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The Chemical Society. 1876.

7 Council, which, I doubt not, would take them into careful shall offer a few remarks, is a clause relating to “

persons consideration, and, if thought desirable, would further now employed as chemists." I would urge every chemist take the opinion of the Society at large on the subject. to read this carefully, and then ask himself whether he

The party, whichever it might be, which would then be eligible for the membership of the proposed Institute. find itself in the minority would, it is to be hoped, have Many of my friends, veterans of upwards of ten years, sufficient good sense and good feeling to conform to the would certainly be excluded, and I doubt whether it clearly expressed wish of the majority.--I am, &c., would be possible for the gentlemen who sat on either

A. DUPRÉ. side of Prof. Abel at the organisation meeting at Burling. Laboratory, Westminster Hospital,

ton House to squeeze in except by a side door, which, to London, S.W., June 29, 1876.

say the least, renders the thing ridiculous.

In a former communication I pointed out what I con. To the Editor of the Chemical News.

sidered to be the great desideratum, namely, unity amongst Sir,—You have very justly reminded your readers that chemists, which I thought might be effected by the timesystematic blackballing is not a new thing in the Chemical

honoured Chemical Society. Dr. Wright's elaborate Society, and that in 1867 there was an outbreak of black- summing up has so far discountenanced this idea that I balling which compelled the Council of the Society to

think the time has come for chemists most sincerely to take action. In point of fact systematic blackballing is consider the advisability of bringing this about by indethe form in which the dissatisfaction which generally pendent action. The success of any movement to found prevails in the Chemical Society makes itself manifest depend upon its receiving the support of the present gene

a representative chemical corporation must ultimately from time to time.

The structure of the Chemical Society, like that of other ration of chemists. To do this effectively all chemists, so-called learned societies, is very peculiar. Nominally scientific or technical, must be invited to join and assist. the Chemical Society is a republic of the most democratic It is premature to lay down any unauthorised restrictions character, inasmuch as the Council and officers hold office

as to age or other qualifications, and it would be invidious solely by virtue of a majority of votes given by the

--nay, impertinent-for Chemist A to sit in judgment on Fellows, and each Fellow has only one vote.

the qualifications of his brother B. Really and in practice, however, the elective power of

Again, any scheme, to be successful, must be comprethe Society remains permanently in abeyance; and the hensive, and sufficient to attract all men now engaged as Council of one year re-elects itself and its nominees to

chemists, or it will most assuredly be annihilated by the form the Council of the next year. It is notorious how

successful opposition of those whom it would vilify, thinly the anniversary meetings are attended, and that ostracise, and threaten with ruin.-I am, &c.,

ALFRED TRIBE. not one-tenth (and probably not one-twentieth) of the

Dulwich College, July 4, 1876. -600 or 700 Eellows of the Society take any part in the election of the Council of the Society. Inevitably this state of things develops "officialism,” and leads to all

To the Editor of the Chemical News. those evils the existence of which is announced by the Sir,--Now that the subject of organisation amongst systematic blackballing which is so prevalent in the chemists is being so largely discussed in the columns of Chemical Society.

the Chemical News, I will beg permission to make The best remedy would be to induce the Society as a

known to your readers some of the details of a case in whole to vote for its Council. Failing that, it would be which the initials F.C.S. appear in an advertising pamphwise to draw lots for the Council, which might afterwards let in a manner which cannot but be considered as most choose the President and officers. It does seem to me derogatory to the science. that a sham annual election must be a source of danger to

The particular case to which I am about to direct attenany Society.- I am, &c.,

tion has been already brought under the notice of the J. ALFRED WANKLYN. Chemical Society on the occasion of the last anniversary

meeting; but, as the pamphlet was not at the time at To the Editor of the Chemical News.

hand, the speaker (Mr. R. J. Friswell) could give no de

tails. As the pamphlet is accessible to all, there is no SIR,_" History is said to repeat itself.” Of all our oft- occasion to suppress names. To quote from the wrapper repeated phrases this one is perhaps the most illusory. -"J. N. Hearder's Guide to Sea Fishing ......and With equal truth the same might be said of waves

or Descriptive Catalogue of his Prize River and Sea Fishing volcanic outbursts. But just as the ripple may be the Tackle, Cricket, Archery, Croquet, Umbrellas, Parasols, precursor of the tempest, the underground rumbling may &c." The above is repeated, with some few additions, betoken a violent eruption.

