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speaks of this practice of divining by cups. He refers to Jamblichus (On the Mysteries of the Layptians, iii. 14). who says, that by means of certain figures reflected by the rays of light in clear water, future circumstances were prognosticated; and to Augustine (De Civitate Dei, vii. 35), who quotes a lost work of Varro, wherein it is said that this sort of divination originated with the Persians, The manner of divination is stated to have been as follows: Small pieces of gold or silver leaf, or thin plates of the same, were cast into a vessel, intermingled with precious stones, on which certain characters were engraven. Then the inquirer used certain forms of adjuration, and invoked the infernal powers. The answer was communicated in various ways; sometimes by an intelligible voice; sometimes by the same signs appearing on the surface of the water as had been engraven on the precious stones ; some. times by exhibiting the image of the person concerning whom the applicant would inquire. Cornelius Agrippa (De Occulta Philosophia, i. 57) mentions also that many were accustomed to throw melted wax into a vessel of water, and from the forms which it assumed to infer the answer to their proposed questions. If such superstitions existed in the time of Joseph, there is no evidence or probability that he practised them; but both he and the steward may have accommodated their language to the ideas prevalent in those times.
28.' And I said.'-Literally, and I said in myself,' which is the Hebrew mode of expressing 'I thought' This may call to mind Forster's statenient, that among the ? savages of some of the Pacific islands they use the phrase to speak in the belly' for 'to think.'
them in 16 pharetra journey e vived
7 And God sent me before you @to preserve
you a posterity in the earth, and to save your 1 Joseph maketh himself known to his brethren. 5 | He comfortelh them 'in God's providence. 9 He
lives by a great deliverance. sendeth for his father. 16 Pharaoh confirmeth it.
| 8 So now it was not you that sent me hither, 21 Joseph furnisheth them for their journey, and but God: and he hath made me a father to exhorteth them to concord. 25 Jacob is revived Pharaoh, and lord of all his house, and a ruler with the news.
throughout all the land of Egypt. THEN Joseph could not refrain himself before 9 Haste ye, and go up to my father, and all them that stood by him; and he cried, say unto him, Thus saith thy son Joseph, God Cause every man to go out from me. And hath made me lord of all Egypt: come down there stood no man with him, while Joseph unto me, tarry not: made himself known unto his brethren. . 10 And thou shalt dwell in the land of
2 And he 'wept aloud : and the Egyptians Goshen, and thou shalt be near unto me, and the house of Pharaoh heard.
thou, and thy children, and thy children's 3 And Joseph said unto his brethren, 'I am children, and thy flocks, and thy herds, and Joseph ; doth my father yet live ? And his all that thou hast : brethren could not answer him ; for they were 11 And there will I nourish thee ; for yet Stroubled at his presence.
there are five years of famine ; lest thou, and 4 And Joseph said unto his brethren, thy houshold, and all that thou hast, come Come near to me, I pray you. And they to poverty. came near. And he said, I am Joseph your 12 And, behold, your eyes see, and the brother, whom ye sold into Egypt.
eyes of my brother Benjamin, that it is my 5 Now therefore be not grieved, ‘nor angry | mouth that speaketh unto you. with yourselves, that ye sold me hither : for 13 And ye shall tell my father of all my glory! God did send me before you to preserve life. in Egypt, and of all that ye have seen; and ye
6 For these two years hath the famine been | shall haste and bring down my father hither. I in the land : and yet there are five years, in 14 4 And he fell upon his brother Benjathe which there shall neither be earing nor | min's neck, and wept ; and Benjamin wept harvest.
| upon his neck. 1 Heb. gave forth his coice in weeping... 2 Acts 7. 13. 30r, terrified. Heb. neither let there be anger in your eyes.
