Obrazy na stronie

uinto thee; (for he knew not that she was his / 24 And it came to pass about three months daughter in law.) And she said, What wilt | after, that it was told Judah, saying, Tamar thou give me, that thou mayest come in unto thy daughter in law hath played the harlot ; me ?

and also, behold, she is with child by whore17 And he said, I will send thee a kid from dom. And Judah said, Bring her forth, and the flock. And she said, Wilt thou give me a let her be burnt. pledge, till thou send it ?

25 When she was brought forth, she sent 18 And he said, What pledge shall I give to her father in law, saying, By the man, whose thee? And she said, Thy signet, and thy these are, am I with child : and she said, bracelets, and thy staff that is in thine hand. Discern, I pray thee, whose are these, the And he gave it her, and came in unto her, signet, and bracelets, and staff. and she conceived by him.

26 And Judah acknowledged them, and 19 And she arose, and went away, and laid said, She hath been more righteous than I ; by her vail from her, and put on the garments because that I gave her not to Shelah my son. of her widowhood.

And he knew her again no more. 20 And Judah sent the kid by the hand 27 | And it came to pass in the time of of his friend the Adullamite, to receive his her travail, that, behold, twins were in her pledge from the woman's hand : but he found womb. her not.

28 And it came to pass, when she travailed, 21 Then he asked the men of that place, that the one put out his hand : and the midsaying, Where is the harlot, that was openly wife took and bound upon his hand a scarlet by the way side ? And they said, There was thread, saying, This came out first. no harlot in this place.

29 And it came to pass, as he drew back 22 And he returned to Judah, and said, his hand, that, behold, his brother came out : I cannot find her; and also the men of the and she said, "How hast thou broken forth ? place said, that there was no harlot in this this breach be upon thee: therefore his name place.

was called "Pharez. 23 And Judah said, Let her take it to her, 30 And afterward came out his brother, lest we 'be shamed : behold, I sent this kid, that had the scarlet thread upon his hand : and thou hast not found her.

| and his name was called Zarah. · Heb. a kid of the goats. Or, in Enajin. 9Heb. become a contempt. 10 Or, Therefore hast thou made this breach against thee?

11 That is, a breach.

1% 1 Chron. 2. 4. Matth. 1. 3.

Verse 24. · Bring her forth, and let her be burnt.'—There | over his own household; but with this difference, that the are two points that attract our attention in this text: one is, power of the first sovereigns was less despotic than that of the power which Judah possessed to pronounce such a a parent. The existence of such a form of power in the sentence on a member of his family; and the other, the head of a family naturally suggested a similar form of punishment proposed to be inflicted. In the former we l authority for the rule of a nation. Accordingly, we find have an instance of the power which a father, in those pri that the original form of government was everywhere mitive times, possessed in his own family. He was not monarchical. only its chief, but its legislator and judge, with the power On the second point which the text brings under our of life and death in his hands. The same usage may be notice, it is to be observed that the crime of Tamar vas traced in other countries and times. Homer and Plato adultery, she being considered the wife of Shelah, although equally bear witness to its existence in early Greece. the marriage had not yet taken full effect. The punishCæsar states that among the Gauls the fathers were sove ments for this crime will be illustrated in the note to Lev. reigns in their own houses ; having the power of life and xx. 10. The present text affords the earliest notice of the death over their women, their children, and their slaves. practice of burning certain criminals alive. This cruel In China, at the present day, fathers govern their families punishment has prevailed more or less in all nations. The with despotic power; and in other countries of Asia, the law of Moses assigns this form of punishment in two inpaternal authority exists under various modifications and stances (Lev. xx. 14, and xxi. 9). Many ages after, we forms, which enable us to discover the extent to which it find it inflicted among the Babylonians (Jer. xxix. 99, and was formerly carried, even in those parts in which its Dan. iii. 6). In the instance of Shadrach, Meshach, and ancient absoluteness has, in the course of time, been miti- Abednego, it was inflicted for alleged disrespect to the gated. The careful observance of the institutions and idols of the country : and, altogether, it is a punishment practices of the East, including those of the Bible, will not that seems to have been more peculiarly applied to offences fail to discover a great number, which, although they may of a religious character. In Europe, religious opinions not, in the first instance, appear to have much connection considered erroneous were thus punished by all parties; as with the subject, must have originated in times when the was also witchcraft. It was also in the list of Roman parent possessed the most unbounded power over his punishments. The ancient Gauls and Britons burnt crichildren. Goguet (Origine des Lois) well observes that minals and others alive, in honour of the gods, in large the monarchical form of government was formed on the numbers at a time. It seems now disused, almost every. model of the patriarchal authority which a father possessed | where, as an ordinary punishment.