on the title-page, which concludes with “ Lecturer on In the Chemical Society in 1867 signs of dissatisfaction Chemistry and Experimental Physics, D.Sc., Ph.D., F.C.S." were manifest; we are told that a "somewhat widespread On page 53 we have a catalogue of philosophical appa, dissatisfaction "now exists, and relating too to the same cause—that is, to the election of Fellows. The '67 agita. parasols), and after this the public is informed that.“

ratus". (immediately following the list of umbrellas and

'J. N. tion was productive of only a small amount of good, Hearder, D.Sc., Ph.D., F.C.S., may be consulted on all but it by no means follows that the '76 or '77 movement subjects relatir.g to the pra&ical application of science to will be of so little import to the chemist. Change of the arts and manufactures. He is also prepared to de. time has brought change of aspirations. Intestine wars

liver lectures on any branch of science to scientific insti. among the Fellows are a natural consequence of their tutions.” On the opposite page, by way of antithesis, heterogeneous character. The idle never yet agreed well

we read—“Smiths' work in general; gas-fitting in all its with the industrious. The chemist and non-chemist branches ; bell-hanging, &c." The author here describes cannot be expected to blend and harmonise one with himself also as a "warming and ventilating engineer.” the other. This is well illustrated by the so-called

Even if the demands upon your space permitted, fur“organisation ” movement, one of the objects of which is ther comment upon these extracts would be unnecessary. to sift these incompatible elements. The only scheme before us relating to the subject is tongued," in favour of reorganisation.—I am, &c.,

They plead for themselves, “ like angels, trumpetthe one published in the CHEMICAL News (vol. xxxiii.,

R. MELDOLA. page 240) by the “clients” of Mr. Pettengill, which I

Belle Vue House, Twickenham, July 3, 1870 believe to be the most suicidal and impracticable possible to have been devised.

[The discussion on “ The Chemical Society" and the The only part of the scheme which immediately con- Organisation" movement, having occupied a great deal cerns the present generation of chemists, and on which I l of our space during the last few weeks to the exclusion of

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Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.


July 7, 1876. other important matter, we are compelled to decline to Radiometer of Mr. Crookes.-M. W. de Fonvielle.insert any more letters on the subject for the present, | The experiments executed by M. Darlu de Roissy and myunless, indeed, our correspondents have any new informa- self in the photometric laboratory of the gas works at tion to give, and then it will be necessary for the letters Vilette appear to us to confirm the opinions put forward to bear the writers' names.-Ed. C. N.].

by Mr. Crookes. The procedure which enabled us to change at will the direct movement to the right into an

inverse movement to the left seems to agree with the argu. ANALYSIS OF PEROXIDE OF MANGANESE.

ments of this eminent chemist before the Royal Society of

London. We obtained the normal rotation under the To the Editor of the Chemical News.

action of radiant heat, but alter having left the radiometer

exposed for five minutes to a temperature of 45° C. we Sır,—The analysis of a sample of peroxide of manganese, plunged it rapidly into a bath of cold water at 15° C. The given by Dr. Phipson in the CHEMICAL News (vol. xxxiii., rotation to the right ceased, the instrument stopped for a p. 243) is of interest from the large number of elements found. There is one point on which I (and possibly other moment, and then began to revolve to the left with a

rapidly increasing speed, which reached a revolution and of your readers) should like further information. The

a half per second. This inverse movement ceased almost author writes :-" The quantity of MnO2 being calculated

as quickly as it had begun. At the end of half a minute in the usual manner, the rest of the manganese was con

the movement to the right re-commenced under the action sidered as Mn203, though there are doubtless small quan- of the solar rays which fell upon the absorbent surfaces of tities as MnO." As I frequently require to make complete the radiometer in the midst of the liquid mass, and withou analyses of manganese ores, I am curious to know how

the possibility of heating by conduction. Dr. Phipson distinguished the MnO2 from the Mn203.

