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The south-wind is so called as depressing the energies and spirits. 20. Audis, i. e. art called. So Milton, P. L., 3, 7: "Or hearest thou rather pure ethereal stream?" 21. Unde = a quo (invocato), with invoking whom. 23, 24. Eia sqq. The poet represents Janus as thus urging him on. Urge, make haste. 29. Urget, sc. aliqu is. 30. Prec., curses. Pulses. Subj. in an indignant question. 31. Mem., mindful only of him (Maecenas). 32. Atras, gloomy. Sat. 1. 8, 8-11. 34. Sec. sc. horam; before 7 o'clock in the morning. 36. Com., of common interest (to all the scribes). H. had been a scribe, but probably was not one now. 37. Quinte. The use of the praenomen is familiar and confidential. 41. Suorum (amicorum). 44. Hoc g., an adverbial acc. for the gen. M. 238; Z. 428. Threx. One of a kind of gladiators armed like the Thracians, with a short sword and a round shield. 48. Horace sportively calls himself noster, our friend. 49. Omnes sc. clamabant. 50. Frigidus, chilling; bad news, making men shudder. (Shakespeare, "colder news.") The rostra was the elevated stage in the Forum from which the orators addressed the people. 52. Deos, the gods (of the earth), the first men of the state. 55. Triq. (tellure). 59. Misero (mihi). 62. Ducere, to quaff. 63. Pythagoras forbade his followers to eat flesh or beans. From his doctrine of transmigration of souls, some supposed that he made this prohibition in the belief that the souls of the dead (perhaps of one's own relatives) sometimes passed into this vegetable. 67. Libat., tasted beforehand by Horace and his friends. 69. Leg. ins., such as prescribed in city banquets by the symposiarch. 75. Usus rectumne, expediency or right (i. e. that which is good in itself). 78. Ex re, suggested by the subject (of conversation). 79. Ign., not knowing (that A.'s wealth causes him anxiety). 82. At. quaes., devoted to his possessions, i. e. frugal. Ut tamen - ita tamen ut. 83. Hospitiis, dat. 84. Invidere with the gen. by a Greek idiom, in the sense of parcere. 87. Male, scarcely, with tang. 89. Esset ederet. 91. Nem., here a woody height. Patientem, enduring hardships. 92. Vis tu (without -ne) is used in exhortation. 93. Comes, (as my) companion. Terr., etc. The city mouse speaks as an Epicurēan. Order: quando ter. viv. sort. mort. an. 95. Quocirca. Tmesis. 97. Aev. brevis. Noun and adj. in the gen., denoting, I should say, an inherent quality of the genus, not an accidental quality of the individual. 100. Jamque-spatium. Parody of the epic style. 103. Cand., glowed, shone brilliantly. 105. Which, belonging to yesterday's banquet, were in heaped-up baskets hard by. Procul not necessarily of a long distance. 108. Cont. dapes, i. e. offers one dish after another. 111. Agit-conv., acts the merry guest (and without feigning). 112.

The noise is caused by the servants opening the house, beginning to clean the rooms, and rousing the watch-dogs. 113, 114. Currere, trepidare. Historical inf. Simul simul atque, the moment that, as soon as. 116. The position of hac is emphatic. Et, and (therefore).

Sat. VII. (724-728.)

Horace's slave, Davus, retorts upon his master his own doctrines. He argues that the fickle and inconstant are as worthless as the unscrupulous (6-20); lectures Horace for praising the "good old times" yet loving the degenerate luxury of the modern (23-27); preferring the country when in town, hating parties when not invited out, yet, if invited, off at a moment's notice (28-35); and compares him with his own dependents and parasites (36-12). Nay more, says Davus, thou, in thy bondage to vice and evil passions, art still more a slave than I (42–74). "Who then is free?" The question is finely answered (75-80); after which Davus continues to taunt Horace on his foolishness as a lover (81-86), a connoisseur of art (87-93), a gourmand (91-103), and a victim of restlessness and ennui (103– 107). Here the lecture (as if it touched on a sore point) is abruptly closed by the wrath of the listener.

