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in everlasting chains of darkness unto the judgment of the great day, This is it, which some think St. Paul alludes to, when he charges that a Bishop should not be a novice, lest he should be puffed up, and fall eis açíuce to dicbóns, into the condemnation of the Devil; 1 Tim. iii. 6,
Now there are so many kinds of Pride, as there are imaginary causes of self-exaltation: and there are so many causes imagined hereof, as there are things reputed more precious and excellent in the eyes of the world. I might send you to Hugo's Chariot of Pride, drawn with four horses, (that age knew no more,) and the four wheels of it, if I listed to mount pride curiously: but I will shew you her on foot.
To speak plainly therefore, these five things are wont commonly to be the matter of our pride, Honour, Riches, Beauty, Strength, Knowledge. Every of them shall have a word.
(1.) Those, that are tainted with the first, are State-proud; bladders puft up with the wind of Honour, Thus Niniveh; Behold, I sit as a queen; I am, and there is none else. Thus the insolent officer of Sennacherib; Who art thou, that thou despisest the least of my masier's servants? Vicina potentibus superbia, as that Father said, “ Pride is an usual neighbour to greatness. How bard is it for eminent persons, when they see all heads bare, all knees bowed to them, not to be raised up in their conceits, not to applaud their own glory; and to look overly upon the ignoble multitude, as those, which are terra filii, mushrooms, worthy of nothing but contempt! Hence it is, that proud ones are incompatible with each other. Look upon other vices, ye shall see one drunkard hug another; one debauched wanton love another; one swearer, one profane beast delight in another: but one proud man cannot abide another; as one twig cannot bear two red-breasts. Both would be best. Cæsar will not endure an equal; nor Pompey a superior.
(2.) The second are Purse-proud. Vermis dritarum superbia, as St. Austin wittily, “ Pride is in the purse, as the worm" in the apple. Thus Nabal, because he hath money in his bags and stock on his ground, sends a scornful message to poor David, though a better man than himself; Many servants run away from their masters now adays. How many examples meet us every where of this kind; of them, which, having seraped together a little money more than their neighbours, look big upon it, and scorn the need of the better deserving, and bluster like a tempest, and think to bear down even good causes before them! Secundas fortunas decent superbie, as the Comedian, “Pride becomes the wealtby.” Thus Solomon notes in his time, that the rich speaks with commands: the words weigh according to the purse.
(3.) The third are the Skin-prond; for beauty goes no deeper : such as with Jezebel lick themselves, and with Narcissus dote upon their own faces; thinking it a wrong in any, that sees them, and admires them not; spending all their thoughts and their time in fashions and complexion, as if their soul lay in their hide; despis
ing the ordinary forms of vulgar persons, yea of the most beneficial nature. Elatus erat animus tuus propler pulchritudinem, Thine heart was lifted up because of thy beauty, saith Ezekiel, xxviii. 17.
(4.) The fourth are the Sinew-proud, which presume upon their own strength and vigour. Elatum cor robore, says the same Ezekiel, xxviii. 5. As Goliath, who dares, in the confidence of his own arm, challenge the whole host of God; and scorns the dwarfs and shrimps of Israel.
(5.) The fifth is the Skill-proud, puffed up with the conceit of knowledge; as knowledge is indeed of a swelling nature. There is much affinity betwixt knowledge and pride: both came out of one country; for pride is also natione cælestis, as Jerome well: and, since she cannot climb up thither again, she will be mounting as high as she can towards it. Every smatterer thinks all the circle of arts confined to the closet of his breast; and, as Job speaks of his haughty friends, that all wisdom lives in hin, and dies with him. Hence is that curiosity of knowing rain quirks of speculation : Hence, singularity of opinion, hating to go in the common track: hence, impatience of contradiction : hence, contempt of the me. diocrity of others. Out of this impatience, Zidkijah could smite Micaiah on the ear; and, as buffeting him double, say, Which way went the Spirit of God from me to thee? Out of this contempt, the Scribes and Pharisees could say, Turba hæc, This Laity, that knou's not the Law, is accursed.
But, besides these five, a man may be proud of any thing; yea, of nothing; yea, of worse than nothing, Evil. There
be much pride in rags, as in tissues. Diogenes tramples upon Plato's pride; but, with another pride. And we commonly observe, that none are so proud as the foulest. In what kind soever it be, the more a man reflects upon himself, by seeking, loving, admiring, the more proud he is, the more damnable is his pride.