M. Fizeau, with reference to this communication, reBoth these oxides exercise an oxidising action, though of course the available oxygen of the latter is only hall that marked that the conclusions of the

author in favour of the of the former. As all the methods of determining Mnoz to him to require the most formal reservations. The in

existence of an impulsive force in the rays of light, seemed (as distinguished from Mno) with which I am acquainted genious instrument of Mr. Crookes seemed to be in reality are based, directly or indirectly, on its oxidising power, how did Dr. Phipson distinguish it from the remaining circumstances, may be simply ascribed :-(1) To a slight

a thermic apparatus, in which the rotation, with all its oxide of manganese if the latter was Mn203? Is it not evident that the oxide which was not recognised by any with the ambient medium under the influence of light.

excess of temperature acquired by the discs as compared process of " chlorimetry” must have been Mno? Is it (2) To the inequality of the emissive and absorbent powers not impossible to distinguish analytically between Mn2.3 of the two opposite surfaces of each disc, the one blackened and MnO+MnO2? If so, Dr. Phipson has counted his and the other polished. (3) To the inevitable presence in oxygen twice over.-I am, &c.,


the apparatus of a small quantity of elastic fluid (gas or

watery vapour), the layers of which close to the blackened Sheffield, July 3, 1876.

surface may acquire a slight excess of elastic force suffi. cient to propel the discs whose mobility is extreme.

Certain inverse movements temporarily produced by cold CHEMICAL NOTICES FROM FOREIGN will be the analogous results of the same causes. MoreSOURCES

over, M. Fizeau, at the request of several members of the Academy, made in their presence, at the end of the sitting,

certain experiments with the instrument. He showed that NOTE.-All degrees of temperature are Centigrade, unless otherwise expressed.

if a stream of solar rays, limited by a screen, were thrown

upon the disc so as to strike merely the polished surfaces Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances, de l'Acade:nie but in such a direction that each disc moved to meet the

of the discs the rotatory movement was still produced, des Sciences. No. 22, May 29, 1876.

solar rays instead of retiring from them, as ought to take Atomic Constitution of Bodies.-M. de St.-Venant. place if the motion were the result of an impulsive power -The author concludes that we cannot, without placing of light. Previous experiments have shown, further, that ourselves in contradiction with the totality of celestial this result does not depend on accidental reflections in the and terrestrial phenomena regard atoms as corpuscles interior of the apparatus. formed of hard and continuous matter, but that there is

Charge assumed by the Disc of the Electrophorus. nothing contradictory in considering them as material

-M. E. Douliot.—The charge received by the disc, and points endowed with all the properties, save extension, which it carries away when raised by its isolating handle, which we observe in visible and tangible bodies.

is proportional to its radius. New Remarks on the Real Existence of a Matter formed of Isolated Atoms comparable to Materials Communication of Mr. Lockyer.-M. Lecoq de Bois

Theory of Spectra; Observations on the Last Points.-M. Berthelot.— The conception of a single and baudran.- Reserved for insertion in full. fundamental kind of matter, of which the multiple states of aggregation constitute the elementary bodies that we

Constitution of Propylenic Monochlorhydrins, and know, with their specific properties—a conception to which

on the Law of Addition of Hypochlorous Acid.-M. eminent minds give their adhesion-seems to imply that L. Henry.—Not suitable for abstraction. the atomic masses of our elements are far removed from Quino-acetate of Calcium.-M. E. Gundelach.-The the condition of true atoms.

author examining a commercial quinate of calcium found Salts Formed by the Peroxide of Manganese.-M. that it was a double salt, formed of equal molecules of E. Fremy. The author shows that the peroxide of man- quinate and acetate of lime. ganese under different circumstances may behave either as indifferent, acid or basic, and forms salis in which he con

No. 23, June 5, 1876. siders that it plays the part of a base.

Thermic Formation of Ozone.–Ozone is a body Examination of the Possible Mechanical Action of formed with absorption of heat, which it evolves in its Light : Study of the Radioscope of Mr. Crookes.-oxidising actions-a fact which explains the superiority of M. A. Ledieu.—The fact that the luminous rays produce its energy to that of ordinary oxygen. This excess of heat generally little heat would show precisely that the vis viva or of energy has been stored up under the influence of which the luminiferous vibrations of the ether give off electricity, an excess remarkable because we have here must tend to convert itself almost entirely into motion. the formation of a body more condensed than that from


} Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources. July 7, 1876.

9 which it is produced, although condensation, in general, , the luminous rays. M. Ledieu does not hold that the causes the liberation and not the absorption of heat, as movements of the earth, as a whole, can be effected by the takes place here. This is probably the only instance of a solar radiations. He considers, however, that we have gas supposed to be simple and yet capable of presenting here a very natural explanation of the form of the tails of two distinct isomeric modifications in the gaseous state. comets.

