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The Ald rises near Framlingham, and runs south-east to Aldborough, where having approached to within a very small distance of the sea, it suddenly takes a southern direction, and discharges itself below Orford into the German Ocean,

The Blythe has its source near Saxfield, in the hundred of Hoxne, whence running east-north-east to Halesworth, it then proceeds almost due east to Blythburgh and Southwold, where it falls into the sea.

The Larke rises in the south-western part of the county, passes Bury and Mildenhall, and joins the Great Ouse not far from the latter town.

The Waveney and Little Ouse have already been mentioned in treating of Norfolk. The former, after running fifty miles towards the sea in an eastern direction, and approaching its very shores, is opposed by a rising ground, which gives it an abrupt direction almost due north. This leads it to the river Yar; and though its waters are suficient to give name to a harbour of its own, it merely assists as a secondary river in deepening and enlarging the harbour of Yarmouth. The meadows through which it passes with an even and gentle course, are supposed to be among the richest in England. Hither numerous herds of starved cattle from the highlands of Scotland find their way, and soon growing fat, continue their journey to supply the markets of the capital.*

ROADS AND CANALS.---The roads in every part of this county are excellent, the improvements made in them of late years being almost inconceivable: in most directions, indeed, the traveller finds cross ones equal to turnpike-roads.

The only canal in Suffolk, which will be noticed in another place, runs from Ipswich to Stow market.

Woods.---The woods of Suffolk scarcely deserve mentioning. The strong loans formerly contained considerable quantities of large oak; but these have here, as in every other part of the king.




Gilpin's Tour through Cambridge, Norfolk, Suffolk, &c.

dom, been much lessened, and the succession that is coming or bears no proportion to the growth that preceded. In general planting is undertaken more with a view to ornament than profit.

WASTES.---Though Suffolk must be reckoned among the earliest enclosed of the English counties, very large tracts yet want the benefit of this first and greatest of all improvements. Some modern inclosures have been made by act of parliament, but the examples are not well followed, though the success has been great.

The wastes of this county are calculated by Mr. Young,* from all the information which he could obtain, and a careful comparison of various data, to amount to nearly, if not quite 100,000 acres, or an eighth of the whole, comprehended under the terms sheepwalk, common, warren, &c. “ None of these,” adds the writer just mentioned, “ are strictly speaking absolutely waste, if by that term is understood land yielding nothing. Jincinde all lands uncultivated, which would admit of a very great improvement, not always profitable to the tenant, who may, on a small capital, make a great interest per cent. by a warren, for instance, but in every case to the public. Many farmers think sheep-walks necessary for their flocks, which is very questionable. They are undoubtedly useful; and if they were converted into corn, the number of sheep kept upon a farm might in a few cases decline; but good grass adapted to the soil would be abundantly more productive for the flock. Whoever bas viewed the immense wastes that fill almost the whole country from Newmarket to Thetford, and to Gastrop Gate, and which are found between Woodbridge and Orford, and thence one way to Saxmundham, not to mention the numerous heaths that are scattered every where, must be convinced that their improvement for grass would enable the county to carry many thousands of sheep more than it does at present.”

The following recent inclosures, with the year in which they were made, and the quantity of land brought into cultivation, are mentioned by Mr. Young. +

Young's View of the Agriculture of Suffo!!, p. 168.
Ibid. 38-44.

Coney Weston


1260 acres Barningham


580 Pakefield and Gisleham 1798

330 Wollington


860 Barton Mills

800 Tuddenham

1500 PROPERTY.---The state of property in this county may be considered beneficial in its division. The largest estate is supposed not to exceeed 8,5001, a year; there are three or four others which rise above 5,0001. and about thirty others of 3,0001, and upwards. Below this standard there are many of all sizes: but a circumstance which strongly indicates the prosperity of this portion of the kingdom, is the great number of yeomen, or farmers occupying their own lands, of a value rising from 1001. to 4001. a year. These, as Mr. Young emphatically remarks, are most valuable set of men, who having the means, and the most powerful inducements to good husbandry, carry agriculture to a high degree of perfection."

