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CHEMICAL NEWS, 92 Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.

Sept. 1, 1876.
Di-pyruvic-tri-ureide C, H 1205N6

Dissociation of the Vapour of Calomel.-H. Debray.
Tetra-pyruvic-tri-ureide C15H1408N6

- At 440° calomel experiences incipient decomposition. Di-pyruvic-tetra-ureide CižH150,N8

Action of Hydracids upon Tellurous Acid.-M. A. They have been easily resolved, and similarly with the Ditte.—An examination of the behaviour of tellurous acid following:

with hydrochloric acid. The author has succeeded in III. What are the types and genetic equations of the obtaining the compounds 2TeO2, 3HCl, and Te02HCI. following acids ?

New Salts of Bismuth, and their Application in

the Detection of Potassa.-M. A. Carnot.-Reserved Di.thio-prussiamic acid

for insertion in full. NH2 SH

Isomerism of the Rotatory Power in the Camphols. 1

-M. J. de Montgolfier.-The camphols of different origin, Cy-NH-Cys

natural or artificial, differ among themselves merely by

their rotatory power, and we have not at present, in the NH2 SH

preparation of this body, even by the same methods, Mono-thio-di-prussiamic acid

obtained identical results. These various rotations canNH2

not evidently indicate true isomerisms; they may be ex

plained, on the contrary, by mixtures of an active with an .

inactive body. The author has arrived at the conclusion Cya-NH-Cys

that borneol may be easily obtained of as high a rotatory SH

power as may be desired up to a limit, which is about 370

for the ray D. This borneol at 37° is the true a&ive body Dithio-tri-prussiamic acid

with a complete rotatory power.

He has not yet

succeeded in obtaining a borneol entirely inactive.

Cause of the Spontaneous Alteration of Anhy-

drous Hydrocyanic Acid, and on a New Case of the

Total Transformation of this Acid.-M. J. de Girard.

- It is known that anhydrous cyanic acid sometimes -I am, &c.,

undergoes in a short time the azulmic decomposition, S. E. P. whilst in other cases it may be preserved for months

without change. The cause of this difference is due to the chloride of calcium used in desiccation. If this is

neutral the acid obtained will be pure, and may be preCHEMICAL NOTICES FROM

served indefinitely; if it is alkaline, which is the case

FOREIGN when it has been calcined in contact with the air, the SOURCES.

hydrocyanic acid will soors undergo spontaneous decomposition. There is also another cause of the transforma

tion of hydrocyanic acid, not connected with the presence Note.-All degrees of temperature are Centigrade, unless otherwise of a trace of alkali, namely, heat. If the pure acid is expressed.

heated for four to five hours in a sealed tube to 100° it

soons turns brown, and finally congeals into a black comComptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances, de l'Acadenie pact mass. On opening the tubes there is no escape of des Sciences. No. 5, July 31, 1876.

gas. The acid heated to 100° with anhydrous ether or Fifth Note on Electric Transmissions through the absolute alcohol experiences a modification which appears Soil.-M. Th. du Moncel.-Not suitable for abstraction.

analogous. Globular Thunderbolts.—M. G. Planté.—The author of Zinc, and Formiate of Potassa in Carbonic Acid,

Decomposition of Cyanide of Potassium, Cyanide gives an account of a violent storm at Paris on July 24, Air, and Pure Hydrogen.-MM. L. Naudin and F. de between 3.30 and 4 p.m., in which the lightning fell in a globular form upon the house No. 28 of the Rue des Montholon.-Cyanide of potassium is decomposed in inert Tournelles, and on the corner of the theatre of the Boule gases, and the decomposition is only limited by the alkavard Beaumarchais. The formation of globular thunder, acid there is no limit, because the alkali is saturated as it

linity due to the potassa formed. In the case of carbonic bolts results—(1) From the aggregation in a spherical form of ponderable matter and, in particular, of air and is produced. Cyanide of zinc is slowly decomposed by a watery vapour, in consequence of the aspiration and the rapid, current of carbonic acid, and also, though more rarefaction which the electric Aux determines in its slightly, by air freed from carbonic acid. Cyanides of

uranium and nickel show no trace of decomposition even passage ; (2) of the condensation of positive electricity in this medium. The electricity is dissipated silently if the

in a prolonged current of carbonic acid. soil is strongly negative, otherwise there is an explosion.