Absorption of Free Nitrogen by Organic Matters Report on several Memoirs by M. Allard relating at Ordinary Temperatures.-M. Berthelot.—The author to the Transparence of Flames and of the Atmofinds that free nitrogen is absorbed at ordinary tempera- sphere, and to the Visibility of Lighthouses with tures by organic compounds under the influence of the Flashing Lights.-MM. Jamin,Puiseux,and E. Becquerel. electric effluve (silent discharge). He insists on this new -M. Allard finds that the luminous intensity of the flames cause of the fixation of atmospheric nitrogen in nature. of lamps with concentric wicks increases more rapidly than It produces condensed nitrogenous compounds belonging the consumption of oil, and equally with the visible surto the class of the humic principles. However limited face. The mean value of the coefficient of the transparency may be the effects at each moment, and on each particular of flame, for a thickness of i centimetre, is expressed by spot of the earth's surface, they may nevertheless become the number o:80. considerable, in virtue of the extent and continuity of a Law of Dulong and Petit.-M. A. Terreil.-M. reaction universal and never ceasing.

Terreil holds that there are only two phases when bodies Origin of Organic Ferments.-M. L. Pasteur.—This possess their true absolute specific heat. The first of paper is an extract from a work about to appear under the these is the moment when the body is in the gaseous title “Etudes sur la Bière." The author combats M. state, and the other that when it has lost this state, no Fremy's hypothesis of "hemiorganism," and quotes Dr. matter whether it has become liquid or solid. He admits, Tyndall's remarks on the writings of Dr. Bastian.

besides, that at the moment of these two phases the forces Examination of the Possible Mechanical Action of which modify the absolute specific heats have not yet Light : Study of the Radiometer of Mr. Crookes.

come into action. In order to distinguish the specific M. A. Ledieu (continuation).-The author having ex. heats, as he understands them, from the admitted specific plained his theory to M. Fizeau, this eminent academician heats, he gives them the name of chemical specific heats. proposed an experiment by polarising a pencil of rays.

He finds that the specific heat of bodies doubles when they In this manner, in fact, in accordance with his theory, we cease to be gaseous. ought to obtain a minimum impulsion, or none at all when Perturbing Influence of Neighbouring Masses on the plane of polarisation is made to pass along the axis of the Form and the Disposition of Crystals.-M. Ch. the radiometer. On the contrary, the maximum impulsion Brame.-Not adapted for abstraction. should be obtained at goo from the first position. This experiment was made with an excellent instrument by M. Lightning Conductors.-M. R. Francisque-Michel.

Inconvenience of Ropes of Copper Wire as Alvergniat, but it gave no conclusive result. M. Fizeau then caused an ordinary pencil of rays to fall exclusively at least a section of 350 to 400 square millimetres.

The author holds that a lightning-conductor should have upon the blackened discs, and thus obtained a movement more accelerated than when the pencil fell at once upon

Influence of Certain Salts of Lime on Sacchariboth kinds of surfaces. He then operated in an analogous metry.-M. A. Müntz.—The author concludes that the manner upon the bright surfaces, taking care to incline rotatory power of cane-sugar in presence of a given salt is the pencil of rays so that no reflection might be thrown sensibly constant for one and the same quantity of salt from the polished surfaces upon the black ones.

The in- dissolved in one and the same volume of liquid, whatever strument continued to revolve, but with a reduced speed.

may be the ratio of the salt to the sugar. The decrease This latter experiment would lead us to condemn all

of rotatory power is, up to a certain point, proportional to radiant influence, since this would attract in one case and the quantity of salt dissolved. repel in the other. The author's theory would therefore

Derivative of Acetyl-acetic Ether: Oxy-pyroseem confounded by such a result, as well as every other tartaric Acid.-M. E. Demarçay.-Not suited for abexplanation based upon the doctrine of emission. But on straction. examining more closely, we are led to remark that in all

Combustion of Organic Matters under the Double the experiments related there is reflection of light upon the Influence of Heat and Oxygen.-M. D. Loiseau.—For glass of the globe, and that, besides, when these rays are the complete combustion of volatile products it is necessary polarised, the plane of polarisation, after reflection, is no to operate in tubes whose interior diameter is so much the longer presented in the same direction as regards the faces greater as the current of oxygen is more feeble. of the discs. We must then conclude that further experi