CHAPTER XXXIX. 1 Joseph advanced in Potiphar's house. 7 He resisteth his mistress's temptation. 13 He is falsely accused.

20 He is cast into prison. 21 God is with him there. AND Joseplı was brought down to Egypt; and Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, captain of the guard, an Egyptian, bought him of the hands of the Ishmeelites, which had brought him down thither.

2 And the LORD was with Joseph, and he was a prosperous man; and he was in the house of his master the Egyptian.

3 And bis master saw that the LORD was with him, and that the Lord made all that he did to prosper in his hand.

4 And Joseph found grace in his sight, and he served him : and he made him overseer over his house, and all that he had he put into his hand.

5 And it came to pass from the time that he had made him overseer in his house, and over all that he had, that the LORD blessed the Egyptian's house for Joseph's sake; and the blessing of the LORD was upon all that he had in the house, and in the field.

us; he came in unto me to lie with me, and I 6 And he left all that he had in Joseph's cried with a 'loud voice : hand ; and he knew not ought he had, save 15 And it came to pass, when he heard that the bread which he did eat. And Joseph was I lifted up my voice and cried, that he left his a goodly person, and well favoured. .

garment with me, and fled, and got him out. 71 And it came to pass after these 16 And she laid up his garment by her, things, that his master's wife cast her eyes until his lord came home. upon Joseph ; and she said, Lie with me. I 17 And she spake unto him according to

8 But he refused, and said unto his master's these words, saying, The Hebrew servant, wife, Behold, my master wotteth not what is | which thou hast brought unto us, came in unto with me in the house, and he hath committed ) me to mock me: all that he hath to my hand; .

18 And it came to pass, as I lifted up my 9 There is none greater in this house than voice and cried, that he left his garment with I; neither hath he kept back any thing from me, and fled out. me but thee, because thou art his wife : how 19 And it came to pass, when his master then can I do this great wickedness, and sin heard the words of his wife, which she spake against God?

unto him, saying, After this manner did thy 10 And it came to pass, as she spake to servant to me; that his wrath was kindled. Joseph day by day, that he hearkened not 20 And Joseph's master took him, and put unto her, to lie by her, or to be with her. I

him into the prison, a place where the king's 11 And it came to pass about this time, prisoners were bound : and he was there in the that Joseph went into the house to do his busi prison. ness; and there was none of the men of the 21 9 But the LORD was with Joseph, and house there within.

*shewed him mercy, and gave him favour in 12 And she caught him by his garment, the sight of the keeper of the prison. saying, Lie with me: and he left his garment 22 And the keeper of the prison committed in her hand, and fled, and got him out. to Joseph's hand all the prisoners that were in

13 And it came to pass, when she saw that the prison; and whatsoever they did there, he he had left his garment in her hand, and was was the doer of it. fled forth,

23 The keeper of the prison looked not to 14 That she called unto the men of her any thing that was under his hand; because house, and spake unto them, saying, See, he the Lord was with him, and that which he hath brought in an Hebrew unto us to mock | did, the LORD made it to prosper. VOL. 1.


1 lleb. great. Heb. ertended kindness unto him.


