anger they slew 15 And he saw that rest was good, and the a man, and in their selfwill they digged down land that it was pleasant; and bowed his a wall.
shoulder to bear, and became a servant unto 7 Cursed be their anger, for it was fierce; tribute. and their wrath, for it was cruel: I will divide | 16 | Dan shall judge his people, as one of them in Jacob, and scatter them in Israel. the tribes of Israel. 1 Heb. do not thou excel. Chap. 35. 22. i Chron. 3. 1. 3 Or, my couch is gone. Or, their swords are weapons of violence. 5 Or, houghed oron,