5 Chap. 50, 20. Heb, to put for you a remnant. 148
15 Moreover he kissed all his brethren, and changes of raiment; but to Benjamin he wept upon them : and after that his brethren gave three hundred pieces of silver, and five talked with him.
changes of raiment. 16 | And the fame thereof was heard in | 23 And to his father he sent after this Pharaoh's house, saying, Joseph's brethren manner; ten assesladen with the good things are come : and it "pleased Pharaoh well, and of Egypt, and ten she asses laden with corn his servants.
and bread and meat for his father by the way. 17 And Pharaoh said unto Joseph, Say unto 24 So he sent his brethren away, and they thy brethren, This do ye; lade your beasts, departed : and he said unto them, See that and go, get you unto the land of Canaan; | ye fall not out by the way.
18 And take your father and your hous- 25 T And they went up out of Egypt, and holds, and come unto me: and I will give you came into the land of Canaan unto Jacob their the good of the land of Egypt, and ye shall father, eat the fat of the land.
26 And told him, saying, Joseph is yet 19 Now thou art commanded, this do ye; alive, and he is governor over all the land of take you wagons out of the land of Egypt Egypt. And “Jacob's heart fainted, for he for your little ones, and for your wives, and believed them not. bring your father, and come.
27 And they told him ail the words of 20 Alsoʻregard not your stuff; for the Joseph, which he had said unto them: and good of all the land of Egypt is your's. when he saw the wagons which Joseph had
21 | And the children of Israel did so: sent to carry him, the spirit of Jacob their and Joseph gave them wagons, according to father revived: the "commandment of Pharaoh, and gave them 28 And Israel said, It is enough ; Joseph provision for the way.
my son is yet alive : I will go and see him * 22 To all of them he gave each man before I die. ? Heb. was good in the eyes of Pharaoh. 8 IIeb, let not your eye spare, &c. 9Heb. mouth. 10 Heb. carrying. 11 Heb. his.
Verse 10. "The land of Goshen.'- Concerning the of Judah; so called, probably, from being a district chiefly situation of the land of Goshen,' observes Michaelis,
appropriated to pasture. (See Josh. x. 41; xi. 16.) "authors have maintained very different opinions ; but have withal made it impossible for themselves to ascertain
22. • To all of them he gave each man changes of raiment ; the truth, by concurring in the representation of Goshen
but to Benjamin he gave . . . five changes of raiment.'-For as the most beautiful and fertile part of Egypt. But is it
the custom of bestowing honorary dresses, see note on ch. at all probable that a king of Egypt would have taken the
xli, 42. It is not customary in Persia to bestow more than very best part of his territory from his own dative subjects
one such dress, the distinction being constituted by the
quality and class of the articles of which it consists. But to give it to strangers, and these too a wandering race of herdsmen, hitherto accustomed only to traverse with their
in Turkey, where the dresses of honour are all of nearly cattle the deserts and uncultivated commons of the East ?'