Metallisation of Organic Bodies to render them fit ments are absolutely required to elucidate the question. The author, then, quoting the opinion of M. Fizeau, given author saturates the bodies in question with alcoholic

to receive Galvanic Deposits.-M. P. Cazeneuve.- The in the present number of the CHEMICAL News, continues

nitrate of silver, which is then reduced by the solar light, “ This opinion, emanating from so distinguished a savant, must assuredly be taken into high consideration. Never

or preferably by means of mercurial vapours. theless, considering the regularity, the definite character,

Determination of Sulphuric Acid and Soluble and the certainty of the revolution of the instrument, Sulphates by means of Standard Solutions.-M. H. always in one and the same direction, the explanation of Pellet.---The author first precipitates the sulphuric acid M. Fizeau does not satisfy us entirely, and the debate by chloride of barium in excess, precipitates the excess of does not seemed to be closed. He then suggests the fol- chloride of barium with yellow chromate of potash, and lowing experiments :-Illuminate an ordinary radiometer, finally determines the chromate with standard solutions i.e., with discs alternately polished and blackened in the of protochloride of iron and permanganate of potash. direction of its axis. The instrument ought to revolve in the same direction as when the pencil of rays illuminates Les Mondes, Revue Hebdomadaire des Sciences, the axis vertically, and the rotation even ought to be

No. 7, June 15, 1876. accelerated. Second. Construct an apparatus all the discs The Radiometer of Mr. Crookes.-M. Trouve.-I of which shall be left bright so as to reduce to a minimum

am desirous of knowing if Mr. Crookes has given a theory, the influence of the reflections upon the glass; then to or rather a logical definition, of the movement of his in. throw a pencil of rays upon the disc situate on one and strument in presence of light. On my part, I find no the same side as relates to the axis of the instrument. If satisfactory explanation of this phenomenon save in a the rotation is really due to the mechanical action of light comparison with the theory of the ele&ric mill. I ascribe, the instrument will turn as if the discs were repelled by therefore, the movement to the diffusion of the fluid, and




July 7, 1876.

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not to a direct action exerted by light. What confirms | College. Branch XVI. (Logic and Moral Philosophy.)

1 me in this view is that this apparatus, which works as P. K. Ráy, University and Manchester New Colleges, and well with light as with dark heat, behaves with the latter University, Edinburgh. just as a secondary couple behaves with electricity-that Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and is to say, it gives back to a certain extent the mechanical Ireland.-A local meeting of the Cornish members was action which it has received. If the radiometer is exposed held at the Public Rooms, Redruth, on Saturday, July 1, to the sun, it takes an accelerated movement in one direc. when the following papers were read, the chair being tion. But if this motion is abruptly stopped, and the taken by Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, Her Majesty's Inspector instrument withdrawn from the source of light, it imme- of Mines for the district :-“ On a New Mineral from West diately begins to turn in the opposite direction.

Phænix Mine,” by J. H. Collins, F.G.S., with remarks by

Dr. C. Le Neve Foster, B.A., &c. This is a hydrous
Reimann's Farber Zeitung,

phosphate of alumina and copper, resembling turquoise,
No. 21, 1876.

but containing much more phosphoric acid and water and

lesz alumina. M. Prinvault has communicated to the Industrial

Mr. Collins has called it Henwoodite, after Society of Rouen a process for obtaining a scarlet, the

the late W. Jory Henwood, F.R.S. “On the Occurrence shade known as Persian red, from the chromate of lead.

of Pyrophillite at Brookwood, and on New Mineral

Localities in Devon and Cornwall,” by Dr. C. Le Neve If carbonate of lead is digested with a cold solution of 1

Foster, B.A., &c. “On the Oxide of Iron enclosed in part of the neutral chromate of lead in 50 of water, so that two equivalents of the former may react with one of Calcite and Quartz, at the Mwyndy Mines, Glamorgan

shire," by Wm. Vivian. “On the Occurrence of Pharma. the latter compound, there is obtained in two days a crystalline precipitate of basic chromate of lead. If the cosiderite Scorodite and Olivenite in Greenstone, at Terras supernatant liquid is boiled, it evolves carbonic acid, since Mine, St. Stephens,” by J. H. Collins, F.G.S. Mr. B. bicarbonate of potassa is present, and is converted into a