Two New Sulphuretted Ureas.-MM. P. de Clermont Radiometers of Crookes Formed of Laminæ of a

and E. Wehrlin.—The ureas in question are cresyl-sulphoMetal and of Mica.- MM. Alvergniat. - As for carbamide, CSNH NHC,Hy, and naphthyl-sulphoradiometers partly of metal and partly of mica the

carbamide, CSNH2NHC) Hz. authors have not succeeded in rendering them insensible,

Industrial Use of Vanadium in the Manufacture of and still less those of mica alone and blackened. Never- Aniline-Black.-M. G. Witz.-After having verified the theless they have a radiometer of plates of metal and of action of vanadium upon mixed solutions of chlorates and mica blackened, which, when a vacuum had been made in of muriate of aniline, I have found that in dyeing cottonthe ordinary manner, turned very readily on approaching skeins black the oxidation is considerably' hastened in a match to the case. On heating very strongly, and con proportion to the concentration of the dye-baths, and, tinuing to exhaust, it became much less sensitive; the inversely, it becomes the slower as the liquids are more radiation of more than twenty candles placed at 10 centi. dilute. Having perceived that the reaction begins, not metres from the globe did not suffice to make it stir, and abruptly, but in a manner almost insensible at first, bethe full light of the sun was required to set it in motion. coming subsequently accelerated, and being completed in But this radiometer, so little sensitive to light, remained a time which varies in the direct ratio of the greater or highly sensitive to obscure heat. The mere warmth of the less quantities of the metal, always very small, which are hand sufficed to set it in rapid rotation in an inverse present, I have profited by these favourable circumstances direction.

to apply this mode of the formation of aniline-black to

Sept. 1, 1876.
Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.

93 colours thickened for printing. In certain series of trials Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de Paris, I have determined the exceedingly reduced proportion of

No. 2, July 20, 1876. vanadium which must be employed in the colour to realise Remarks on the Real Existence of a Matter formed the oxidation of the aniline. I have worked very carefully, of Isolated Atoms comparable to Material Points.making impressions with the finger, avoiding all contact | M. Berthelot.-With reference to the conclusion of MM. with copper or other metals, and with salts as pure as

Kundt and Warburg (Poggendorff's Annalen, clvii., 356), possible. I finally found that in printing one hundred that the molecule of mercurial gas behaves sensibly as a thousandth of the weight of the aniline salt may be em material point from the point of view of its mechanical ployed. I have printed for some months aniline-blacks in and thermic properties, the hypothesis of a monatomic considerable quantity, and have always found a rapidity of matter in an absolute sense has nothing in common, save oxidation proportional to the amount of the metal em- the name, with the conceptions of chemists who reason ployed. It is sufficient to take a quantity of vanadium merely on the ponderable ratios of the molecules which corresponding to 1-100,00oth or 1-200,000th of the weight are combined or substituted, their atom being defined by of muriate of aniline to obtain in a few days, at the tem

its minimum proportionate value. It would require, in my perature of 25°C., a sufficient oxidation. About 1.30,000th opinion, proofs very different from the speed of sound in a may be taken for colours containing 80 grms. of muriate vapour to be admitted. The very notion of an atom inof aniline to the litre of mixed colour. In two or three divisible and yet extended and continuous, as well as that days at 25° C., and 20° moisture, the colour is perfectly of an atom endowed with mass and yet reduced to a developed. The preparations of sulphuret of copper have material point, seems contradictory in itself. been completely abandoned in favour of vanadium, which secures results more prompt and perfect, avoids the depo.