the same description and quality, the distinction, as in the (Commentaries, vol. i. p. 64, Smith's translation.) With
instance before us, is made by the number of the dresses out entering into verbal criticism, we may observe that the
bestowed on the person intended to be honoured, more or expression rendered .best of the land’ (ch. xlvii. 6), as ap
fewer being given according to the rank of the person, or plied to Goshen, has been satisfactorily proved to mean no
to the degree of favour intended to be indicated." more than that it was the best pasture ground of Lower
27. · When he saw the wagons,' etc.- The Hebrew word Egypt, and therefore best adapted to the uses of the seems to be fairly rendered by the word 'wagons.' Wheel Hebrew shepherds. This land lay along the east side of carriages of some kind or other are certainly intended; the Pelusiac or most easterly branch of the Nile; for it is and as, from other passages, we learn that they were coevident that the Hebrews did not cross the Nile in their vered, at least sometimes, the best idea we can form of exode from Egypt, as they must otherwise have done. It them is, that they bore some resemblance to our tilted may thas have included part at least of the nome or district waggons. With some small exception, it may be said that of Heliopolis, of which the On' of the Scriptures is sup wheel carriages are not now employed in Western Asia or posed to have been the capital, and which lay on the eastern Africa ; but that they were anciently used in Egypt, and border of the Delta. To the east of the river the land of in what is now Asiatic Turkey, is attested not only by Goshen apparently stretched away into the desert, where history, but by existing sculptures and paintings. It would the nomade shepherds might find sustenance for their seem that they were not at this time used in Palestine, as Hocks. In this direction it may in some places have ex when Jacob saw them, he knew they must have come from tended to the neighbourhood of the Gulf of Suez. The Egypt. Perhaps, however, he knew this by their peculiar land of Goshen, thus defined, included a quantity of fertile shape. The only wheel-carriages in Western Asia with land more extensive in length and breadth than at present. which we are acquainted are, first, a very rude cart, This arises from the general failure of the eastern branches usually drawn by oxen, and employed in conveying agriof the Nile; the main body of that river verging more and cultural produce; and then a vehicle called an arabul, more to the west continually, and deepening the channels used at Constantinople, and in some other towns towards on that side. (On this subject see Bryant, Michaelis, the Mediterranean. It is a light covered cart without Rennel, Robinson, etc. See also note on ch. xlvi. 34.) springs; and being exclusively used by women, children,
There was another Goshen in the territory of the tribe | and aged or sick persons (see v, 19), would seem both in
its use, and, as nearly as we can discover, in its make, to | The only wheel-carts represented in the Egyptian sculpture be no bad representative of the wagons' in the text. No are figured in our engraving; and they do not belong to the wheel-carriage is, however, now used in a journey, except Egyptians themselves, but to a nomade people with whom by the Tartars in south-eastern Europe and Central Asia. they were at war, and who fled before them.
CARTS FROM EGYPTIAN SCULPTURES.
father, and their little ones, and their wives, 1 Jacob is comforted by God at Beer-sheba : 5 Thence in the wagons which Pharaoh had sent to carry he with his company goeth into Egypt. 8 The
into Fon't S The him. number of his family that went into Egypt. 28 Jo 6 And they took their cattle, and their seph meeteth Jacob. 31 He instructeth his brethren
goods, which they had gotten in the land of how to answer Pharaoh. .
Canaan, and came into Egypt, 'Jacob, and all! And Israel took his journey with all that he his seed with him : had, and came to Beer-sheba, and offered 1 7 His sons, and his sons' sons with him, sacrifices unto the God of his father Isaac. his daughters, and his sons' daughters, and all
2 And God spake unto Israel in the visions his seed brought he with him into Egypt. of the night, and said, Jacob, Jacob. And he 8 | And 'these are the names of the children said, Here am I.
of Israel, which came into Egypt, Jacob and 3 And he said, I am God, the God of thy his sons : 'Reuben, Jacob's firstborn. father : fear not to go down into Egypt; for 9 And the sons of Reuben; Hanoch, and I will there make of thee a great nation : Phallu, and Hezron, and Carmi.
4 I will go down with thee into Egypt; and 10 And the sons of Simeon; Jemuel, and I will also surely bring thee up again : and Jamin, and Ohad, and Jachin, and Zohar, and Joseph shall put his hand upon thine eyes. I Shaul the son of a Canaanitish woman.
5 | And Jacob rose up from Beer-sheba : 11 And the sons of 'Levi; Gershon, Koand the sons of Israel carried Jacob their bath, and Merari. 1 Josh. 24. 4. Psal. 105. 23 ssa. 52. 4. 2 Exod. 1. 1. and 6. 14. 3 Numb. 26.5. i Chron. 5. 1. Exod. 6. 15. 1 Chron. 4. 94.
