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imal life? How doth it hug and Bishop Lavington, a man who wrap up itself in the garment of abhorred fanaticism, in a charge this mortality, not desiring to to his clergy, has these words :

be removed hence, to the more “My brethren, I beg you will perfect and blessed state ? The rise up with me against MORAL

husbandman is indeed PREACHING. We have long been

tent to stay till the appoint. attempting the reformation of the ed weeks of the harvest; but

would he be content to wait al. nation by discourses of this kind. With what success ? NONE AT

ways ? O my sensual heart! Is ALL. On the contrary we have

this life of hope as contentful to dexterously preached the people thee, as the life of vision will into downright infidelity. We

be? Why dost thou not groan must change our voice. We must

within thyself, that this mortali. preach Christ, and him crucified. ty might be swallowed up of Nothing but the Gospel is, no.

life? Doth oot the Scripture de. thiog will be found to be, the

scribe the saints by their earnest power of God unto salvation,

looking for the mercy of our besides. Let me therefore again Lord Jesus unto eternal life? and again request, may I not

Jude 21. By their hastening unadd, let me CHARGE you, to

to the coming of the day of God,

salvation preach Jesus, and

2 Pet. iii. 12. What is the mat. through his name. Preach the ter that my heart hangs back ? Lord who bought us; preach Doth guilt lie upon my conredemption through his blood; science? Or have I gotten into a preach the saying of the great pleasant condition in the world, High Priest; HE WHO BELIEVetu

which makes me say as Peter SHALL BE SAVED; preach repent.

on the mount, It is good to be ance towards God, and faith in here? Or want I the assurance

of a better state ? Must God our Lord Jesus Christ."

make all my earthly comforts

die, before I shall be willing to THE LINGERING SOUL'S REFLEC.

die? Awake faith, awake my

life; beat up the drowsy deHow doth my slothful soul sires of my soul, that I may say, sink down into the flesh, and make haste, my beloved and settle itself in the love of this an. come away.




DR. REES' CYCLOPÆDIA, VOL. IX. P. 1. CONSIDERABLE additions are a long life, with great diligence made to the article CLAYTON, and success ; was admitted a John, by the American Editors. member of some of the most Mr. Clayton came from Englaud learned literary societies in Euto Virginia, in his youth; pura rope ; and corresponded with sued the study of botany through Linnæus, Gronovius, and other VOL. II. New Series.


celebrated botanists. He seems of the state of New York for to have been a learned, useful, several years, and died at & very and pious man.

advanced age in 1776. The writers of the article CLIMATE coincide with the great

VOL. IX. P. II. body of the learned, in the opin.

UNDER the article COLLEGE, ion, that the temperature of the Dr. Rees bad collected some aç. seasons, in every part of Europe, count of nearly all the semina, has undergone a great alteration, ries of liberal education in the since the time of Augustus. The United States. The American article is enlarged in this edition, editors have added something to with extracts from the very res.

the information with respect to pectable essay on the subject by most of these Colleges. Their Dr. Williams, published in the additions, however are not satis. same volume with his History of factory. No mention is made Vermont. We understand that of the studies in any of the New Mr. Webster, in a paper com- England Colleges; and but two municated sometime ago to the or three of those in the other Connecticut Academy of Arts States are described with sufliand Sciences, has taken up the cient particularity, in this ressubject; and, by a thorough in. pect. The expense of board, tu. vestigation of many facts, has ition, wood, &c. &c. is placed, shewn, that there has been by no perhaps in every instance, con. means such a change of climate siderably lower than facts will in Europe as is generally sup- warrant. Much more informa, posed, and that, with similar cal. tion on this subject, might have tivation, the same regions pro. been collected with very little duced the same fruits eighteen trouble. hundred years ago, as are pro

The character of Collins,the duced now.