But, as in all other cases pride is odious to God; so, most of all, in point of religion, and in those matters wherein we have to do with God. A proud face, or a proud back, or a proud arm, or a proud purse are hateful things: but a proud religion is so much worse, as the subject should be better. Let this then be the just upitigrou or “test” of true or false religion: That, which teacheth us to exalt God most and most to depress ourselves, is the true; that, which doth most prank up ourselves and detract from God, is the false. It was the rule of Bonaventure, whom the Romanists honour for a Saint, Hoc piarum mentium est, &c. “This is the part of pious souls, to ascribe nothing to themselves, all to the grace of God:” so as, how much soever a man attributes to the grace of God, he shall not swerve from piety in detracting from nature; but if he substract never so little from the grace of God and give it to nature, he endangers himself, and offends.
In the safety of this proof, our doctrine triumphs over the Roa mish, in all those points, wherein it opposeth ours, Ours stands ever on God's side; exalting his free grace and mere mercy, as the causes of our salvation: theirs, dividing this great work betwixt
God and themselves, God's grace and man's free-will; and ascrib, ing that to merit, which we to mercy. Herein Popery is pure Pharisaism, and comes within the verge of Spiritual Pride; Solomon's mina. Insolent men, that will be climbing to heaven by ladders of their own making, with Acesius in Jerome! What other issue can they expect from the jealous God, but a fearful precipitation? Neither doubt I but this is one main ground of the angel's proclamation in the Apocalypse, Cecidit, cecidit Babylon; It is fallen, it is fallen, Babylon the great city.
2. Thus, from the Sin, which is Pride, we descend to the PUNISHMENT, which is Ruin: A man's pride shall bring him low. How can a bladder sink? Yet pride, though it be light in respect of the inflation, is heavy in respect of the offence. The guiltiness is as a millstone to which it is tied, that will bear it down to the bottom of the deep. As therefore there is a reflex action in the sin; so is there in the Punishment: it shall ruin itself. No other hands shall need to be used in the judgment besides her own. As the lightning hath ever a spite at the high spires and tall pines, striking them down or firing them, when the shrubs and cottages stand untouched: so hath the God that made it, at a self-advanced greatness; whether out of a scorn of rivality, or a just punishment of theft : for the proud man both in a cursed emulation makes himself his own deity, and steals glory from God to set out himself. For both these, TutevwITETci, saith our Saviour; he shall be brought doun, saith Solomon.
Down, whither? to the dust, to hell; by others, by God himself; temporally here, eternally hereafter. Insomuch as Æsop bimself, (we have it in Stobæus,) when he was asked what God did, answers, Excelsa deprimit, ertollit humilia.
Besides the odiousness of a proud man amongst men, commonly God is even with him here. How many have we known, that have been fastidious of their diet, which have come to leap at a crust, to beg their bread, yea, to rob the hogs with the Prodigal! How many, that have been proud of their beauty, have been made, ere they died, the loathsome spectacles of deformity! That of Isaiah strikes home; Because the daughters of cion are haughty, and walk with stretched-out necks and wanton eyes, &c.: Therefore the Lord will smite with a scab the crown of the head of the daughter of Sion; Isaiah iii. 16, 17. How many, that, from the height of their overweening, have been brought to Benhadad's halter, or have been turned to graze with Nebuchadnezzar! The Lord roots up the house of the proud; Prov. xv. 25.
But, if they escape here, as sometimes they do, hereafter they shall not : for, the proud man is an abomination to the Lord; Prov. xvi. 5. God cannot endure him ; Psalm ci. 5. And what of that? Tu perdes superbos, Thou shalt destroy the proud; Psalm cxix. 21. The very heathens devised the prond giants struck with thunder from heaven. And if God spared not the angels, whom he placed in the highest heavens, but for their pride threw them down headlong to the nethermost hell; how much less shall he spare the proud
dust and ashes of the sons of men, and shall cast them from the height of their earthly altitude to the bottom of that infernal dungeon! “ Humility makes men angels; pride made angels devils;" as that Father said: I may well add, makes devils of men. 'ΑλαSoveíus ŠTIS ÉxQEVYE duasiv, says the heathen poet, Menander; “ Never soul escaped the revenge of pride,” never shall escape it. So sure as God is just, pride shall not go unpunished.