Thermic Formation of Ozone.—M. Berthelot. sition of copper on the steel doctors and the corrosion of Ozone is a body formed with absorption of heat; it disthe engraved cylinders, and, a remarkable thing, the engages this excess of heat in its oxidations, which exthickened colours may be preserved for several weeks This excess of heat or of energy has been stored up under

plains its superior activity to that of common oxygen. without change. With all these advantages, vanadium only costs the eleventh part of what was formerly paid for the influence of electricity; still a remarkable excess, becopper. All the soluble compounds of vanadium may be

cause we have to do with the formation of a body more used, as the contact with chloric acid brings them to the condensed than that which produces it. maximum degree of oxidation. The quantities of vanadium

Absorption of Free Pure Nitrogen by Organic to be added to aniline-blacks vary, in general, inversely as

Matters at Common Temperatures.-M. Berthelot.the concentration—that is to say, the proportion of aniline Already noticed. which they contain, as well as the temperature and the Reply to certain Critical Objections on Atomicity length of tinie set apart for oxidation. The following are by M. J. A. le Bel.-M. E. Bourgoin.--If we admit the the advantages derived from the use of vanadium :- successive saturation of the elements, as is generally (1) Amelioriation of the richness of the black, and the dis- thought in France, and as M. le Bel himself appears to iinctness of the impression. (2) Suppression of the corro- admit, we render illusory all the atomic theory relating to sion of the doctors and cylinders. (3) Facility of regu- | atomicities, as M. Berthelot has judiciously observed. One lating the duration of the oxidation at will. (4) Long of the fundamental principles of the atomic theory is that preservation of the thickened colour. (5) Simpler and the volume represents the atom, but this principle is immore economic preparation.

plicitly contradicted by experiment: to admit that the Manufacture of Dynamite.—M. A. Sobrero. - The whilst those of phosphorus and arsenic correspond to half

atoms of mercury and cadmium represent two volumes, author has used the earth of Santa Fiora, in Tuscany, as a substitute for Kieselguhr.

a volume, is merely begging the question.

Nitrated Alizarin.-M. A. Rosenstiehl.-Reserved for Cellulosic Fermentation Produced by the Aid of

insertion in full. Vegetable Organs, and Probable Utilisation of Sugar in Vegetation for the Formation of Cellulose. Detection of Magenta in Wines.-M. E. Jacquemin. -M. Durin.-Not adapted for abstraction.

-Already noticed. Microzymas of Sprouted Barley and of Sweet

Decomposition of Insoluble Carbonates by Sul. Almonds as Producers of Diastase and Synaptase, phuretted Hydrogen.-MM. L. Naudin and F. de Mon. with reference to a Paper by MM. Pasteur and Jou

tholon.-Already noticed. bert.-M. A. Bechamp.— The author defends, his views against the paper of Pasteur and Joubert (Comptes Rendus,

No. 3, August 5, 1876. Ixxxiii., p. 5).

Absorption of Free Hydrogen under the Influence Correction in a Communication on Bread-Making of the Effluve.-M. Berthelot.-Hydrogen is absorbed in the United States, and on the Properties of the by organic compounds under the influence of the effluve Hop as a Ferment.-M. Sacc.-M. Sacc states that the even more rapidly than nitrogen. This has been observed hop is not a ferment, but merely preserves the yeast from with benzin, terebenthen, acetylen, &c. entering into the lactic fermentation.

New Researches on the Pyrogenous Carbides Note on the Fermentation of Urine, with refer- and on the Composition of Coal-Gas.-M. Berthelot. ence to a Communication by M. Pasteur.-M. H.C. -A lengthy paper, not suitable for abstraction. Bastian.

Formation and Decomposition of Binary ComObservations Relative to the Opinions ascribed pounds by the Electric Effluve.-M. Berthelot.-Amby Dr. Bastian to Prof. Tyndall. - An extract from monia is formed from a mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen. two letters from Prof. Tyndall to M. Dumas. (These Protoxide of nitrogen is decomposed into free oxygen and papers are a contribution to the “ burning question” of nitrogen, and no new oxide of nitrogen is formed. With spontaneous generation.

binoxide of nitrogen a portion of the nitrogen is set free,

and protoxide of nitrogen is formed. Sulphuretted hydroMetallic Dust in the Atmosphere.—Dr. T. L. Phip. gen is decomposed into hydrogen, polysulpliide of hydroson.--The author gives a few cases of the occurrence of gen, and free sulphur. The behaviour of seleniuretted metallic dust in the atmosphere in situations where it hydrogen is similar. Phosphoretted hydrogen is resolved could not well be derived from artificial sources, and re- into hydrogen and yellow subphosphuret. The fuorides marks that there certainly exist in the air a great number of boron and silicon, chlorine, and gaseous bromine are of substances which ordinary chemical analysis does not not affected. Sulphurous acid is, to a small extent, conindicate.

verted into tree oxygen and sulphur insoluble in the bi.



Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.


Sept. 1, 1876. sulphide of carbon. Cyanogen is quickly converted into | bisulphate of potassium gives with sulphuretted hydrogen paracyanogen.

a precipitate of zinc sulphide containing 19 per cent of the Pyrogeneous Decomposition of Nitrate of Ammo. total zinc present in the liquid. If the quantity of bisul. nia, and on the Volatility of Ammoniacal Salts.- phate of potassium is raised to 2 grms. there is no preM. Berthelot.-Not suitable for abstraction.

cipitation.-Zeitschrift für Analytische Chemie. Reply to the Second Memoir of M. Bourgoin.

Determination of Theine in Tea.-M. H. Schwarz. M. J. A. Le Bel.—This discussion seems to be in danger -Exhaust with boiling acidulated water, neutralise with oí becoming personal.

lime, evaporate to dryness, and exhaust residue with ether. Decomposition of Alkaline Bicarbonates, Dry and The extract is evaporated to dryness, and the residue Moist, under the Influence of Heat and of a Vacuum. weighed as theine. -M. A. Gautier.-Already noticed.

Determination of Anthracen in Coal-Tar.-M. C. Alkaline Sulphocarbonates: Criticism on a Product Nicol.—The tar (10 to 20 grms.) is distilled in a small having for its basis Sulphocarbonate of Potassium, glass retort, luted, and the vapours are directed into a and Proposed for the Destruction of the Phylloxera! U.tube serving as a receiver, and heated to 200° in a bath -M. A. Mermet.— This paper points out the defects of a

of paraffin. The volatile products boiling below 200° are patent for mixing guano, gypsum, and sulphocarbonate of high boiling points, collect in the U-tube. A small quantity

not condensed, whilst anthracen and hydrocarbides, having potassium, and using the resulting compound as a dressing of the products of distillation remains in the anterior part for vines aitacked by the phylloxera.

of the neck of the retort, which is therefore cut off, pounded, Decomposition of Cyanide of Potassium, Cyanide and the fragments added to the distillate.. The distillate is of Zinc, and Formiate of Potassa in Carbonic Acid, then dissolved in glacial acetic acid by the aid of heat, the Air, and Pure Hydrogen.—MM. Naudin and Montholon. acid being added in small portions, and it is finally trans-Already noticed.

formed into anthraquinon by means of Luck's process. The Two New Sulphuretted Ureas.--MM. Clermont and temperature should be very high towards the end of the Wehrlin.--Already noticed.

distillation.-Zeitschrift für Analytische Chemie. Note on a Modification introduced into SugarRefining.-M. Daniel Klein.-A lengthy paper not suited for abstraction.

Les Mondes, Revue Hebdomadaire des Sciences, The Preparation, the Atomic Weight, and thu

No. 15, August 10, 1876. Determination of Cerium free from Didymium.-M. M. Rieffel, of Grandjouan, finds that petroleum is the H. Buhrig.-The atomic weight found is 94'1782. The most satisfactory insectide yet known. author proposes to weigh cerium as ceroso-ceric oxide, M. Devergie calls attention to the supposed power of Ce304, the composition of which is perfectly constant; the the salts of copper for the prevention of cholera. sulphate, oxalate, and hydrate of cerium are transformed into ceroso-ceric oxide at a white-red heat. The author concludes his memoir by an account of some experiments on the influence of certain salts on the sensibility of the

MISCELLANEOUS. reaction of potassic sulphocyanide with ferric chloride. It was known that certain phosphates and fluorides destroy or lessen the intensity of the colouration, but according to the author many other compounds have the

Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland same effect, such as free sulphuric acid and the sulphates soeiety will be held at Glasgow, on Wednesday next,

-A general meeting of the members of the Mineralogical of Na, K, Mg, and Ce.