This paper, it is deist, is treated much in the same expected, will soon be printed, manner, as that of Mr. Chubb, with other communications, in a upon which we have animadvert. volume now preparing for the ed. As we shall have occasion press, by direction of the Con. to notice the same thing in the necticut Academy.

life of Cooper, Lord ShaftsColden, Cadwallader, is a bury, we say no more in this new article of biography. The place. subject of it came from Scotland Under the articleCOMPLEXION, soon after his education was the English editors adopt the completed, and settled first at opinion, that all the varicties of Philadelphia, and then at New color and features observable in York. He was a physician, a

the human species, scholar, a botanist, and, during counted for by the influence of a great part of his life, a colonial climate, and various other causes magistrate. He corresponded both natural, and artificial. with many Irarned persons in This opinion is ably supported, Europe, and gave them much in. and with the exception of one formation with respect to the thing stated to be a fact which infant colonies. He susiained

we apprehend cannot be proved, the office of lieutenant governor

we find no fault with the origin

can be ac

66 the


al article. But some person em- say we do not know this to be the case, ployed by the American pub- No white men or their descendants have

because the event has never yet occurred. lisher, has undertaken to be very ever yet been turned into real blacks." wise and philosophical on the occasion; it is, therefore, prop- If we may be permitted to ask er that we spend a few moments a philosopher a question, we in examining his additions. After would inquire why he did not stating that climate exercises an state the negative evidence which extensive influence over the com.

enabled him to assert, in such plexion of man, and that this is unqualified terms, that abundantly proved by fact,' he event has never yet occurred,” sagely observes :

and that no white men have “But truth itself may be so far over

ever yet been turned into real stretched, as to change its nature, and

blacks » And if this assertion even assume the character of error, or, was made without evidence, does if not of actual error, at least of mere hy. it not look like a petitio principii, pothesis.”

of which a philosopher ought to We should want other

be ashamed? proof than this sentence affords, to convince us, that the author of the Portuguese at Senegal, have

Our writer then denies that it, neither knew how to write, por how to think. Truth be that their complexion has indeed

become perfect blacks; but admits overstretched so as to change its

undergone a very remarkable nature! Every schoolboy ought change, and made considerable to know, that the difference be.

advances towards blackness." tween truth and error, is immu.

He states also that their com. table and eternal. But we are

plexion has remained stationary farther taught, that, after truth

for this century past, without has changed its nature, it may acquiring a deeper dye.? This assume the character of neither

last assertiun seems hardly sus. truth nor actual error, but of mere hypothesis.

Thus truth ceptible of accurate proof, it

being quite difficult to evince that among its variety of characters,

a man's skin is not a single chade may assume that of Proteus ;

darker than that of his ancestor for if it may be changed into

a hundred years ago. mere hypothesis, we defy any gument from these assumptions mortal to tell into what it may

is as follows: not be changed. But to proceed:

“It appears, therefore, that climate has “We know that warmth of climate

long since produced its maximum of ef will, in time, convert the fair and ruddy

fect upon them, and can approximate complexion of the Swede, the Dane, and

them no nearer to the hue of the aborigthe Scotchman, into the swarthy and inal African. If during the term of four olive eomplexion of the Spaniard and the

centuries, climate cannot convert a white Italian, and even into the tawny cast of man into a negroe, there is the most solthe Moor. We know this to be true,

id ground to believe that, as a physical because it is the result of actual observa

cause, it is totally inadequate to the task.” tion. Changes of complexion similar to this are daily occurring before our

We should draw a different eyes, even in certain parts of the United States But we do not know that any argument from the same facts. warmth or other circumstances of climate It appears to us more correct to ean ever change the sanguine hue of the nhabitants of the north of Europe, into say, if in the comparatively short he ebon-dye of the natives of Congo. I period of four centuries, the

The ar


Portuguese at Senegal have un- hundred years ago. A knowledge of this dergone a very remarkable change

fact ought to have made Dr. Smith of

Princeton, extremely cautious how he in their complexion, and made hazarded a contrary statement.” considerable advances towards

We cheerfully refer it to our blackness, is there not the most readers, as

a perfectly well solid ground to believe,' that in known fact, that successive gen. thirty or forty centuries their

erations of negroes, in the Unit. descendants might become "per-ed States, do gradually lose the fect blacks.

jetty blackness of their ances. But,” continues the writer, “if cli

tors,' and undergo considerable mate cannot change a fair European into a jetty African, much less can it work in changes in the formation of their the opposite direction, and change the features. As to the insinuation African to the European complexion.”