Verse 7. His master's wife cast her eyes upon Joseph.' - | by the successors of Psammeticus, when new customs The shameless conduct of Potiphar's wife corroborates the began to be introduced, and the communications of the other information which we possess respecting the low Egyptians with foreigners became more open. These state of morals, in regard to the marriage relation, which remarks are interesting for the illustrations of Egyptian existed among the Egyptians. Herodotus relates a story usages which they convey; but we cannot admit their vaof a king who became blind, and who was eventually as- lidity. This, of Joseph, is not the first or only instance of sured, by an oracular message from Butos, that the time slavery in Egypt which the Bible mentions. Indeed, the of his punishment having expired, he should recover his very first notice of slaves occurs in connection with that sight if he washed his eyes with a lotion administered by a country. It was the king of Egypt who gave male and virtuous woman. Beginning with his own wife, he tried female slaves to Abraham; and what condition other than very many women before he found one whose lotion accom slavery was that into which the descendants of Israel ultiplished the expected cure, and her he married, putting all the mately fell in that country? Moreover, the very text others to death (Herod. Euterpe, 111). Larcher remarks before us indicates the remote antiquity of that most just on this, . We need no longer wonder at the precaution | law which protected the life of the slave from the anger of taken by Abraham on entering that country, or the excess his master. Joseph's master appears to have been one of of impudence manifested by the wife of Potiphar in her the principal lords of Pharaoh's court, and he was told that conduct to Joseph.' The evidence of the monuments is his slave had dealt most perfidiously and ungratefully with also not favourable to the Egyptian women. Thus, they him, acting in a way which of all others was most calculated are represented as addicted to excess in drinking wine, as to provoke indignation and summary punishment. Yet we even becoming so much intoxicated as to be unable to read of no violence that he committed upon his slave. He stand or walk alone, or to carry their liquor discreetly.' put him into the royal prison, apparently with the intention Compare Wilkinson, Anct. Egypt, ii. 167.

that, after proper trial and conviction, he should receive 20 Joseph's master took him, and put him into the the chastisement which the law adjudged to his offence. prison, a place where the king's prisoners were bound.'This is one of the instances in which we seem to perceive Reynier (Economie Publique et Rurale des Egyptiens) the advance which, in many respects, the Egyptians had very much doubts whether slavery existed in Egypt, pre made before other nations in civilization. It is evident viously to the period when its ancient institutions came to also, from the case of the butler and baker, that culprits be in a great degree changed. His doubts result from the were committed to prison until their offences could be indifficulty of reconciling the existence of slaves with the vestigated, and not summarily punished in moments of organization of the Egyptians under their theocracy. The heat and anger. The laws of Egypt, indeed, precluded king and the sacerdotal caste were the only persons whose even the king from the power of inflicting an unjust or circumstances placed them in a condition to possess slaves; hasty punishment. We read of nothing like this elsewhere and it is known that they considered themselves polluted in Genesis. When Judah believed that his daughter-in- ! by the proximity of foreigners; whence he argues, that law had played the harlot,' he did not deliberate a moment, the idea of slaves bought from abroad, to be employed in or propose any investigation, but said at once, ‘Bring her domestic services, is excluded: and they did not need them forth, and let her be burnt.' for the cultivation of the ground, as that service was performed gratuitously by the labourers who held the lands

- The prison.'—We learn from v. 3 of the next in subordinate possession. This instance of Joseph's

chapter that this prison was in Potiphar's own house or slavery he meets by observing, that the domination of the

contiguous to it, being the place in which he kepe in con

finement the court prisoners who came into his custody as shepherd-kings must have had some operation in modifying the peculiar usages of the Egyptians. But then,

captain of the guard. It is possible that Potiphar, doubtagain, among the Egyptian laws cited by Diodorus, one

ful respecting his wife's statement, had sent Joseph here inflicts the punishment of death on a person who kills

for the purpose of rendering his services still available

to him. his slave ; and another declares a severe punishment against one who violates a free woman, which indicates 21. · The keeper of the prison.'-Not Potiphar, but the that there were some who were not free. On this Reynier officer, subordinate to him, who had the immediate charge ! remarks, that these laws appear to have been promulgated l of the prisoners.