September 6, 1876, after the meeting of the General ComDetermination of Lithium by means of the Spectro- | mittee of the British Association. The exact time and scope.-M. H. Ballmann.-If we dilute progressively a place will be posted up in the British Association Recepsolution of chloride of lithium a point is reached when the tion Rooms. The chair will be taken by Professor M. ray Lia is no longer visible. According to the author's Forster Heddle, M.D., F.R.G.S. experiments this limit is fixed for each observer, though liable to individual variations. For the author's eye this --First B.A. and First B.Sc., conjointly.-- Mathematics

University of London.--Examinations for Honours. limit is i m.g. chloride of lithium dissolved in 3345 c.c. If we gradually dilute with water a liquid containing lithic and Mechanical Philosophy :-1st class. J. E. Aloysius chloride up to the point when a drop evaporated on a pla. bridge ; Henry Robert Olley, First B.A., Owens College.

Steggall, First B.A. (Exhibition), Trinity College, Cam. tinum wire no longer shows the ray Lia, the solution contains i m.g. Lici in 33:45 c.c. of water, whence the original and class, John Arthur Owen, First B.Sc., private study; proportion may be easily calculated according to the Arthur Black, First B.Sc., private study. 3rd class, quantity added.

Walter Plumb Root, First B.A., private study. First

B.Sc. and Preliminary M.B., conjointly.--Chemistry: Determination of Gold in Pyrites.-M. H. Schwarz.

ist class. Ernest H. Cook, First B.Sc., (Exhibition), – The author melts 100 grms. pyrites with 46.6 grms. fine Royal College of Science, Dublin; Robert Maguire, Prel. iron turnings under a layer of common salt. The monosulphide formed is powdered, and attacked with dilute First B.Sc., Owens College ; Thomas Gough, First B.Sc.,

Sci., Owens College. 2nd class. William Henry Higgin, sulphuric acid in a gas apparatus, the sulphuretted hydro- private study; James Hugh Paul, First B.Sc. and Prel. gen being received in ainmonia. The matter insoluble in Sci., private study; Beaven Neave Rake, Prel. Sci., Guy's acid is collected, washed, dried, and roasted. It is then Hospital. 3rd class. William Freame, First B.Sc. and mixed with borax and about 2 grms. granulated lead, and Prel. Sci., Royal College of Science, Dublin ; Henry the mixture melted in a muffle until the lead collects in a

Thomas Groom, Prel. Sci., St. Bartholomew's Hospital; single globule floating in ferruginous scoriæ. This globule Francis Bowe, Prel. Sci., St. Bartholomew's Hospital; is detached, and submitted to cupellation.

James Norie, Prel. Sci., University College. Zoology: Precipitation of Zinc by Sulphuretted Hydrogen ist class. David Alexander King, Prel. Sci., St. Bartho. in Presence of Bisulphate of Potassium.-M. G. Sul- lomew's Hospital. 2nd class. Arthur George Dawson, horst.-Sulphuretted hydrogen partially precipitates zinc Prel. Sci., Owens College; Charles Pardey Lukis, Prel. from a solution of sulphate of zinc containing bisulphate Sci., St. Bartholomew's Hospital; Mark Feetham Sayer, of potassium, but if the proportion of the latter salt exceeds Prel. Sci., University College ; William Evans Hoyle, a certain limit the liquid is no longer rendered turbid. First B.Sc. and Prel. Sci., Owens College and Christ Thus, a solution of 2 grms. sulphate of zinc and i grm. Church, Oxford ; Wayland Charles Chaffey, Prel. Sci.


Sept. 1, 1876.
St. Bartholomew's Hospital ; Denis McDonnell, Prel. of chlorine by what is known as Deacon's process of a mixture of
Sci., King's College. 3rd class

. Robert Henry Scanes compounds of copper in conjunction with salts or compounds of mag

nesia, the same being employed either in conjunction with porous subSpicer, Prel. Sci., private study; Robert Maguire, Prel. stances impregnated with the same, or with magnesite, or with other Sci., Owens College ; Henry Thomas Groom, Prel. Sci., solid compounds of magnesia, or with compounds of magnesia, or with St. Bartholomew's Hospital. Experimental Physics : compounds containing magnesia. Or instead of employing salts or Ist class. H. F. B.A., Morley, First B.Sc. (Arnott Exhibi: compounds of magnesia in conjunction with salts or compounds of

copper, as before referred to, salts of barium, or other elements of like tion and Medal), University College. 2nd class. Thomas chemical action, may be substituted. Bolton, First B.Sc., University College.

3rd class.

