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CHAPTER XXXVII.

thy brethren feed the flock in Shechem ? come, 2 Joseph is hated of his brethren. 5 His two dreams.

and I will send thee unto them. And he said 13 Jacob sendeth him to visit his brethren. 18 His | to him, Here am 1. brethren conspire his death. 21 Reuben saveth him. 14 And he said to him, Go, I pray thee, 26 They sell him to the Ishmeelites. 31 His father, 'see whether it be well with thy brethren, and deceived by the bloody coat, mourneth for him. 36 He is sold to Potiphar in Egypt.

well with the flocks; and bring me word again.

So he sent him out of the vale of Hebron, AND Jacob dwelt in the land 'wherein his and he came to Shechem. father was a stranger, in the land of 15 And a certain man found him, and, Canaan.

behold, he was wandering in the field : and 2 These are the generations of Jacob. the man asked him, saying, What seekest Joseph, being seventeen years old, was feeding the flock with his brethren; and the lad 16 And he said, I seek my brethren: tell was with the sons of Bilhah, and with the me, I pray thee, where they feed their flocks. sons of Zilpah, his father's wives : and Joseph | 17 And the man said, They are departed brought unto his father their evil report. hence; for I heard them say, Let us go to

3 Now Israel loved Joseph more than all Dothan. And Joseph went after his brethren, his children, because he was the son of his and found them in Dothan. old age : and he made him a coat of many | 18 | And when they saw him afar off, even *colours.

before he came near unto them, they conspired 4 And when his brethren saw that their against him to slay him. father loved him more than all his brethren, they hated him, and could not speak peace | this dreamer cometh. ably unto him.

20 Come now therefore, and let us slay 5 And Joseph dreamed a dream, and he him, and cast him into some pit, and we will told it his brethren : and they hated him yet say, Some evil beast hath devoured him : and the more.

we shall see what will become of his dreams. 6 And he said unto them, Hear, I pray you, 21 And 'Reuben heard it, and he delivered this dream which I have dreamed :

him out of their hands; and said, Let us not 7 For, behold, we were binding sheaves in kill him. the field, and, lo, my sheaf arose, and also 22 And Reuben said unto them, Shed no stood upright; and, behold, your sheaves blood, but cast him into this pit that is in the stood round about, and made obeisance to wilderness, and lay no hand upon him ; that my sheaf.

he might rid him out of their hands, to deliver 8 And his brethren said to him, Shalt thou him to his father again. indeed reign over us? or shalt thou indeed 23 | And it came to pass, when Joseph have dominion over us? and they hated him was come unto his brethren, that they stript yet the more for his dreams, and for his Joseph out of his coat, his coat of many words.

colours that was on him ; 9 1 And he dreamed yet another dream, 24 And they took him, and cast him into and told it his brethren, and said, Behold, I a pit: and the pit was empty, there was no have dreamed a dream more; and, behold, water in it. the sun and the moon and the eleven stars made obeisance to me.

they lifted up their eyes and looked, and, 10 And he told it to his father, and to his | behold, a company of Ishmeelites came from brethren: and his father rebuked him, and Gilead with their camels bearing spicery and said unto him, What is this dream that thou balm and myrrh, going to carry it down to hast dreamed ? Shall I and thy mother and Egypt. thy brethren indeed come to bow down our-| 26 And Judah said unto his brethren, selves to thee to the earth ?

What profit is it if we slay our brother, and 11 And his brethren envied him ; but his conceal his blood ? father observed the saying.

27 Come, and let us sell him to the Ish12 | And his brethren went to feed their meelites, and let not our hand be upon him ; father's flock in Shechem.

for he is our brother and our flesh. And his 13 And Israel said unto Joseph, Do not | brethren 'were content.

1 Heb. of his father's sojournings. 2 Or, pieces.

5 Chap. 42. 22.

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28 Then there passed by Midianites mer- | This have we found : know now whether it be chantmen; and they drew and lifted up Jo- | thy son's coat or no. seph out of the pit, and sold Joseph to the 33 And he knew it, and said, It is my Ishmeelites for twenty pieces of silver : and son's coat; an 'evil beast hath devoured him : they brought Joseph into Egypt.

Joseph is without doubt rent in pieces. 29 9 And Reuben returned unto the pit; 34 And Jacob rent his clothes, and put and, behold, Joseph was not in the pit; and sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned for his he rent his clothes.

son many days. 30 And he returned unto his brethren, and 35 And all his sons and all his daughters said, The child is not; and I, whither shall I rose up to comfort him ; but he refused to be

comforted ; and he said, For I will go down 31 9 And they took Joseph's coat, and killed into the grave unto my son mourning. Thus a kid of the goats, and dipped the coat in the his father wept for him. blood;

36 | And the Midianites sold him into 32 And they sent the coat of many colours, Egypt unto Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh's, ! and they brought it to their father; and said, ' and 'captain of the guard.