51 Chron. 6.1.
12 And the sons of Judah; Er, and Onan, she bare these unto Jacob: all the souls were and Shelah, and Pharez, and Zarah : but Er seven. and Onan died in the land of Canaan. And the 26 All the souls that came with Jacob into sons of Pharez were Hezron and Hamul. Egypt, which came out of his ?loins, besides
13 "And the sons of Issachar; Tola, and Jacob's sons' wives, all the souls were threePhuvah, and Job, and Shimron.
score and six ; 14 And the sons of Zebulun; Sered, and 27 And the sons of Joseph, which were Elon, and Jahleel.
born him in Egypt, were two souls : Sall the 15 These be the sons of Leah, which she souls of the house of Jacob, which came into bare unto Jacob in Padan-aram, with his | Egypt, were threescore and ten. daughter Dinah : all the souls of his sons and 28 | And he sent Judah before him unto his daughters were thirty and three.
Joseph, to direct his face unto Goshen ; and nd the sons of Gad; Ziphion, and they came into the land of Goshen. Haggi, Shuni, and Ezbon, Eri, and Arodi, | 29 And Joseph made ready his chariot, and Areli.
and went up to meet Israel his father, to 17 And the sons of Asher; Jimnah, Goshen, and presented himself unto him ; and Ishuah, and Isui, and Beriah, and Serah and he fell on his neck, and wept on his neck their sister : and the sons of Beriah ; Heber, a good while. and Malchiel.
30 And Israel said unto Joseph, Now let 18 These are the sons of Zilpah, whom me die, since I have seen thy face, because Laban gave to Leah his daughter, and these thou art yet alive. she bare unto Jacob, even sixteen souls.
31 T And Joseph said unto his brethren, 19 The sons of Rachel Jacob's wife ; Jo and unto his father's house, I will go up, and seph, and Benjamin.
shew Pharaoh, and say unto him, My bre20 And unto Joseph in the land of thren, and my father's house, which were in Egypt were born Manasseh and Ephraim, the land of Canaan, are come unto me; which Asenath the daughter of Poti-pherah 32 And the men are shepherds, for \'their ''priest of On bare unto him.
trade hath been to feed cattle ; and they have 21 "And the sons of Benjamin were Belah, brought their flocks, and their herds, and all and Becher, and Ashbel, Gera, and Naaman, that they have. Ehi, and Rosh, Muppim, and Huppim, and 33 And it shall come to pass, when PhaArd.
raoh shall call you, and shall say, What is 22 These are the sons of Rachel, which were your occupation ? born to Jacob: all the souls were fourteen. 34 That ye shall say, Thy servants' trade
23 And the sons of Dan; Hushim. hath been about cattle from our youth even
24 And the sons of Naphtali; Jahzeel, until now, both we, and also our fathers : and Guni, and Jezer, and Shillem.
that ye may dwell in the land of Goshen; for 25 These are the sons of Bilhah, which every shepherd is an abomination unto the Laban gave unto Rachel his daughter, and Egyptians.
1 Chron. 2. 3, and 4. 21. Chap. 38. 3. 71 Chron. 7. 1. 81 Chron. 7. 30. Chap. 41. 50. 10 Or, prince.
II 1 Chron. 7. 6, and 8. 1.