Improvements in the treatment of salt or crude chloride of sodium

preparatory to chemical processes, and in apparatus employed in suci Julian Stephens, First B.Sc. and Prel. Sci., University treatment. R. Milburn and H. Jackson, Pomeroy Street, New Cross College and private study. Botany: ist class. Joseph Road, Surrey. May 26, 1875.-No. 1917. The inventors form balls of Tregeiles Fox, Prel. Sci., London Hospital. 2nd class. salt by means of a moulding machine. These balls are then dried in

a stove on a travelling apron foi med of hinged plates, which hang down Anundrao Atmaram, First B.Sc. and Prel. Sci., Univer

when returning to the feeding end. sity College; Robert Henry Scancs Spicer, Prel. Sci., private study ; John Mitford Atkinson, Prel. Sci., London

ST. HELENS, LANCASHIRE, Hospital; Andrew William Dallmeyer, First B.Sc. and Prel. Sci., University College; Richard Sisley, Prel. Sci., TOCHEMICAL MANUFACTURERS and CAPITALISTS. St. George's Hospital. 3rd class. Charles Pardey Lukis,

VALUABLE CHEMICAL WORKS AT ST. HELENS. Prel. Sci., St. Bartholomew's Hospital; Henry Thomas Groom, Prel. Sci., St. Bartholomew's Hospital. To be Sold by Auction, by Messrs. J. B. and

B. Leach, at the Fleece Hotel, St. Helens, on Tuesday, the 12th September, 1876, at 2 o'clock in the afternoon, subject to condi. tions then to be produced.

All that new and complete Chemical Manufactory known as the PATENTS.

Merton Bank Alkali Works situate at Parr, St. Helens. The works are now in thorough and complete working order and condition, and comprise Back Ash and Caustic Sheds, Office Laboratory, Stable,

Brick Chimney, Lime House, &c. The Plant includes three Black ABRIDGMENTS OF PROVISIONAL AND COMPLETE

Ash Furnaces with pans over, six Black Ash Vats, eight Caustic Pots, SPECIFICATIONS.

two Liquor Tanks, two Cauticisers, Filters, Tanks, Steam Boiler Improvements in the manufacture of sulphates of soda and potash, 26 feet long, 8 feet diameter, 6 tons Weighing Machine, Fire-proof and in calcining carbonates of soda and potash. W. Jones and J. Safe, Office and Laboratory Fittings and Furniture. Walsh, Middlesbro'-on-Tees,' York. May 21, 1875.-No. 1864. The Premises adjoin the St. Helens and Widnes Canal, hy which According to this Provisional Specification, the charge of chlorides, there is direct communication with the River Mersey, and there is a &c., is put into a flat-bottomed circular metal pan, which forms the very considerable space for deposit of waste on the land, and an excelbed of a furnace, and on this pan the sulphates are decomposed and lent supply of water on the premises. calcined until they are finished in one operation. Above the bed are The tenure is leasehold for two respective terms of 999 years from blades for stirring the charge.

ist November, 1871, and 1st August, 1874, subject to the respective Improvements in the treatment of wool, either in the raw or in a rents of £35 145. and £75. Total contents 17,106 superficial square manufactured condition. J. Behrens, Bradford, York. (A communi- yards of land or thereabouts. cation from H. Caro, Mannheim, Germany.) May 21, 1875.—No. 1868. The Mines are reserved to former owners with certain rights for This invention consists in submitting wool, either in the raw or in an getting the same. unmanufactured or manufactured condition, to the action of chlorine The Premises may be inspected on application to the Watchman. until the shrinking, curling, or felting properties possessed by wool in Plans and Particulars may be obtained from the Auctioneers at its natural condition shall have been destroyed or modified.

their Offices, Manor Chambers, St. Helens, and 53, North John Improvements in the means or apparatus employed in melting, re- Street, Liverpool, Mr. J. M. Wilson, Surveyor, St. Helens, or from fining, converting, and puddling iron. W. Middleton, Leeds, York.

THOMAS BREWIS, Solicitor, May 22, 1875.-- No. 1881. There is a retort between puddling and

St. Helens, heating furnace for receiving cast metal preparatory to its being St. Helens, August, 1876. melted. For refining, a blast is introduced into the retort.