8 Psal. 105. 17. Wisd. 10. 13. Acts 7. 9. 9 Chap. 44. 28.

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fficers.

10 Heb. cunuch. But the word doth signify not only eunuchs, but also chamberlains, courtiers

11 Heb. chief of the slaughtermen, or, executioners. Or, chief marshal.

Verse 3. A coat of many colours.'— This parti-coloured | Khan of Joseph's Pit, because the well connected with it has tunic of Joseph has occasioned some speculation; but it long passed among Christians and Moslems for the well in seems to us that the real point of interest has not been question. The Bethulia of Judith has long been identified noticed. It would be desirable to know whether the art of with Safed ; and as Dothan (Dothaim) is mentioned as interweaving a piece in various colours was at this time being in the neighbourhood, it became necessary that discovered or not. Judging from the information which Dothan should be found in this quarter. But it is clear, this text offers, it would seem not; for the word which is from the notices in Judith (iv. 5; vii. 1, 2), that Bethulia constantly rendered colours' may, as in the marginal was south, and not north, of the plain of Esdraelon; and reading, with more than equal propriety be rendered consequently we are at liberty to seek the site of Dothan

pieces,' which makes it probable that the agreeable effect also at some point more conformable to the intimation of resulting from a combination of colours was obtained by Eusebius and to the probabilities of the story than that of patchwork, in the first instance; and in after-times, by the alleged Joseph's well. being wrought with a needle. The value and distinction

19. · Dreamer' niosna sya baal ha-clalomoth, 'lord attached to such variegated dresses shew that they were not common, and were formed by some elaborate process.

of dreams,' a master dreamer. There is a bitter irony This continued long after. In the time of David, such a

in this epithet, which seems to suggest that Joseph's

brothers considered that he had invented, or pretended to dress was a distinction for a king's daughter (2 Sam. xiii. 18); and in Judges v. 30, we see ladies anticipating the

have had, the dreams which so much annoyed them. It return of a victorious general, with “a prey of divers co

does not seem to be generally known that in Western Asia lours, of divers colours of needlework on both sides. We

it is considered a fearful enormity, a sort of sacrilege, to

utter a pretended dream. Since dreams are regarded as did not wear variegated dresses, the common use of which

intimations from the higher world, to pretend to have had must have been consequent on the discovery of the art of

one assumes the character of something like blasphemous interweaving a variegated pattern in the original texture,

trifling with God. Mohammed himself assigns a place in or of printing it subsequently. Except in Persia, where a

hell to such offenders. robe is usually of one colour, most Asiatics are partial

20. Let us slay him, and cast him into some pit.'— The to dresses in which various patterns are interwoven in

pit they had in view was doubtless a cistern, such as that stripes or flowers; and parti-coloured dresses have neces- into which they ultimately cast him alive. These cisteros sarily ceased to form a distinotion. The most remarkable generally get exhausted towards the end of summer. In illustration of this text which we have seen is given by two of them, near Heshbon, Irby and Mangles found Mr. Roberts, who states that in India it is customary to about three dozen of human skulls and bones. invest a beautiful or favourite child with a coat of many 25. Ishmeelites.'-Lower down, v. 27, the same persons colours,' consisting of crimson, purple, and other colours, are called Midianites.' The Ishmaelites and Midianites which are often tastefully sewed together. He adds: 'A child were both descended from Abraham, but of different female being clothed in a garment of many colours, it is believed parentage (xxv. 2, 4, 12-18). Here they appear to be that neither tongues nor evil spirits will injure him, identified, owing probably to their intimate association because the attention is taken from the beauty of the with one another. See also Judg. vii. 12; viii. 22, where person to that of the garment.'

the words seem to be used promiscuously. Rosenmüller 17. Dothan.'—This place is mentioned in 2 Kings vi. distinguishes them as genera and species, illustrating this 13-15, as the city' in which the Syrians were smitten by the comparison taken from Aben Ezra, of Frenchmen with blindness at the word of Elisha. Dothan is placed and Lyonese. As the Ishmaelites were the most numerous by Eusebius and Jerome twelve Roman miles north of and powerful of Abraham's descendants (with the exception Sebaste or Samaria, and it was obviously on the caravan of the Israelites), all the others seem to have been merged track from Syria to Egypt. The well into which Joseph in them, and known by their name. See Turner's Genesis, was cast by his brothers, and consequently the site of p. 333. “Here,' says Dr. Vincent, “upon opening the Dothan, has, however, been placed by tradition in a very oldest history in the world, we find the Ishmaelites from distant quarter, namely, about three miles south-east from Gilead conducting a caravan loaded with the spices of Safed, where there is a khan called Khan Jubb Yusuf, the India, the balsam and myrrh of Hadramaut; and in the