12 Heb. thigh.
13 Deut. 10. 22.
14 Heb. they are men of cattle.
Verse 34. “Every shepherd is an abomination unto the Egyptians.'- Various causes have been assigned to account for this aversion of the Egyptians to shepherds. It has been sought for in the animal worship of that extraordinary people, which naturally rendered them averse to persons who fed on creatures which they considered sacred. But this cause must have been limited in its operation ; for the Egyptians, as a people, by no means concurred in the objects of veneration. Almost every nome, or district, had a different usage. Thus the inhabitants of Mendes worshipped goats and ate sheep, while those of Thebes, on the contrary, fed on goats and rendered homage to sheep. In Thebes also, and all around the Lake Mæris, crocodiles were venerated, whilst at Elephantine they were killed without mercy. In fact, the Egyptians were divided into a great number of societies distinguished from, and prejudiced against, one another, by their different objects and rites of worship. We believe that the influence of the animal worship
of the Egyptians was much less considerable in its operation upon the rearing of cattle than is commonly imagined. Of the larger cattle, the cow alone was considered sacred; we doubt that any strong feeling on its account could have arisen against the nomade shepherds, as they never kill cows for food, and rarely even oxen ; and it does not appear that they often offered cows in sacrifice, for in all the Old Testament, previously to the exode from Egypt, we read of only one heifer sacrificed (Gen. xv. 9). The Egyptians did not worship bulls or ošen; the worship of the bull Apis being restricted to an individual animal : other bulls were used in sacrifices, and are so represented in sculptures. The priests themselves ate beef and veal without scruple. There was even a caste of herdsmen among the Egyptians; and herds of black cattle are represented in sculptures and paintings, some of which are preserved in the British Museum. The ox was used as food, and in agricultural labour, and in the same ancient remains
is continually represented as drawing the plough. Even Pharaoh himself was a proprietor of cattle (see ch. xlvii. 6), and wished to have men of ability to superintend them; and he would scarcely have offered this employment to the brothers of his chief minister, if the employment of rearing cattle had in itself been considered degrading. We conclude, however, that so far as the hatred of the Egyptians to shepherds arose from their religious prejudices, it was connected almost entirely with the cow-the only pastured animal which they generally considered sacred. Any objection connected with sheep and goats could only have operated locally, since the Egyptians themselves sacrificed or ate them in different districts.
We are therefore inclined, following out a hint furnished by Heeren, to consider that the aversion of the Egyptians was not so exclusively to rearers of cattle as such, as to the class of pastors who associated the rearing of cattle with habits and pursuits which rendered them equally hated and feared by a settled and refined people like the Egyptians. We would therefore understand the words of the text in the most intense signification, and say that every nomade shepherd was an abomination to the Egyptians;' for there is no evidence that this disgrace attached, for instance, to those cultivators who, being proprietors of lands, made the rearing of cattle an important part of their business. The nomade tribes, who pastured their flocks on the borders or within the limits of Egypt, did not in general belong to the Egyptian nation, but were of Arabian or Libyan descent; whence the prejudice against them as nomades was superadded to that against foreigners in general. The turbulent and aggressive disposition which usually forms part of the character of nomades—and their entire independence, or at least the imperfect and uncertain control which it is possible to exercise over their tribes-are circumstances so replete with annoyance and danger to a carefully organized society like that of the Egyptians, as sufficiently to account for the hatred and scorn which the ruling priestly caste strove to keep up against them; and it was probably in order to discourage all intercourse, that the regulation precluding Egyptians from eating with them was first established.
In further illustration of this matter we must not overlook the circumstances connected with the history of the Shepherd-kings, which Josephus and other ancient writers have handed down to us in extracts from an Egyptian priest named Manetho, who lived under Ptolemy Philadelphus. These circumstances, so far as they can be understood, are of very great importance for the right apprehension of the events recorded at the latter end of Genesis and the beginning of Exodus; for it is the general conclusion that they belong to the period immediately preceding the Egyptian history of Joseph, and must have had great influence upon the ideas and habits of the time, and upon the circumstances which determined the condition of the Hebrews in Egypt, and their location in the land of Goshen. We shall give the account offered by Manetho, and then offer a few remarks in elucidation of it.
Manetho states that “In the reign of king Timæus there came up from the east men of an ignoble race, who had the confidence to invade our country; and easily subdued it without a battle, burning the cities, demolishing the temples, slaying the men, and reducing the women and children to slavery. They made Salatis, one of themselves, king. He reigned at Memphis, and made the Upper and Lower regions (of Egypt] tributary; garrisoned fit places, particularly in the eastern frontier, through fear the Assyrians should invade the country. He rebuilt and strongly fortified the city of Avaris, in the Saïte nome, upon the east of the Bubastite channel, and garrisoned it with 250,000 men, as a treasure city. He reigned nineteen years.' Then follow the names of five successors—the sum of the six reigns being 284 according to one copy of Manetho's account, but 250 according to another (that of Eusebius).