I know now we are all ready to call for a bason, with Pilate, and to wash our hands from this foul sin. Honourable and Beloved, this vice is a close one: it will cleave fast to you; yea so close, that ye can hardly discern it from a piece of yourselves: this is it, that aggravates the danger of it. For, as Aquinas notes well, some sins are more dangerous propter vehementiam impugnationis, “ for the fury of their assault;" as the sin of Anger: others, for their correspondence to nature; as the sins of Lust: others, propter latentiam sui, “ for their close skulking” in our bosom; as this sin of Pride. Oh, let us look seriously into the corners of our false hearts, even with the lanthorn of God's Law, and find out this subtle Devil; and never give peace to our souls, till we have dispossessed him. Down with your proud plumes, () ye glorious Peacocks of the World: look upon your black legs, and your snakelike head: be ashamed of your miserable infirmities: else, God will down with them and yourselves, in a fearful vengeance. There is not the holiest of us, but is this way faulty: oh, let us be humbled by vur repentance, that we may not be brought down to everlasting confusion : let us be cast down upon our knees, that we may not be cast down upon our faces. For God will make good his own word, one way; A man's pride shall bring him low.
II. The sweeter part of this ditty follows, which is of MERCY: Mercy, which hath two strains also; the Grace, the Reward.
1. The GRACIOUS DISPOSITION (for a Virtue properly it is not) is Humility, expressed here in the subject, The humble in spirit. Not he, that is forcibly humbled by others, whether God or man: so a wicked Ahab may walk softly and droop for the time, and be never the better: what thank is it, if we bow wben God sets his foot upon us? but he, that is voluntarily humble in spirit. And yet there are also vicious kinds of this self-humility.
(1.) As first, when man, having only God supra se, and therefore owing religious worship to him alone, worships angels or saints, that are but juxta se. It is the charge, that St. Paul gives to his Colossians, Let no man deceive you in a voluntary humility, and worshipping of angels: much less then of stocks and stones. These very walls, if they had eyes and tongues, could testify full many of these impious and idolatrous cringes and prostrations. So as if wood or stone could be capable of pollution, here was enough; till this abused frame was happily washed by the clear streams of the Gospel, and re-sanctified by the Word and Prayer. This is a Superstitious Humility. (2.) When a man basely subjects himself to serve the humours
of the great, by gross supparasitation, by either unjust or unfit actions and ottices; yielding himself a slave to the tinies, a pander to vice. This is a Servile Humility.
(3.) When a man atjects a courteous affability and lowly carriage, for ostentation, for advantage; or, when a man buries himself alive in a homely cowl, in a pretence of mortification; as if he went out of the world, when the world is within him. “ To be proud of Humility,” as a Father said well, “ is worse than to be superciliously and openly proud." This is a Hypocritical Humility.
(4.) When, out of pusillanimity or inordinateness, a man prostitutes himself to those unworthy conditions and actions of sinful pleasure, that misbeseem a man, a Christian. This is a Brutish Humility.
All these self-humiliations are thankless and faulty. It will be long enough, ere the Superstitious, Servile, Hypocritical, Brutish Humility shall advance us other than to the scaffold of our execution.
The True Humility is, when a man is modestly lowly in his own eyes, and sincerely abased in his heart and carriage before God.
And this self-humiliation is either in respect of Temporal or Spiritual things.
Of Temporal: when a man thinks any condition good enough for him; and therefore doth not unduly intrude himself into the preferments of the world, whether in Church or Commonwealth. When he thinks meanly of his own parts and actions, highly and reverently of others: and therefore, in giving honour, goes before others; in taking it, behind them.
Of Spiritual: when he is vile in himself, especially in respect his sins; and therefore abhors himself in sackcloth and ashes: when the grace that he hath, he can acknowledge, but not over-rate; yea, he takes it so low as he may do without wrong to the giver: when, for all blessings he can awfully look up to his Creator and Redeemer, ascribing all to him, referring all to him, depending for all upon him; so much more magnifying the mercy of God, as he is more sensible of his own unworthiness.
This is the true, though short character of Humility. A plain grace, ye see, but lovely.
2. From which let it please you to turn your eyes to the BLESSING allotted to it: which is so expressed in the Original, that it may either run, The humble in spirit shall enjoy honour, as in the former Translation; or, Ilonour shall uphold the humble in spirit, as in the latter. In both, Honour is the portion of the humble: for the raising of him, in the one; for the preserving of him, in the other.
Honour, from whom? From God, from Men. Even the good man of the house will say, Friend, sit up higher. For, though with vain men he is most set by that can most set out himself; yet, with the wiser, the more a man dejects himself, the more he is honoured. It cannot stand with the justice of the truly-virtuous, to suffer a man to be a loser by his humility: much less will God abide it. A broken heart, O God, thou wilt not despise, saith the Psalmist; and, Pullati extolluntur salute, The mourners are exalted with safety,