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regular course of their traffic proceeding to Egypt for a | about 658 years B.C. His son, Necho, for the purpose of fainarket. The date of this transaction is more than seventeen cilitating commerce, attempted to unite the Mediterranean centuries before the Christian era, and notwithstanding its and Red Sea, by means of a canal from the Nile; but deantiquity, it has all the genuine features of a caravan cross sisted after having lost 100,000 workmen. He then caused ing the desert at the present hour' (Commerce and Navi ships to be built both on the Mediterranean and Red Sea, gation of the Ancients, ii. 262). We cannot at this moment and interested himself in maritime discovery, with a view enter into the question, which Dr. Vincent assumes, that to the extension of the commercial relations of Egypt. He the Arabians had already become the medium of commu sent on a voyage of discovery those Phænician mariners nication between India and Egypt. As the subject divides who are supposed to have effected the circumnavigation of itself into two parts, the commerce of the Arabians and Africa, sailing from the Red Sea, and, after doubling the that of the Egyptians, we postpone the former, and confine Cape of Good Hope, returning by the Mediterranean. The ourselves to a few remarks on the latter. In the present maritime power of Egypt increased thenceforward, the text we see a caravan of foreigners proceeding to Egypt, clearest proof of which may be found in the fact, that in their camels laden with articles of luxury; whence it is the reign of Necho's grandson, Apries, the Egyptian fleet an obvious inference that Egypt had then become, what it ventured to give battle to, and actually defeated, so expeis always recorded to have been, the centre of a most ex rienced a naval power as that of the Phænicians. The tensive land commerce; the great emporium to which the subjection of the country to the Persians does not seem to merchants brought gold, ivory, and slaves from Ethiopia, have materially interfered with the growing maritime comincense from Arabia, spices from India, and wine from merce of Egypt. But Herodotus, who was there in this Phænicia and Greece ; for which Egypt gave in exchange period, remarks on the characteristic singularity which its corn, its manufactures of fine linen, its robes, and its the Egyptians had carried into their marine and trade. carpets. In after-times, the merchants of the west, of Their ships were built and armed after a fashion quite Greece and Rome, resorted to Egypt for its own products, different from that observed by other nations, and their and for the goods brought thither by the Oriental mer- | rigging and cordage were arranged in a manner that chauts. But none of this was done by Egyptians them- | appeared very singular and fantastic to the Greeks. selves. We never, either in ancient or modern times, read of Egyptian caravans. This doubtless arose in a great degree from the aversion which (in common with all people wlio observe a certain diet and mode of life prescribed by religion) they entertained to any intercourse with strangers, and which reminds us continually of the restrictive policy of the Japanese, in some respects, and of the religious prejudices of Hindoos and strict Mohammedans, in others. Thus, it was a maxim among the Egyptians not to leave their own country; and we have ample evidence that they rarely did so, except in attendance upon the wars and expeditions of their sovereigns, even when their restrictive policy and peculiar customs became relaxed under the Greek and Roman rulers of the country. "They waited,' says Goguet, after Strabo, 'till other nations brought them the things they stood in need of; and they did this with the more tranquillity, as the great fertility of their country

ANCIENT EGYPTIAN SHIP. in those times left them few things to desire. It is not at all surprising that a people of such principles did not apply After all, the Egyptians were not themselves a people themselves to navigation until very late. Besides, the addicted to maritime commerce. The Greek rulers of Egyptians had a religious aversion to the sea, and consi Egypt, indeed, changed the entire system of Egyptian trade, dered all those as iinpious and degraded who embarked and the new capital, Alexandria, became the first mart of upon it. The sea was, in their view, an emblem of the the world, while the ancient inland capitals, which had evil being (Typhon), the implacable enemy of Osiris; and arisen under the former system, sunk into insignificance. the aversion of the priests in particular was so strong, that But it was the Greeks of Egypt, not the Egyptians, who they carefully kept mariners at a distance, even when did this. They became,' says Dr. Vincent, the carriers others of the nation began to pay some attention to sea of the Mediterranean, as well as the agents, factors, ard affairs. But besides their religious hatred to the sea, and importers of Oriental produce; and so wise was the new political aversion to strangers, other causes concurred in policy, and so deep had it taken root, that the Romans, preventing the cultivation of maritime commerce by the upon the subjection of Egypt, found it more expedient to Egyptians. The country produces no wood suitable for | leave Alexandria in possession of its privileges, than to the construction of ships. Therefore, when the later alter the course of trade, or occupy it themselves. See Egyptian and the Greek sovereigns began to attend to Vincent's Commerce and Navigation of the Ancients ; navigation, they could not fit out a fleet till they had ob- Heeren's Historical Researches ; Goguet, Origine des Lois; tained a command over the forests of Phænicia, which gave Regnier, De l'Economie Publique et Rurale des Egypoccasion to bloody wars between the Ptolemies and the tiens, etc. Seleucide for the possession of those countries. The un - Spicery,' etc.- It is remarkable that the products healthiness of the Egyptian coast, and the paucity of good here enumerated are very nearly the same which are menharbours, may also be numbered among the circumstances tioned in ch. xliii. 11, as sent by Jacob by his sons as a which operated, with others, in preventing attention to present to the governor of Egypt. This seems to shew maritime affairs.