Kitto, F.G.S., was elected Local Secretary for Cornwall, solution of potash, which decomposes a part of the red subject to the approval of the Council. precipitate, so that it takes a violet-red colour, whilst the liquid turns yellow. The precipitate is too dull to be of

PATENTS. any value. If it is washed with water, and treated with 4 per cent of its weight of dilute sulphuric acid (i in 100), ABRIDGMENTS OF PROVISIONAL AND COMPLETE adding the acid slowly and stirring, and then neutralising

SPECIFICATIONS. with a dilute solution of soda, there is formed a mixture

An improved continucils horizontal apparatus for washing or of sulphate and of basic chromate of lead, the colour Chandos Chambers, Buckingham Street, `Adelphi, Middlesex. (A

absorbing gas or vapours, or for distilling liquiis. W. L. Wise, passing into a fiery vermillion. The quantity obtained is communication from E. Solvay, Brussels.) March 5. 1875.-No. 820. about equal to the carbonate of lead employed. Accord- The apparatus consists in a closed tank or reservoir divided into coming to M. Prinvault, nitric or acetic acid may be used in

partments which communicate one with the other by holes or aper

iures made in the partitions, the lower holes being for the passage of stead of sulphuric, but not hydrochloric. The proportions the liquid, and the upper holes for the passage of the gas or vapour he employs are 25 grms. neutral carbonate of lead, with 10 from one end of the apparatus to the other. Over each of the holes grms. neutral chromate of potassa. He digests two days for the passage of the liquid into the inner compartments is atšixed a

tube or pipe bent upwards, and rising vertically to rather above the in the cold, boils for half an hour, filters, washes the intended level of the liquid; and over each of the holes for the passage precipitate, and treats it with i grm. of sulphuric acid of gas or vapour into the inner compartments is affixed a gas- or diluted with 100 grins. of water. The new red cannot be

steam-tube or pipe of less diameter than the liquid pipes above re. fixed with albumen on account of its crystalline texture.

ferred to, and the said gas or steam-tubes or pipes extend downwards,

and by their lower ends, which are serrated, dip into the liquid pipes It may, however, be possible to convert chrome orange respectively, being concentric thereto. The liquid is fed into the into Persian red upon the fibre.

apparatus from a separate feed-tank, in which the liquid is kept conThe Berlin daily papers are very busy with another stantly at the required level by a float and suitable valve. The said

liquid passes from the feed-tank into the apparatus, and consecutively supposed case of poisoning from the lining of a hat. A through each of the compartments, by passing into each of the liquid Government official, shortly after buying new hat, was pipes, and being projected therefrom by the action of the steam or

gas issuing from the steam- or gas-pipes. troubled with a very disagreeable eruption on his fore.

Improveinents in furnaces for metallurgical operations, which im. head. The affair is in the hands of the authorities.

provements mey also be applied to steam-boilers and other furnaces. Purpurin.-According to F. de Lalande's French A. Parkes, Gravelly Hill, Erdington, Warwick. March 6, 1875.-No. patent purpurin may be obtained as follows:-100 parts in which gaseous fuel, consisting mainly of carbonic oxide, is generated,

841. This invention consists essentially of a chamber or generator alizarin and 100 of dry arsenic acid are heated with the gaseous fuel being conducted over a hollow bridge or hot-air Alue 1000 parts of sulphuric acid to 150°, until a sample into a reverberatory chamber in which copper is smelted, or the pudtaken out gives a deep red colour with soda. He then dling of iron, or other like metallurgical operation is carried on. The

hot air from this bridge or fue mixing with the gaseous fuel effects its dilutes with 30 volumes of water, heats, and filters.

combustion, and produces an intense heat in the reverberatory cham. The residue is used for dyeing. Instead of arsenic acid ber. The air supplied to the hollow bridge or hot-air fue is heated may be used antimonic acid, peroxide of manganese, or

by passing through tbe walls of the generator, which are reticulated stannic acid.