to the disadvantage of Dr. Smith, The force of this a fortiori bis able essay is in no danger from reasoning we confess ourselves such puny attacks, as the one unable to discover. The ques- we are now considering. tion of the influence of climate The writer closes apparently we have always considered to be with great self-complacency, in a question of fact only; and to the following paragraph: say that it is harder for climate “The question respecting the mutato change the descendants of

bility of the complexion of man is a phi

losophical one. And, as philosophers, a black man into white men, than

we have certainly no solid ground to bethe contrary, is extremely ridic. lieve, that the extremes of this complexulous.

ion can ever be changed into each other

by the influence of climate. It is remark“The immutability of the African dye able that the doctrine of entire mutability appears to be fairly recognized even in on this subject, is and always has been, the Scriptures of truth. For it is there advocated by men much more distinguishintimated in plain terms, and in the most ed for their piety and Christian zeal, than forcible manner, that the Ethiopian can for their knowledge of nature. no more change the color of his skin, than the leopard can change the color of his

We are taught in this passage, spots.

it seems, that philosophical quesIt is a pity the reader had not

tions are to be determined with. been informed where to find this out any regard to the decisions curious passage of Scripture. of inspiration on the subject. But suppose the Bible had said And though as Christians we are any such thing, who in the world to believe the Bible, which is ever supposed that the Ethiopian appealed to by this writer “ as or any body else, could change which has most explicitly decide

the Scriptures of truth,' ” and the color of his skin ? The wri. ter proceeds thus:

ed this question, yet as philoso“But in a case so plain and demonstra- phers we are to consider that ble as the present one, we have no need as plainly and demonstrably im. of deriving our authority from holy writ. Observation is alone sufficient for our

possible, which as Christians we purpose. There are now, in various most assuredly believed. Away parts of the United States, families of with such paltry sophistry. We negroes, constituting the fifth and even have said that the Bible has de. sixth generation, in descent from their native African progenitors. Yet after

cided this question; and surely such an immense lapse of time, no mate- there is no need of proving to rial change has taken place in their com- the reader of the Bible that plexion. In point of color they are as real negroes now, as their ancestors were

this assertion is correct. when imported from Africa nearly two only mention that it is most un.


equivocally revealed in the Old On the style we would merely and New Testament, that Adam observe, that "approximate, " was the father of the whole hu. as an active verb, is not author. man race; and the whole scheme ized by good writers; and that of redemption was formed to call five or six generations of cordance with that truth.

men an "immense lapse of time" As for the sneer at the close is extravagant. of the article, we dismiss it with.

(To be continued.) out any farther remark.




List of Donations to the Massachusetts Missionary Society. 1808.
Sept. 28. From Braintree 75 of Rev. Mr. May's Ordination Sermons $ c.
Oct. 5.

Henry Morse of Leicester, being a fine for horse

4 10 Nov. 7 A female friend in Medford

50 1809. April 24. John Foster

15 50 Sally Foster

2 56 The late Richard Devens, Esq. 10 shares in the

Massachusetts Fire Marine ffice
Cash, from the same

602 50 May27. From Rev. Mr. Hopkins

23 50 29 Rev. Jacob Norton, from Isaac Wilder, Hingham 3 Rev. Dr. Emmons from his Society

32 90 Rev. Jonathan Strong, from a friend to be laid out in Bibles 7 Rev. Samuel Worcester, from his Society

216 70 By do. from associated ladies of his society

146 75 Rev. Dr. Spring, from his Society

94 Thomas Wales, of Bridgewater

3 Rev. F. Sears, from Abel Perry, of Natick

3 Rev. Joseph Emerson, from a young man

1 Rev. Dr. Parish, from his Society

14 92 Rev. Nathaniel Howe, from his Society

24 5 Rev. Mr. Hopkins, from his Society

66 50 by do. from Ladies

80 89 Rev. Peter Sanborn, from his Society

18 Mr. John Dunson

6 A young woman

1 Contribution at the Old South Meeting house

153 13

Account of Donations to the Cent Society. 1809.
May 29. Rec'd of Dr. Emmons from ladies in Franklin

Cælia Wade of Scituate
Sarah Bailey Do.
Rev. Jonathan Strong of Randolph
Sophia Walker from ladies of the South Society in


Rev. Mr. Emerson from Ladies in Beverly

Rev, Mr. Worcester Do. Salem
Rev. Mr. Howe, from ladies in Hopkinton

18 50

52 52 1 50

23 30 62 30 14 8 3 68

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