The great mass of the county is freehold property; but copyholds are numerous, and some of them extensive. The farms in Suffolk must, in a general light, be reckoned large; and to this circumstance chiefly may be attributed the good husbandry so commonly found in the county. In the district of strong wet loam there are many small farms from 201. to 1001. a year; but these are intermixed with others rising from 1501. to 3001. and even higher. In the sand districts they are much larger, from 3001. to 8001, or 9001. Here owing not a little to these large occupations in the hands of a wealthy tenantry, agriculture is carried to great perfection.

The usual terms for leases are seven, fourteen, and twenty-one years. Few counties have been more improved by the latter than Suffolk. By means of such leases, whole tracts in the sandy districts have been converted from warren and sheep-walks into productive inclosures. They have caused large tracts to be hollowdrained; and occasioned an improved cultivation in almost every


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respect, where it depended on the expenditure of larger sums than are laid out by farmers unable or unwilling to make such exertions.

Mr. Young* gives the following estimate of the total rental of the county, founded upon the division of it according to the soil:

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BUILDINGS --On a survey of the buildings in general of this county, the neglect of elegance and convenience in those of gen. tlemen of a certain property, as well as in farm-houses, cannot fail to strike the observer. The latter, indeed, are much improved within the last twenty or thirty years, but even at present they are too often built of lath and plaister, which decaying in a short time, cause repairs to be so heavy a deduction from the receipts of an estate.t

Though some individuals 'have most laudably distinguished themselves by building neat and comfortable cottages for the laboring poor, the small profit which the rent affords, has prevented this practice from being frequent. The cottages of Suffolk in general are bad habitations, deficient in contrivance for warmth and convenience, the state of repair bad, and the want of gardens too common. The general rent of them is from two to three pounds, with or without a small garden.

STATE OF THE POOR.---The amount of money levied in this county in 1803, for the maintenance of the poor, was 149,646l.


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General View of tho Agriculture of Suffolk, p. 20. + The extent to which this evil operates in the eastern part of the kingdom is scarcely credible. Mr. Young informs us, that on one estate of about 1,5001, a year, the repairs amounted in eleven years to above 4,0001.

being at the rate of 48. 10:d in the pound. The most singular circumstance relating to the poor in Suffolk, is the incorporation of various hundreds for erecting and supporting houses of industry. The local inconvenience and distress arising from the number of poor, and the expence of maintaining them, occasioned many districts in the county to apply to parliament for the power of incorporating themselves, and of regulating the employment, and maintenance of the poor by certain rules not authorized by the existing poor laws. Several acts of parliament accordingly passed, incorporating those districts, where the poor have since been governed and supported according to the power given by such acts. The result of an actual examination of these institutions by T. Raggles, Esq. is given by Mr. Young in the following terins :*

“ In the incorporated hundreds, the houses of industry strike one in a different light from the cottages of the poor. They are all built in as dry, healthy, and pleasant situations, as the vicinity affords. The offices, such as the kitchen, brewhouse, bakehouse, buttery, laundry, larder, cellars, are all large, convenient, and kept extremely neat ; the work-rooms are large and well aired; and the sexes are kept apart, both in hours of work and recreation. The dormitories are also large, airy, and conveniently disposed; separate rooms for children of each sex, adults and aged. The. married have each a separate apartment to themselves; mothers with nurse children are also by themselves. The infirmaries are large, convenient, airy, and comfortable ; none without fireplaces. All the houses have a proper room for the necessary dispensary; and most of them a surgeon's room besides. The halls in all are large, convenient, well ventilated with two or more fireplaces, and calculated, with respect to room, for the reception of full as many as the other conveniences of the house can contain.

“The chapels are all sufficiently large, neat, and plain ; several of them rather tending to grandeur and elegance. There were two houses which had no chapels : one of them made use of a room ample enough for the congregation, properly fitted up, and kept

very • General View of the Agriculture of Suffolk, p. 251.

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