3. Frugi, honest. 4. Ut v. putes, that you need not think him too good to live. Cf. Ov. Am. II. 6, 39; Mart. VI. 29, 7; Wordsworth: "The good die first." Lib. Dec. On the Saturnalia (17-19 Dec.) great license was allowed to the slaves. 9. Rings were generally worn on the left hand, upon which a golden ring was worn by knights and senators. 10. Priscus, as a senator, was entitled to go abroad with the latus clavus, but sometimes would appear only as a knight with the angustus clavus. 11. (In domum) unde. 13. Doctus, a student. Athens was a university-town for the Romans. 14. Horace speaks as if there was a different god for every kind of change. 19. Lev. m., less wretched, (or with less sense of being so.) Y. 33. Sub. 1. pr., immediately after the lighting of the lamps. 34. Oleum, for his lamps. Others: to anoint himself with. 35. Fugis, you hurry off. 36. Parasites had come to dine with Horace, but must now return to their homes. 37. Dix. ille, he (Mulvius) perhaps will say, pain av. 38. Nas. n. s., "I snuff up my nose at the smell of a good dinner." Nasum, acc. of specification. 40. Tu, i. e. Horace. 45. Davus has picked up some scraps of philosophy from the porter of the Stoic Crispinus. 52-3. The contract is referred to by which freemen, on taking service as gladiators, bound themselves "uri, vinciri, verberari, ferroque necari." 54. Conscia, sc. ancilla. 68. Vind., the rod of the praetor, which he laid on the slave's head in the ceremony of manumission. 70. Super insuper, as Ep. 11. 2, 33; Verg. Aen. II. 71. Dictis, than the things which have been already said. 74. Lig., a puppet. 78. Ter. a. rotund., smooth (or regular), and round: perfect as a sphere. 79. So that nothing foreign (none of the filth of the world) can adhere to his polished (perfection). 81. Proprium, thy own, describing thy character. - Five talents, about $5000. 83. Gelida.

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sc. aqua. 84. Quis, second person of queo. 89. Join cont. pop. with miror. 90. Rude pictures were set up as advertisements of the games. 93. Audis, art called. 102. F. s., a stolen strigil, which the boy exchanges for a bunch of grapes. The strigil was a scraper of horn, brass, silver, or gold, of a curved form and a sharp edge, with which (instead of a flesh-brush) the skin was scraped after bathing or exercise in the gymnasium. 107. Comes atra, i. e. Cura. Carm. 1. i. 40. 108. Lap., sc. sumam vel petam. 110. I'll send thee away to work with my eight field-hands on my farm. To be sent to work in the country was a common punishment, much dreaded by city slaves.

Sat. VIII. (727, 728.)

An account of a supper given by the vain, vulgar parvenu and gourmand, Nasidienus Rufus. The story is told by the comic poet Fundanius, one of the guests.

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2. Dictus, sc. es. 3. The usual hour of the cena was three; to begin earlier was a mark of luxand excess. 13. At. virgo. This refers to the stately, solemn pace of the virgin basket-bearers in the sacred processions in Athens. 14. Hydaspes, a slave from India, was of a tawny color (fuscus). 15. Maris expers, untempered with sea-water, (an ingredient used in flavoring wines.) Y. takes maris as gen. of mas, and tr. "wanting in body" or strength. 17. Ap., sc. vinis.

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20. Summus, i. e. first on the highest couch. The guests reclined (each on his left arm) in the following places, as indicated in the diagram: 1) Fundanius; 2) Viscus; 3) Varius; 4) Servilius; 5) Vibidius; 6) Maecenas, (in the place of honor, called the locus consularis ;) 7) Nomentanus, (in the place which should be occupied by the host; the reason is given in lines 25, 26;) 8) Nasidienus himself; 9) Porcius. 22. Umbrae is the appropriate name of the uninvited followers that great men bring with them to feasts, to laugh at their jokes and confirm their boasts. 24. Rid. abs. An inf. added to an adj., by a Greek usage, for specification and nearer definition. 25. Ad hoc, for this purpose (cf. vI. 42). Qui = ut is. Nomentanus's business, as nomenclator, was to direct the attention of the guests to any dainties they might have overlooked, and to explain to them the mysterious composition of each dish. 26. The thumb was called pollex; the forefinger index, the middle medius or famosus