Improved processes for the manufacture of ammoniacal salts, and more particularly the sulphate of ammonia. A. M. Clark, Chancery M awson and Swan are now able to supply Lane,‘Middlesex. (A communication from T. Moerman-Laubuhi,

CROOKES'S RADIOMETER at 255. Antwerp, Belgium.) May 22, 1875.-No. 1888. The invention con:

11 and 15, Mosley Street, Newcastle-on-Tyne. sists in the manufacture of cyanides and alkaline cyanates by means of the nitrogen of the air, and afterwards decomposing their cyanogen

BUNGE'S IMPROVED BALANCE in a separate operation, in order to convert the nitrogen into ammonia, which then needs only to be fixed by means of acids and crystallised.

Improvements in the means of and apparatus for the purification of gas. 'C. Woodall, Vauxhall, and T. Wills, Brixton, Surrey: May 24,

generally. The most sensitive, and in every respect most perfect 1875:-No. 1891. This invention relates to a method of and apparatus

balance. Agents for England: MAWSON and SWAN, Newcastlefor the better purification of gas from ammonia, carbonic acid, sul

on-Tyne. phuretted hydrogen, bisulphide of carbon, and their compounds, being accomplished by the injection into certain washers or scrubbers or system of washers or scrubbers, either of the ordinary or some special

Apparatus and Chemicals for Scientific Pursuits. Laboraform of a combined jet or jets of steam and water, or of steam and tory Fitter and Furnisher Photographic Apparatus and Materials, ammoniacal liquor purified or not, or of sulphide of ammonium 8, KINGSLAND GREEN (West SIDE), LONDON. specially prepared, or of some other liquid purifying agent, calculated to remove any or all of the above-mentioned compounds. The use of water, purified ammoniacal liquor, ur sulphide of ammonium is not new; but the application of these liquids through the intervention of

STREET, offers Jewellers, Mineralogists, Lapidaries, and a compound jet or jets, consisting of one tube inserted within another, specially Collectors of Rare Cut Gems (which he possesses in all the outer one being used for the delivery of the liquid and the inner one

existing kinds), large Collections of Fine Hyacinths in all Colours, for the injection of the steam, whereby the gas is subjected to a more

Clear Spanish Topazes, Blue and Yellow Amethysts, Jargon, effectual washing, is new; as is also the use of crude ammoniacal

Olivine, Fossils, Fine Collections of Shells, Thousands of Indian liquor by means of the said jet or jets for the removal of sulphur com

Pebbles. Polished Agates, &c., Starstones and Catseyes, Garnets, pounds from gas which has been previously freed from carbonic acid. Cape Rubies, Fine Slabs of Lapis Lazuli, Fine Emeralds in the

Improvements in the purification of gas, and in the preparation of Matrix, Fine Crystallised Rubies and Brazilian Topazes, and materials to be used in the said purification. F. C. Hills, Deptford,

Thousands of Rare Opals. Specimens and for Cuttings. Orders Kent. May 24, 1875.-No. 1895. This invention consists in separating

effected to all parts of the world. the sulphuretted hydrogen gas from the carbonic acid gas driven oli

ERNERS COLLEGE of CHEMISTRY.by Letters Patent, Nos. 1369, 1868, and 934, 1874, and utilising such EXPERIMENTAL MILITARY, and NAVAL SCIENCES, sulphuretted hydrogen gas to form sulphide of ammonium, which may under the direction of Professor E. V. GARDNER, F.E.S., &c.; be used for purifying gas from bisulphide of carbon. The sul.

of the late Royal Polytechnic Institution and the Royal Naval College phuretted hydrogen may also be used to form other sulphides, some of which (c.8., sulphide of calcium) are also useful for purifying gas from

The Laboratory and Class Rooms are open from 11 to 5 a.m. and bisulphide of carbon. Sulphide of ammonium may also be made by

from 7 to 10 p.m. daily. passing the sulphuretted hydrogen and carbonic acid gases driven off

Especial facilities for persons preparing for Government and othe

examinations. from the gas-liquor as aforesaid through scrubbers down which gasliquor is caused to pass.

Private Pupils will find every convenience. Improvemenis in the manufacture of chlorine. H. Deacon, Appleton

Analyses, Assays, and Practical lavestigations conneAed with House, Widnes, Lancaster. May 25, 1875 - No. 1909. The essential

Patents, &c., conducted. feature of this invention consists in the employment for the production for prospectus, &c., apply to Prof.E V.G., 44, Berners-street, w

For Chemical Analysis and Exact Weighing

F. W. HART, Manufacturer and Dealer in




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96 Advertisements.

