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ניקח בֶּן־בָּקֶר רַךְ וָטוֹב וַיִּתֵּן אֶל־הַנַּעַר וַיְמַהֵר לַעֲשׂוֹת אתו : 8 ויקח חֶמְאָה וְחָלָב וּבֶן־הַבָּקָר אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה
וַיִּתֵּן לִפְנֵיהֶם וְהוּא־עמֵד עֲלֵיהֶם תַּחַת הָעֵץ וַיֹּאכֵלוּ: מאור, 9 וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו אַיֵּה שָׂרָה אִשְׁתֵּךְ וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּה בָאֹהֶל
10 וַיֹּאמֶר שָׁוֹב אָשָׁוּב אֵלֶיךָ כָּעֵת חַיָּה וְהִנֵּה-בֵן לְשָׂרָה אִשְׁתִּךְ וְשָׂרָה שְׁמַעַת פֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וְהוּא אַחֲרָיו :
וּ וְאַבְרָהָם וְשָׂרָה זְקֵנִים בָּאִים בַּיָּמִים חָדַל לִהְיוֹת לְשָׂרָה ארַח כַּנָּשִׁים: 12 וַתִּצְחַק שָׂרָה בְּקִרְבָּה לֵאמֹר אַחֲרִי בְלֹתִי הָיְתָה לִי עֶרְנָה וַאדֹנִי זַקַן : 13 וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־ אַבְרָהָם לָמָּה זֶה צָחֲקָה שָׂרָה לֵאמֹר הַאַף אִמְנָם אֵלֶד
וַאֲנִי זָקַנְתִּי: 14 הֲיִפָּלֵא מֵיהוָה דָבָר לַמּוֹעֵד אָשׁוּב אֵלֶיךְ שני כָּעֵת חַיָּה וּלְשָׂרָה בֵן: 15 וַתְּכַחֵשׁ שָׂרָה לֵאמֹר לֹא
צָחַקְתִּי כִּי יָרֵאָהוַיֹּאמֶר לֹא כִּי צָחָקְתְּ : 16 ויקמוּ מִשָּׁם הָאֲנָשִׁים וַיַשְׁקִפוּ עַל־פְּנֵי סְדָם וְאַבְרָהָם הלֵךְ עִמָּם לְשַׁלְחָם: 17 וַיהוָהְאָמֶר הַמְכַסֶה אֲנִי מֵאַבְרָהָם אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי עשֶׁה: 18 וְאַבְרָהָם הָיו יִהְיֶה לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל וְעָצוּם וְנִבְרְכוּ־בוֹ כָּל גּוֹיֵי הָאָרֶץ: 19 כִּי יְדַעְתִּיו לְמַעַן אֲשֶׁר יְצָה אֶת־בָּנָיו וְאֶת־בֵּיתוֹ אַחֲרָיו וְשָׁמְרוּ דֶרֶךְ יְהוָה לַעֲשׂוֹת צְדָקָה וּמִשְׁפָּט לְמַעַן הָבִיא יְהוָה עַל־אַבְרָהָם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר עָלָיו: 20 וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָהזעקת סְרְס עמרָהכִּי־רָבָּה וְחַטָאתָם כִּי כָבְדָה מְאֹד: 21 אֵרַדָה־נָּא וְאֶרְאֶה הַכְּצַעֲקָתָהּ הַבָּאָה אֵלַי עָשׂוּי כָּלָה וְאִם־לֹא אֵדָעָה: 22 וַיִּפְנָוּ מִשָּׁם הָאֲנָשִׁים וַיֵּלְכוּ סְדְמָה וְאַבְרָהָם עוֹדֶנּוּ עֹמֵד לִפְנֵי יְהוָה : 23 וַיִּגַּשׁ אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמַר הַאַף תִּסְפֶּה צַדִּיק עִם־רָשָׁע : 24 אוּלֵי יש חֲמִשִּׁים צַדִיקִם בְּתוֹךְ הָעִיר הַאַף תִּסְפֶּה וְלֹא־תִשָׂא לַמָּקוֹם לְמַעַן חֲמִשִׁים הַצַדִיקִם אֲשֶׁר בְּקִרְבָּהּ: 25 חָלִלָה לְךְ מֵעֲשׂתי כַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְהָמִית צַדִּיק עס־רָשָׁע וְהָיָה כַצַּדִּיק כָּרָשָׁע חָלִלָה לָךְ הֲשֹׁפֵט כָּל־ הָאָרֶץ לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה מִשְׁפָּט: 26 וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אִם־אֶמְצָא
old ? and shall Sarah, that is Abraham circumcised, and Ishmael ninety years old, bear?
bis son. § 18 And Abraham said unto God, 27 And all the men of his house, O that Ishmael might live before born in the house, and bought thee !