Manetho calls his 16th dynasty Hellenic, Shepherdkings; and states that it was composed of 32 kings, who reigned 518 years.
His 17th dynasty is composed of 43 Shepherd-kings and 43 (contemporary) Theban kings, of Diospolis, who reigned for 151 years.
Now with respect to these dynasties, he says,–* All this nation was called Hyksās, or Shepherd-kings; for the first syllable, Hyk, in the sacred dialect, means a king, and sus, in the vulgar tongue, a shepherd: some say they were Arabs. These Shepherd-kings and their descendants retained possession of Egypt 511 years.'
It is then stated, that eventually · the kings of the Thebaïd and the other (i. e. Lower) Egypt rose against the shepherds, and after a long war, Alisphragmuthosis drove the shepherds, or captives as they were sometimes called, out of the other parts of Egypt, and confined them to the district of Avaris, which they strongly fortified to protect their property. Amosis, or Thummosis, his son, besieged them in their stronghold, with 480,000 men; reduced them to capitulate, and they left Egypt in number 240,000, and marched through the desert towards Syria, and built the city of Jerusalem, in the country now called Judaa, which they fortified against the Assyrians.
The dynasty founded by Amosis consisted of 16 kings, who together reigned 263 years. The last of these kings, Amenophis, or one of his immediate predecessors, being warned by the priests to cleanse the whole country of lepers and unclean persons, gathered them together, and sent them, to the number of 80,000, to work at the quarries on the east side of the Nile. And there were among them some learned priests equally affected with leprosy. When they had been for some time in that miserable state the king set apart for them the city Avaris, which had been left empty by the shepherds. When they had possession of the city they revolted, and made Osarsiph, a priest of Heliopolis, their ruler, who afterwards changed his name to Moses. He made many laws directly opposed to the customs of the Egyptians, forbidding them to worship their gods and sacred animals. He sent ambassadors to Jerusalem, to the shepherds whom Tethmosis had driven out, who gladly sent 200,000 men to their assistance, in hopes of regaining the dominion of Egypt. Ame nophis at first retreated to Ethiopia, whose king was his friend: but, returning with a great force, slew many of the shepherds, and pursued the rest into Syria.'
Such is the statement of Manetho. Without stopping now to indicate the confusion produced by his mixing up the affairs of the Jews with those of his shepherds, and the slur he attempts to cast upon them as unclean and leprous persons, let us endeavour to establish some chrom nological principle which may help us through this obscurity.
We may dismiss the 16th, or Hellenic shepherd dynasty, which seems to have been contemporary with the others, and to have been composed of settlers on the coast, who were expelled about the same time as the 17th dynasty. The whole period of the intrusion of the shepherds is stated at 511 years, and it is clear that these years are made to terminate at the exode of the Israelites. This is an important element. Now if we take Hales' date of 1618 B.C. for that of the exode, and count back 511 years, we come to 2159 B.C., which, according to the same authority, was six years before the birth of Abraham. We take that, therefore, as the date of the first appearance of the Shepherd-kings in Egypt. After a rule of 250 years, this 15th, or Phænician dynasty, was expelled by Amosis. Counting 250 years from the birth of Abraham, we come to 1909 B.C. as the date of that expulsion; and this was seven years before the birth of Joseph, the date of which is placed by Hales in 1902 B.C. It follows, therefore, that the king who ruled in Lower Egypt at the time of Abra. ham's visit to that country, was one of the Shepherdkings; but when Joseph was brought down to Egypt, and became the trusted minister of the king, this shepherd dynasty had lately been expelled from their last strong. hold, and the native power was again paramount. And this event was so recent that the Egyptians were still imbued with a deep sense of the wrong and humiliation they had sustained under a foreign yoke; by which not