{ ,

Sept. 1, 1876. THE CHEMICAL NEWS




Newfall Tar Works, Carlton;

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M including Indices, fi

anufacturer of Benzole, Toluole, Xylol,

Solvent and Burning Naphthas, Carbolic Acid and Disinfecting

Powder, Refined Anthracene, Naphthaline, Black Varnish, Refined CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS,

Tar, Crude Liquid Ammonia, Galvanising Salts, Coal-Tar, Pitch £ s. d.

Creosote, Grease, &c., &c. Five lines in column (about 10 words to line) o 3

S. A. S. is always a buyer of Coal-Tar Naphthas, Crude Anthracene, Each additional line

and all Tar Products. Whole column

I'15 0

All communications to be addressed to the offices at Middlesbrough. Whole page

3 A reduction made for a series of insertions.

CHEMICAL LABORATORIES Cheques and Post-Office Orders, crossed “ London and Count Bank," payable to the order of William Crookes.



Crustacea, Microscopic Objects, Glass

Capped Boxes, Card Trays, Tablets, &c. Specimens sent for Selection to known or approved applicants. MANUFACTURER AND IMPORTER, THOMAS D. RUSSELL,


65, BARBICAN, LONDON. Catalogues Free,

Catalogues on application.
Ryall's Chemical Black Lead (Registered)

creates no waste or dust by its magnetic adherence to the stove,

and the cleanliness of application makes this one of the marvels of JOSEPH GILLOTT'S

household economy.-Sold by all respectable grocers and oilmen in

blocks id., 20., 4d., and is. boxes. Works, 95, Little Compton Street, STEEL PENS.

Soho, London.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING. Sold by all Dealers throughout the World.



EOLOGY-Elementary Collections toillus,

trate the new edition of Lyell's “Students' Elements of Geology, and facilitate the important study of this science, can be had at 2,5, 10, 20, 50, to 5000 guineas. Also single specimens of Rocks, Minerals, Fossils, and recent Shells. Geological Maps, Hammers, all the recent publications, &c., of J. Tennant, Mineralogist to Her Majesty, 149, Strand, London.

Practical Instruction is given in Geology and Mineralogy by Professor Tennant, F.R.G.S., at his residence, 149, Strand (W.C.).



Water-glass, or Soluble Silicates of Soda

Circular Roofs, Building, &c., contracted for by

BECKER & SONS, Rotterdam,






and Potash, in large or small quantities, and either solid or in solution, at ROBERT RUMNEY'S, Ardwick Chemical Works, Manchester


Makers of every description of Chemical, Colliery, Copper Ore, Gold
Mining and Glass Machinery, including Crown, German Sheet,

and Plate Glass Plant, as supplied to some of the largest Firmsin England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales.

Makers of the latest Improved Revolving Black Ash Purnace with Siemens's Patent Gas Arrangement, and as used in the Manufac.

Improved Valveless Air Engines, and Pumps or Acid Forcing, Air
Agitators, Compressors for Collieries, and Weldon's Patent Chlorine
Caustic, Chlorate, Decomposing, and Oxalic Pans.
Gas Producers for Heating Furnaces.
Pyrites Burners for Irish, Norwegian, and Spanish Ores.
Retorts, Acid Gas, Nitre, Nitric Acid, and Vitriol Refining.
Improved Steam Superheaters for Resin Refining, &c.
Improved Steam Sulphur Pans.
Photographs, and other information, supplied on receipt

of Orders.

Sole Agents for England, Ireland, and Wales :


Balances are exhibited at the South Kensington Museum, and

Samples kept in stock by their Agents.
T. & M. will forward complete Illustrated Catalogue on receipt of

postage stamp id.

Eure of Soda.



(Late Page & Tibbs), 47, BLACKFRIARS ROAD, S.E., Continues to supply the Trade with Phosphorus, Chlorate of Potash Pure Acids, Pyrotechnicand'all other Chemicals, Pure and Commercial at the Lowest Prices.


47, Blackfriars Road, s, E.

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