that they were rarer in Egypt than in Syria, if it does not The indifference of the Egyptians to foreign commerce prove that they were the produce of the latter country. The is demonstrated by the fact that they abandoned the navi- l word nia) necoth, occurs in both, and is rendered spices,' or gation of the Red Sea to whatever people cared to exercise

perfumes,' not only in our version, but in the Septuagint it. They allowed the Phænicians, the Edomites, the Jews, the Syrians, successively, to have fleets there and maritime

and the Vulgate, as well as by Rashi and Abeu Ezra. stations on its shores. It was not until towards the termi | Onkelos renders it by a word, gw, which Rashi supposes nation of the national independence that the sovereigns of to mean wax, but more likely, as De Pomis explains, a Egypt began to turn their attention to navigation and resinous substance, as the Arabic and Syriac also translate commerce. The ports of Lower Egypt were ultimately 1 it. This last-named writer, followed by Rosenmüller, opened to the Phænicians and Greeks, by Psammeticus, | Professor Royle, and others, supposes that it is the Gum

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SPICE (Astragalus Gummifer). Tragacantha, which is obtained from several species of Astragalus, several of which grow in Syria and Asia Minor. One of these, A. Gummifer, yielding the best kind of tragacanth, was found by Dickson of Tripoli in Lebanon, where he ascertained that the tragacanth was collected by the shepherds. This gum has always been highly esteemed in eastern countries, and was therefore likely to be an article of commerce to Egypt in ancient times.

- Balm, ny tzeri. - The product distinguished by this name of tzeri is several times mentioned in Scripture. In Ezek. xxvii. 17, it is mentioned along with · wheat of Minnith and Pannag, and honey, and oil,' as merchandise which Judah brought to the markets of Tyre. This was possessed of medicinal properties, as appears from Jer. viii. 22, Is there no tzeri in Gilead ?' from Jer. xlvi. 11, 'Go up into Gilead and take tzeri ;' and from Jer. xli. 8, Take tzeri for her pain, if she may be healed. In all these places, as here, the Authorized Version has balm. This translation has led the notion that the tzeri must be no other than the so-called balm of Gilead, Balsamodendron Gileadense, so famous in ancient times. But the Hebrew has other words, BASAM and BAAL-SHEMEN, which more certainly and distinctly refer to this balm or balsam of former days: and as therefore we cannot regard this one product as represented by both terms, we are obliged to confess that we do not know to what product of Palestine the tzeri is to be referred. It was probably an odoriferous resin of some kind or other.

- Myrrh.'—The original is a lot, of which myrrh' is regarded as a very erroneous rendering. The word only occurs here and in the list of the presents which Jacob sent to Egypt. The range of translation in different versions

MYRRH (Cistus Creticus).

LADANUM, which seems a more probable interpretation | Turkey, ii. 295, where we learn that the chief of the black than any other that has been offered: for this product was eunuchs at Constantinople, at the beginning of this century, known to the ancients ; its Greek and Arabic names are had a regular harem of his own. Besides, if the word only similar to the Hebrew; and as it is stated to have been a describes Potiphar as an officer, it is altogether pleonastic, produce of Syria, it was very likely to have been sent to as the very next clause mentions his office. Of the other Egypt both as merchandise and as a present. It is a fra passages of the Old Testament, there are not a few in which grant and medicinal gum yielded by species of the gummy the proper sense of eunuch must obviously be retained ; Cistus (especially Cistus Creticus), which are natives of and there are more in which it is not appropriate. See the Levant, southern Europe, and northern Africa, and of | Gesenius's Thesaurus, p. 973. which the Rock Rose in this country is a familiar example. - Captain of the guard.' -- This name of office, in the These species grow in Palestine ; and there is a passage in original anaon nu sar hat-tabbachim, has also given the Talmud which seems to intimate that ladanum was occasion to some discussion. Rashi makes it to mean the gathered in Judæa.