(as the finger of scorn), the ring-finger anularis or medicus (from its supposed connection with the heart), and the little finger minimus. 29. The passer was a flounder or plaice. 30. Ing., such as I had never tasted before. 34. Damnose, to his loss. Mor. in., spoken "with comic pathos." Cf. Aen. II. 670; IV. 659. As Horace could not have taken this from Virgil, R. thinks they may both have drawn from some older author, perhaps Ennius. 36. Par., of our purveyor, (the host.) 37-8. Other reasons than the parsimony of the host are ironically given. 39. Inv. Al. (poculis) vin. (vasa) tota, empty whole wine-jars into Allifanian cups (which were of a larger size than usual, and named from Allifae in Samnium). 40, 41. The host's parasites, sitting by his side, did not dare to drink largely. Some, however, understand the reasons in verses 37, 38 as honestly given, and as preventing the epicures from excessive drinking. 44. Carne, abl. of specification. 45. His, of these ingredients. 48-9. Ut non ullum aliud (vinum) magis (conveniat) hoc (vino). 50. Which by its sharpness has soured the Methymnæan grape (i. e. the Lesbian wine, of which this vinegar is made). Some take vitio as dat. = in vitium. 52. Incoq., to dress in (or with) this sauce. 53. As (the taste) which the sea shell-fish (naturally) gives out is better than (prepared) pickle. Rem., subj., because the whole is stated as the opinion of Curtillus. 54. Aulaea, the curtains, i. e. the tent-like canopy over the table. 58. Rufus, the cognomen of Nasidienus. 59, 61. Esset, tolleret, imperf. instead of pluperf., both in the protasis and in the apodosis, for rhetorical liveliness. 63. Mappa, with a napkin. 64. Susp. om. n., i. e. making sport of everything. 67. Te-ne torquerier, (to think) that thou shouldst be tortured! M. 399; Z. 609; H. 553, III.; A. & S. 270, R. 2, (a); B. 1159; A. 58, IV. end. 72. Ag. Nasid., for want of slaves, had to make his groom wait at table, and he had broken a plate. 77. "While reclining at the triclinium, the slippers were put off; to call for them, therefore, was preparatory to rising and leaving the table." Quoque from quisque. 81. Quoque, also; as well as everything else, by the fall of the canopy. 83. Sec., seconding him; keeping up the joke. Y. 86. Mazonomo, a large dish, from which properly (páša véμɛrai) bread or cake was handed round. Y. 90. Edit = edat. Subjunctive, as part of the remarks of the loquacious host: who had taken pains to tell them the sex both of the crane and the goose, and the color of the latter and the mode in which it was fattened. 91. The rumps were considered as the most delicious parts of pigeons. Cf. Gell. 15, 8. 92. Causas, the reasons of their being cooked as they were, or of the host's offering them to his guests. 95. African serpents were particularly venomous.

Hor. 25

EPISTVLARVM

LIBER I.

Horace's Epistles are the work of his mature years, when all his powers were developed, his knowledge of the world complete, and his taste ripe and mellow. Hence they are, by universal confession, his most perfect compositions. Critics unite in eulogizing their "exquisite urbanity," their " calm nd commanding good sense," their "extraordinary and undefinable charms." They have all the grace of the most animated and refined conversation. "They are the Spectator of the Roman supper-tables. Shrewd sense is relieved by seasonable anecdote; a general rule of life by its pertinent application; the wisdom of age and the sallies of youth are reconciled; and the individual interest is extended and elevated by its connec tion with the manners of the time and with the universal instincts of polite society in all ages. As miniature-painters of the humours and foibles of mankind, Addison, Fontaine, and Charles Lamb alone approach the curious felicity of Horace." The poet himself styled his Epistles as well as his Satires Sermones, in allusion to the unpretending conversational tone in which he wrote. The greater perfection of their metre, and their finished style, however, remove them farther than the Satires from the domain of the Musa pedestris. Their personal and subjective character gives a peculiar charm to these "ripest fruits" of a genius “alike instructed by Life and Art."

Epist. I. Ad Maecenatem. (734.)

Some time after Horace had published his three books of Odes, and had, as it appears, laid aside that sort of writing, it seems that Maecenas, and probably his other friends, begged him to return to it. That is the obvious meaning of the remonstrance with which the Epistle opens. Horace expresses an earnest wish to retire into privacy, to abandon poetry, and to devote himself to the study of philosophy and virtue, which he recommends as the only true wisdom.

1. Summa ultima. 2. The metaphors are derived from the arena. Spect., approved. Tickets with the letters SP upon them were given to gladiators who had distinguished themselves. - When gladiators received their discharge, they were presented with a rudis, a wooden rapier or foil. 3. Ludo, the (gladiatorial) school. 5. The discharged gladiator hangs up his weapons appropriately in the temple of Hercules. 6. Ext. ar., from the end of the arena. The arena was separated from the seats, which went round the circus, by a wall called the podium, near which a gladiator would stand to appeal to the people for their intercession to obtain his discharge. 7. H. alludes to an inward voice. Purg., i. e. attentive; lit. purged (from all that could obstruct the entrance of the truth). 9. Il d., (lit. contract his flanks,) become broken-winded. 11. Quid (sit), etc. Decens - decorum, honestum. 14 sq. H. is an Eclectic, the servile follower of no school: per

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