5 9 And they dreamed a dream both of 1 The butler and baker of Pharaoh in prison. 4 Jo

them, each man his dream in one night, each seph hath charge of them. 5 He interpreteth their man according to the interpretation of his dreams. 20 They come to pass according to his dream, the butler and the baker of the king of ! interpretation. 23 The ingratitude of the butler. Egypt, which were bound in the prison. And it came to pass after these things, that 6 And Joseph came in unto them in the the butler of the king of Egypt and his baker morning, and looked upon them, and, behold, had offended their lord the king of Egypt. they were sad.

2 And Pharaoh was wroth against two of 7 And he asked Pharaoh's officers that his officers, against the chief of the butlers, were with him in the ward of his lord's house, and against the chief of the bakers.

saying, Wherefore 'look ye so sadly to-day? 3 And he put them in ward in the house of 8 And they said unto him, We have the captain of the guard, into the prison, the dreamed a dream, and there is no interpreter place where Joseph was bound.

of it. And Joseph said unto them, Do not 4 And the captain of the guard charged interpretations belong to God ? tell me them, Joseph with them, and he served them : and I pray you. they continued a season in ward.

1 9 And the chief butler told his dream to

1 Heb, are your faces evil ?

Joseph, and said to him, In my dream, behold, a vine was before me;

10 And in the vine were three branches : and it was as though it budded, and her blossoms shot forth; and the clusters thereof brought forth ripe grapes :

11 And Pharaoh's cup was in my hand : and I took the grapes, and pressed them into Pharaoh's cup, and I gave the cup into Pharaoh's hand.

12 And Joseph said unto him, This is the interpretation of it: The three branches are three days:

13 Yet within three days shall Pharaoh *lift up thine head, and restore thee unto thy place: and thou shalt deliver Pharaoh's cup into his hand, after the former manner when thou wast his butler.

14 But think on me when it shall be well with thee, and shew kindness, I pray thee,

EGYPTIAN WITH TRAY Upox uis HEAD. unto me, and make mention of me unto Pharaoh, and bring me out of this house :

19 Yet within three days shall Pharaoh 'lift 15 For indeed I was stolen away out of the up thy head from off thee, and shall hang thee land of the Hebrews : and here also have I on a tree; and the birds shall eat thy flesh done nothing that they should put me into from off thee. the dungeon,

20 And it came to pass the third day, 16 When the chief baker saw that the in- | which was Pharaoh's birthday, that he made a terpretation was good, he said unto Joseph, feast unto all his servants : and he lifted up I also was in my dream, and, behold, I had the head of the chief butler and of the chief three 'white baskets on my head :

baker among his servants. 17 And in the uppermost basket there was 21 And he restored the chief butler unto of all manner of bakemeats for Pharaoh ; | his butlership again; and he gave the cup into and the birds did eat them out of the basket Pharaoh's hand : upon my head.

22 But he hanged the chief baker : as 18 And Joseph answered and said, This is Joseph had interpreted to them. the interpretation thereof: The three baskets | 23 | Yet did not the chief butler remember are three days :

Joseph, but forgat him. 2 Or, reckon. Heb. remember me with thee. Or, full of holes. > Heb, meat of Pharaoh, the work of a baker, or, cook. 6 Or, reckon thee, and take thy office from thee. 70r, reckoned.