with money of the stranger, were 19 And God said, Sarah thy wife circumcised with him. shall bear thee a son indeed ; and
CHAP. XVIII. thou shalt call his name Isaac : 1 Abraham entertaineth three angels. and I will establish my, covenant 9 Sarah's laughter. 17 Sodom's with him for an everlasting cove- destruction revealed to Abraham. nant, and with his 'seed after
23 His intercession. him. *
20 And as for Ishmael, I have AND the Lord appeared unto heard thee : Behold I have blessed him in the plains of Mamre: and him, and will make him fruitful, he sat in the tent-door in the heat and
will multiply him exceedingly of the day. twelve princes shall he beget, and 2 And he lift up his eyes and I will make him a great nation ; looked, and lo, three men stood
21 But my covenant will I estab- by him: and when he saw them, lish with Isaac, whom Sarah shall he ran to meet them from the bear unto thee at this set time in fent-door, and bowed himself to
1 the next year:
ward the ground, 22 And he left off talking with 3 And said, My Lord, if now I him, and God went up from Ab- have found favour in thy sight, raham,
pass not away, I pray thee, from 23 And Abraham took Ishmael thy servant. his son, and all that were born in 4 Let a little water, I pray you his house, and all that were bought be fetched, and wash your feet, with his money, every male among and rest'yourselves under the tree: the men of Abraham's house; and 5 And I will fetch a morsel of circumcised the flesh of their fore- bread, and comfort yeyour hearts; skin, in the self-same day, as God after that
ye shall had said unto him.
therefore are ye come to your 24 And Abraham was ninety servant. And they said, So do as years old and nine, when he was thou hast said. circumcised in the flesh of his fore- 6 And Abraham hastened into skin.
the tent unto Sarah, and said, 25 And Ishmael his son was Make ready quickly three measures thirteen years old, when he was of fine meal, knead it, and make circumcised in the flesh of his fore- cakes upon the hearth. skin.
7 And Abraham ran unto the 26 In the self-same day was herd, and fetched a calf tender and
pass on: for
* Hence we may observe the truth of the Mosaical dispensation, and which so agrees with the uther prophecies; for although after our being driven out of our land, it was possessed by the descendants of Ishmael, yet, is it to be restored to us in the latter days,
Here we have an example of Abraham's ready obedience to God's command, and in which he was followed by all his houshold; and the reason of its being mentioned again, (for it is already noticed in verse 23) is to inform us that on the self-same day in which he circumcised every male in his house, he also circumcised himself, and his son Ishmael: or, as Jarchi observes on that same day Abraham accomplished his ninety nigth year, and Ishmael his thirteenth.
* It may perhaps appear strange, that after Abraham had mentioned that he would fetch a mursel of bread, we do not find that he brought any; for in verse 8, it says, “And he took butter and milk, and the calf which he had dressed." But no mention is made of bread. This hath induced the Rabbins to observe, that it was the day, preceding the Passover, when it is lawful to eat leaven till noon; after which, neither leaven, or unleaven is to be eaten till even. Now, as the time when the three men came was the heat of the day, which we may compute to be about the beginning :
הֲבַת־תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה תֵּלֶד : 18 וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָהָם אֶל־ האלהים לוּ יִשְׁמָעֵאל יִחְיֶה לְפָנֶיךָ: 19 וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֲבָל שָׂרָה אִשְׁתְּךָ יֹלֶדֶת לְךְ בֵּן וְקָרָאתָ אֶת־שְׁמוֹ יִצְחָק וַהֲקִמֹתִי אֶת־בְּרִיתִי אִתּוֹ לִבְרִית עוֹלָם לְזַרְעוֹ אַחֲרָיו : 20 וּלְיִשְׁמָעֵאל שְׁמַעְתִּיךְ הִנֵּה בֵּרַכְתִּי אֹתוֹ וְהִפְרֵיתִי אֹתָוֹ וְהִרְבֵּיתִי אֹתוֹ בִּמְאֹד מְאֹד שְׁנֵים־־עָשָׂר נְשִׂיאִם יוֹלִיד וּנְתַתִּיו לִגְוֹי גָּדוֹל: 21 וְאֶת־בְּרִיתִי אָקִים אֶת־יִצְחָק אֲשֶׁר תִּלֶד לְךָ שָׂרָה לַפּוֹעֵד הַזֶּה בַּשָּׁנָה הָאַחֶרֶת: 22 וַיְכַל לְדַבֵּר אִתּוֹ וַיַּעַל אֱלֹהִים מֵעַל אַבְרָהָם: 23 וַיָּקָה אַבְרָהָם אֶת־יִשְׁמָעֵאל בְּנוֹ וְאֵת כָּל־יְלִידֵי בֵיתוֹ וְאֵת כָּל־מִקְנַת כַּסְפּוֹ כָּל־זָכָר בְּאַנְשֵׁי בֵּית אַבְרָהָם וַיָּמָל אֶת־בְּשָׂר עָרְלָתָם בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר אִתּוֹ
אֱלֹהִים: 24 וְאַבְרָהָם בֶּן־תִּשְׁעֶיִסְ וָהֵשַׁעשָנָה בְּהִמלוֹ בְּשָׂר מפטיר עָרְלָתְוֹ: 25 וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל בְּנוֹ בֶּן־שְׁלְשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה שָׁנָה בְּהִמלו
