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came as necessarily involved in his sin and punishment. He pulled down the creation of God upon himself and all his posterity, and judgment came upon all men to condemnation." (Rom. v. 18.)

Nay, from this universal stamina, the whole race are not only involved in original sin, but all alike fall under the sentence of death, as if all alike were equally guilty of actual transgression. This is shewn in those instances of infants, thousands of whom die as soon as born; and whose tender age cannot have subjected them to the possibility of any personal or actual transgression. The Holy Ghost, by the apostle, hath stated this most fully, when he saith; "Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses," (and we behold it the same in the present hour,) "even over them that had not sinned after the similitude of Adam's transgression." (Rom. v. 14.) Hence this dreadful monarch, death, wields his sceptre with the same despotism over the babe just born, as over the hoary sinner, grown old in transgression, as grown old in years. He appears alike inexorable to all, when mowing down, with one universal scythe, the whole race of men. Surely, this preacheth, louder than a thousand sermons, the dreadful malignity of sin. "In Adam all die."

But we must not stop here. Holy Scripture solemnly declares that there is a second death which succeeds the first; and which as far as eternity exceeds time, the prospect riseth in magnitude to our view, and becomes more tremendously appalling to our nature. In passing therefore from the contemplation of the one, the death in time, to the meditation of the other, the death in eternity; we may well use the language of the angel when sounding his trumpet, and say as he did, "One woe is past; and behold another cometh quickly." The natural death of the body is induced by the separation of the soul from the

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body, as the Holy Ghost hath said by James: "The body without the spirit is dead." (James ii. 26.) And this was accomplished at the deluge, in the watery grave there found by all that were without the ark: of whom it is said, that "all that was in the dry land died." And the millions which have since gone down to the chambers of the dead, both by sea and land, confirm the same. But who shall give a full and adequate description of that " eternal death," which followeth the death of the body, in which there is an everlasting separation both of soul and body from God for ever. Our adorable Lord hath given a most alarming apprehension in one Scripture of the striking difference between the death of the body, and the death of the soul, without describing in what the vast distinction consists, when, speaking to his disciples, he said, "Be not afraid of them that kill the body, and after that have no more that they can do; but I will forewarn you whom ye shall fear: fear him, which after he hath killed hath power to cast into hell; yea, I say unto you, fear him." (Luke xii. 4, 5.) And in another Scripture, speaking of the misery of this eternal death in general terms, the Lord observes, that it is better to enter into life halt and maimed, than having two hands and two feet to be cast into hell" into the fire that never shall be quenched." And that the impression might have a stronger weight upon the mind, the Lord adds this alarming account, and repeats it thrice, when he saith, that" their worm dieth not, and the fire is not quenched." (Mark ix. 43-48.)

Holy Scripture hath not descended into a minute description of these things, but hath in general terms said enough to excite the most fearful apprehensions of what may be expected in the wrath to come. Under one description it is said, "that they shall seek death, and shall not find it; and shall desire to die,

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and death shall flee from them." (Rev. ix. 6.) Under another it is said, "And men were scorched with great heat, and gnawed their tongues for pain, and blasphemed the name of God, which hath power over these plagues; and they repented not to give him glory." (Rev. xvi. 9-11.) And towards the close of the same canon of Scripture, the whole is summed up in these words: "And the sea gave up the dead which were in it; and death and hell delivered up the dead which were in them, and they were judged every man according to their works. And death and hell were cast into the lake of fire. This is the second death. And whosoever was not found written in the book of life, was cast into the lake of fire." (Rev. xix. 13-15.)

Is there yet a farther view of this subject? Yes: and so infinitely beyond what hath been already noticed in the awful consequences of sin in our nature, both in the first death of the body, and in the second death of the soul; that these contemplations, horrible as they are, sink to nothing in comparison.

To see sin as sin, in its infinite nature of evil, and in all its tremendous bearings, the view of it must be taken from contemplating the personal sufferings, soul agonies, and death, of the Lord Jesus Christ. In his blood-shedding we have the only full mirror in which to behold it; in comparison of which the overflowing of the whole world by water; the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah by fire; yea, the everlasting misery of fallen angels and men, to all eternity, are as nothing.

And this view of the Son of God in our nature, sustaining all that was due to sin in his own person, becomes the most important part of the subject to regard; because in all he did, and in all he suffered, he acted as the Surety of his people. It became him by the grace of God, the Holy Ghost saith, "to taste

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death for every man." (Heb. ii. 9.) He suffered therefore, all that was included both in the first death, and in the second death. He drank of "the cup of trembling, even to the dregs." (Isaiah li. 22.) And who shall undertake to give a description; yea, what capacity of men or angels is capable even of conceiving the anguish of soul, which the great Redeemer endured in the accomplishment of this work of salvation? But the spiritual apprehension of these things in relation to the person of our glorious Lord, can alone give peace and joy to the souls of his people in believing," abounding in hope through the power of the Holy Ghost."

From hence alone, Noah found safety from the universal destruction around him, The ark in which he was preserved typified Christ. For without this, being the only means of salvation, the patriarch, no more than the ungodly world from whence he was separated by grace, could have been saved. He partook in that common fallen sinful nature, of whom the Holy Ghost bears testimony in all ages, "There is none that doeth good, no, not one." (Rom. iii, 10.) He therefore, and all like him, partakers of the same grace he found in the eyes of the Lord, find everlasting salvation in Christ; and are alike with him, "heirs of the righteousness which is by faith." (Heb. xi. 7.)

HOLY SCRIPTURE.

"And God remembered Noah, and every living thing, and all the cattle that was with him in the ark; and God made a wind to pass over the earth; and the waters assuaged.

"And in the second month, on the seven and twentieth day of the month, was the earth dried.

"And God spake unto Noah, saying, Go forth of the ark.

"And Noah went forth, and his sons, and his wife, and his sons" wives with him:

"Every beast, every creeping thing, and every fowl, and what

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soever creepeth upon the earth, after their kinds, went forth out of the ark.

"And Noah builded an altar unto the Lord, and took of every clean beast, and of every clean fowl; and offered burnt offerings on the altar.

"And the Lord smelled a sweet savour; and the Lord said in his heart, I will not again curse the ground any more for man's sake.

"While the earth remaineth, seed-time and harvest, and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night shall not cease."-Gen. viii. 1. 14-22.

NOTES AND OBSERVATIONS.

GOD's remembrance of Noah, is not to be understood as though the patriarch and his family so safely housed in the ark of God's own appointment, and by God himself preserved there, had been ever for a moment forgotten. (Isa. xli. 21; and xlix. 14—16.) But the expression is meant to say, that the time was come for Noah and all his cargo to come forth from the ark and here began the new world.

Let the reader observe, the first act wrought by the patriarch on his putting his foot on the earth, was to build, not an house for himself, but an altar to the Lord; and as faith in Christ moved him to prepare an ark for the saving of his house; so the same faith in Christ prompted him to offer burnt offerings of praise, for the salvation of his soul by Christ.

I pray the reader yet more particularly to observe the grace in continuance, which Noah here found in the eyes of the Lord; and from the same source as the Lord had distinguished Noah from the beginning. "The Lord," it is said, "smelled a sweet savour," or as the margin of the Bible renders it, "a savour of rest;" referring to Him, both in his person and sacrifice, who is the "rest, wherewith the Lord causeth the weary to rest, and who is their refreshing." (Isa. xxviii. 12.) For as Christ is the "Lamb slain from the foundation of the world." (Rev. xiii, 8.)

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