chief of the slaughtermen of the king's cattle—and so the 36. An officer.'—The original word is Dilo saris, which

margin of the Auth. Version; the Septuagint, chief of the is proved by Isa, lvi. 3, 4, to mean an eunuch. Such per cooks ;' the Targum, chief of the executioners ;' Vulgate, sons Oriental monarchs were accustomed to set over their * magistro militum ;' French version, chef de ses troupes;' harems (Esth. ii. 3, 14, 15; iv.5); and also to employ them Luther, hoffmeister.' The current of prevailing opinion in various offices of the court (Esth. i. 10, 15; ii. 21; vi. is in favour of the interpretation adopted by our translators; 2; vii. 9). So, in Dan. i. 3, we read of the chief or prince and we shall probably not be far wrong in regarding Potiof the eunuchs (sar ha-sarisim), who had charge of the phar as captain of the body-guard, with which function king's sons, as at the present day, in Turkey, the Kislar was usually combined that of magister lictorum — the Aga has charge of the sultan's children. From this em lictors, or executioners of the royal will, being in fact the ployment of eunuchs arose, as some think, the application body-guard; as was the case in the ancient, and is still the of the name to persons filling such employments, even case in Eastern, courts. In Egypt and Babylon this funcwhen not eunuchs. This conjecture is founded upon the tionary had the custody of state prisoners, as well as the circumstance that Potiphar, who is described as a saris, execution of malefactors (Gen. xxxix. 20; xl. 3; Dan. ii. was married, whence it is inferred that he could not be an 14). It is worthy of remark, in connection with the preeunuch. But this is by no means clear, as instances are not ceding note, that the Kapuaghey, or chief of the white uncommon of eunuchs having wives (Terence, Eunuchus, eunuchs, is also captain of the Kapidigis, or life-guards of iv. 3, 24; Chardin, Voyage, iži. 397). See also 'Thornton's | the Turkish sultan.

CHAPTER XXX VIII.

| unto his brother's wife, that he spilled it on

the ground, lest that he should give seed to 1 Judah begetteth Er, Onan, and Shelah. 6 Er | his brother. marrieth Tamar. 8 The trespass of Onan. 11

| 10 And the thing which he did *displeased Tamar stayeth for Shelah. 13 She deceiveth Judah. 27 She beareth twins, Pharez and Zarah.

the LORD : wherefore he slew him also.

11 Then said Judah to Tamar his daughter And it came to pass at that time, that Judah in law, Remain a widow at thy father's house, went down from his brethren, and turned till Shelah my son be grown: for he said, in to a certain Adullamite, whose name was Lest peradventure he die also, as his brethren Hirah.

did. And Tamar went and dwelt in her 2 And Judah saw there a daughter of a father's house. certain Canaanite, whose name was 'Shuah; 12 | And 'in process of time the daughter and he took her, and went in unto her. of Shuah Judah's wife died ; and Judah was

3 And she conceived, and bare a son; and comforted, and went up unto his sheepshearers he called his name Er.

to Timnath, he and his friend Hirah the Adul4 And she conceived again, and bare a son ; lamite. and she called his name 'Onan.

13 And it was told Tamar, saying, Behold 5 And she yet again conceived, and bare a thy father in law goeth up to Timnath to shear son ; and called his name Shelah : and he was his sheep. at Chezib, when she bare him.

14 And she put her widow's garments off 6 And Judah took a wife for Er his first- from her, and covered her with a vail, and born, whose name was Tamar.

| wrapped herself, and sat in 'an open place, 7 And Er, Judah's firstborn, was wicked which is by the way to Timnath ; for she saw in the sight of the LORD; and the LORD slew that Shelah was grown, and she was not given him.

| unto him to wife. 8 And Judah said unto Onan, Go in unto 15 When Judah saw her, he thought her thy brother's wife, and marry her, and raise to be an harlot ; because she had covered her up seed to thy brother.

99 And Onan knew that the seed should not 16 And he turned unto her by the way, be his; and it came to pass, when he went in and said, Go to, I pray thee, let me come in 11 Chron. 2. 3. 2 Num. 26. 19. Num. 26. 19. Heb. wus evil in the eyes of the LORD. 5 Heb, the days were multiplied.

6 Heb. the door of eyes, or, of Enajim.

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