אֶת בְּשַׂר עָרְלָתוֹ : 26 בְּעֶצֶם הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה נִמּוֹל אַבְרָהָם וְיִשְׁמָעֵאל בְּנְוֹ: 27 וְכָל־אַנְשֵׁי בֵיתוֹ יְלִיד בָּיִת וּמִקְנַת־
כֶּסֶף מֵאֵת בֶּן־נֵכָר נִמְלוּ אִתּוֹ :
יח וירָא אֵלָיו יְהוָה בְּאֵלֹנֵי מַמְרֵא וְהִוּא ישֶׁב פֶּתַח-הָאֹהֶל
כְּחֹם הַיּוֹם: 2 וַיִּשָּׂא עֵינָיו וַיַּרְא וְהִנֵּה שְׁלֹשָׁה אֲנָשִׁים נָצָבִים עָלָיו וַיַּרְא וַיָּרָץ לִקְרָאתָם מִפֶּתַח הָאֹהֶל וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ אָרְצָה: 3 וַיֹּאמַר אֲדֹנָי אִם־־נָא מָצָאתִי חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ אַל־נָא תַעֲבֹר מֵעַל עַבְרֶךְ: 4 וְקַח־נָא מְעַט־מַיִם וְרַחֲצוּ רַגְלֵיכֶם וְהִשְׁעֲנוּ תַּחַת הָעֵץ: 6 וְאֶקְחָה פַת-לֶחֶם וְסַעֲדוּ לִבְּכֶם אַחַר תַּעֲבֹרוּ כִּי־על־כֵּן עֲבַרְתֶּם עַל־ עַבְדְּכֶם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֵּן תַּעֲשֶׂה כַּאֲשֶׁר דִבַּרְתָּ : 6 וַיְמַהֵר אַבְרָהם הָאֹהָלָה אֶל־שָׂרָה וַיֹּאמֶר מַהֲרִי שְׁלֹשׁ סְאִים קֶמַח סלֶת לוּשִׁי וְעָשִׂי עֶגְוֹת : 7 וְאֶל־הַבָּקָר רֶץ אַבְרָהָם
called Beer-lahai-roi; behold it is all the land of Canaan, for an between Kadesh and Bered. everlasting possession, and I will
15 And Hagar bare Abram a be their God. son : and Abram called his son's 9 And God said unto Abraham, name which Hagar bare, Ishmael. thou shalt keep my covenant there
16 And Abram was fourscore fore, thou and thy seed after thee, and six years old, when Hagar in their generations. bare Ishmael to Abram.
10 | This is my covenant, which
ye shall keep between me and you, CH A P. XVII.
and thy seed after thee; every 1 The covenant is renewed. 5 Abram's man-child among you shall be
name changed. 10 Circumcision circumcised. instituted. 16 Isaac promised.
11 And ye shall circumcise the
flesh of your fore-skin; and it shall AND when Abram was ninety be a token of the covenant betwixt years old and nine, the LORD
me and you. appeared to Abram, and said unto 12 And he that is eight days old him, I am the Almighty God; walk shall be circumcised among you, before me, and be thou perfect.* every man-child in your genera2 And I will make
covenant tions; he that is born in the house, between me and thee, and will or bought with money of any 'multiply thee exceedingly. stranger, which is not of thy seed.
3 And Abram fell on his face: 13 He that is born in thy house, and God talked with him, saying, and he that is bought with thy
4 As for me, behold my cove- money must needs be circumcised: nant is with thee, and thou shalt and
covenant shall be in your be a father of many nations. flesh for an everlasting covenant.
5 | Neither shall thy name 14 And the uncircumcised manany more be called Abram : but child, whose flesh of his fore-skin thy name shall be Abraham ; for is not circumcised, that soul shall a father of many nations have I be cut off from his people : he hath made thee.
broken my covenant. 6 And I will make thee exceed- 15 And God said unto Abraham, ing fruitful, and I will make nations as for Sarai thy wife, thou shalt of thee; and kings shall come out not call her name Sarai, but Sarah of theé.
shall her name be. 7 And I will establish my covenant 16 | And I will bless her, and between me and thee, and thy seed give thee a son also of her; yea, after thee, in their generations, I will bless her, and she shall be a for an everlasting covenant; to mother of nations; kings of peobe a God unto thee, and to thy ple shall be of her. seed after thee.
17 Then Abraham fell upon his 8 And I will give unto thee, face and laughed, § and said in and to thy seed after thee, the his heart, Shall a child be born land wherein thou art a stranger, unto him that is an hundred years
*Hence, it is obvious, that before circumcision Abram was imperfect; and therefore, as the Almighty was now furetelling Abram of the promised seed which he meant to give him, namely Isaac, and from whom was to proceed his chosen people, in whom all nations were to be blessed; and to whom he promised that he would be their God for ever : he therefore, commanded Abram at this time to be circumcised, in order that he might be perfect before he begot that promised seed: and which is a sign of their being God's chosen people, having the mark of his covenant in their leah.
That is, through admiration, and an holy and spiritual rejoicing at so great and unusual a blessing, and which so far exceeded all huma, probability according to the course of nature, but not through unbelief: agreeable to which the Chaldee “paraphrast Onkeles translates it om, and which signifies, and he rejoiced; for which reason we do not find that God rebuked him as he did Sarah,