Verse 4. The captain of the guard'—that is, Potiphar, 1 Pliny, and Clement of Alexandria, specify districts in and not the keeper of the prison,' mentioned in xxxix. which it was grown. Modern travellers still find the vine 21-23. From this it is clear that Potiphar was cognisant cultivated in some places; and vine branches, laden with of and appreciated the valuable services which Joseph ren ripe grapes, are among the ornaments of ancient Egyptian dered to the keeper of the prison: and now he indirectly architecture. Egyptian paintings also have been found acknowledges them, by consigning these important prisoners representing the vintage, with men occupied in pressing to his special care. The whole conduct of Potiphar sug-| the ripe fruit. It is, nevertheless, true that the soil of Egypt gests that he did not believe Joseph really guilty of the is not generally favourable to the culture of the vine, and offence with which he was charged, and had placed him it does not appear that it throve well except in some more in this prison more for the sake of quietness, and from not elevated spots. The quantity of wine afforded by the vines knowing what else to do with him, than for any other of Egypt was so small that wine was never, as in Greece, reason. Perhaps it had been his first intention to sell him, a common drink. Beer was the ordinary Egyptian beverand that he had put him into the prison merely till an op age; not, indeed, what we call by that name, as the use of portunity should occur, bnt altered his intention when he hops was not known in ancient times; but still, a fermented found how useful Joseph had made himself in the prison. drink, prepared from barley. The Égyptians assigned the

9. · Behold, a vine was before me.'-Herodotus says that honour of this invention also to their Osiris, who, as they the culture of the vine was unknown in Egypt. But he state, favoured those whose land would not produce the was certainly mistaken ; for every kind of evidence concurs vine, by teaching them how to obtain from barley a liquor to confirm the statement of Scripture. Indeed, other an not very different from wine in odour and strength. It is cient writers even say that the Egyptians claim for their certain that the use of beer is only less ancient than that of Osiris the honour of being the first who cultivated the vine, wine. The earlier origin of the latter is accounted for by and extracted wine from its fruit; and Athenæus, Strabo, the greater simplicity of its preparation, which is such that


the discovery may (as the Persians taught) have been accidental; whilst it is difficult to imagine the circumstances which could have suggested to people of primitive times the idea of a drink prepared from barley. (See Reynier ; Goguet; Heeren; and Wilkinson.)

11. 'I took the grapes, and pressed them into Pharaoh'; cup.'—Wine could not be the result of this process ; although, hy a poetical licence, the expressed juice of the grape is often called wine.' The juice was, no doubt, mixed with water, forming a sherbet. The Orientals are still very fond of such drinks, formed by mixing the juices of fruits with water. Such beverages stand to them in the place of fermented or distilled drinks to Europeans. This drink could not be intoxicating; but the use of proper wine-that is, a fermented and intoxicating drink-was known long before, as we have seen in the respective histories of Noah and Lot. It has been asserted that wine was forbidden to the Egyptians by their religion ; but this must be understood with some important limitations; for we learn from llerodotus, that the people were allowed to drink wine at certain festivals, and that the privileged class, the priesthood, were only interdicted from the use of it on the days of their service in the temples, and even on those days they were only required to abstain until their ministrations for the day had terminated. There was, however, such a diversity of usages in the different nomes or provinces of ancient Egypt, that wine may have been wholly prohibited in some and partially allowed in others. As to che king, it is, perhaps, too much to infer that, because on this occasion he drank the expressed juice of the grape, he never drank wine; but it is remarkable, in connection with this statement, that, according to Diodorus Siculus, the king, all whose movements were regulated by the priests, was restricted to a certain quantity of wine. That wine was not entirely disallowed in Egypt, seems to be further evinced by the representation of vintage-scenes, mentioned in the previous note, which still exist in the temples and sepulchral caverns of that country. These scenes shew that the Egyptians trod the grapes with their feet, and deposited the expressed juice in jars buried nearly to their mouths in the ground. In the time of Pliny, the Roman tables were furnished with their choicest wines from Sebenytus. (See Reynier, p. 355-359 ; Goguet, i. p. 123, seq. and 368; Champollion, p. 51; Rosellini, ii. 365, seg.; Wilkinson, ii. 143, seq.; Hengstenberg, pp. 12-18.)


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