or honeycombed. The waste heat from the reverberatory chamber

may be utilised by being passed to a second or cementing chamber, Rosenstiehl has obtained a colouring matter in yellow and from thence to a boiler for the generation of steam. The gas metallic lamellæ by acting upon dry artificial alizarin

generator and hot-air bridge may be applied to steam boiler and other

furnaces unconnected with metallurgical furnaces. with nitrous acid. With alumina it dyes yellow, and Improvements in the manufacture of "consolidated coal.F. C. with iron mordants a red-violet, both which colours can Danvers, Argyle Road, Castle Hill, Ealing, and J. H. Landon, Turbe brightened with boiling soap lyes. It dyes best in

ner Square, Hoxton. March 11, 1875.-No. 897. The novelty of this

invention consists of the use of farina or starch in the manufacture of distilled water or with addition of acetate of lime. Rosen- artificial fuel (or consolidated coal) without water, the starch being stiehl considers it as nitro-alizarin.

boiled in tar or other mineral or vegetable oil; also in the melting of
the pitch-wher that material also is used-in tar, before being mixed

with the small of coal, culme, or breeze.

NOTES AND QUERIES. University of London.— The following is the list of the candidates who have passed the recent D.Sc. Examina.

Our Notes and Queries column was opened for the purpose of tion :-Branch IV. (Inorganic Chemistry.)—T. Carnelley,

giving and obtaining information likely to be of use to our readers

generally. We cannot undertake to let this column be the Owens College ; F. Clowes, Royal College of Chemistry means of transmitting merely private information, or such trade and private study. Branch VI. (Electricity, treated Ex

notices as should legitimately come in the advertising columns. perimentally.) - J. G. MacGregor, private study. Branch

Absorbing Power of Charcoal.-Can one of your readers oblige

me with a simple method for ascertaining the absorbing power of XII. (Vegetable Physiology.)–E. B. Aveling, University I charcoal samples? —DISINFECTOR,

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CHEMICAL NEWS,} Action of Certain Kinds of Filters on Organic Substances.

. ,


chlorate of morphia. I propose, however, to make accurate Τ THE CHEMICAL NEWS, determinations of the extent to which • silicated carbon "

may be loaded with morphia.

I am continuing the experiments, and, in the meantime, VOL. XXXIV. No. 868.

I cannot help pointing out how completely my experiments have discredited the dictum that filtration through

thick filters can only remove suspended matter.



If modern chemistry gained a signal triumph over the

great Berzelius in the notable contention, re Chloracetic A SOLUTION of hydrochlorate of morphia in common Acid, it would appear that very ignoble results have at: London water was prepared by taking ?:320 grms. oftended the victory. hydrochlorate of morphia, dissolving it in water, and

Abandoning the untenable ground then taken, it would diluting the solution to 10 litres.

In this manner a

now appear that hydrocarbons, and their oxy- or other solution containing oʻ132 grm. of the hydrochlorate per derivatives, subjected to the action of chlorine, evince, litre of water was obtained. Submitted to the ammonia among other multiple or additive results, at least two process this solution was found to yield 2-60 m.grms. of isomeric substitutional changes--one by which the hyalbuminoid ammonia per litre. Five litres of this solution dride becomes a chloride, leaving the radical untouched; were then allowed to run through the same silicated carbon the other by which one H of the radical is replaced by filter which had been employed for the experiments on

one of Ci. quinine described on p. 4, and the 5 litres of filtrate

Hydride of acetyl becomes, in one case, acetyl chloride ; were then thrown away. In this manner the most simple in the other, chloracetic hydridedisplacement of the liquid occupying the pores of the

(C H302)H. (C H202)Cl. (CAH,C102)H. filter was ensured. About 5 more litres of the solution were next run through the filter, and the filtrate was One necessarily simple and unique, the other would examined with the following results :

doubtless vary isomerically, as the radical may have a Milligrammes of albuminoid ammonia per litre of more complex genesis. liquid-No. 1, O'06 ; No. 2, 0'04. Showing how com- Prof. Odling has treated this subject, but not with his pletely the filtration had removed the morphia from the accustomed felicity and clear penetration (see Phil. solution.

Magazine, March, 1876,"On the Formulation of the Paraf. As a further corroboration, advantage was taken of the fins and their Derivatives ");"By the replacement of reducing properties possessed by morphia, which deco. one Cl for one H a great variety of paraffins are attainlourised standard solution of permanganate, and which able, as CzHCl, C4H,çi, &c., the residues constituting may be titrated with such a solution.

the paraffin or alcohol monad radicals, propyl, butyl, Before submitting it to filtration 100 cubic centimetres amyl, &c. of the solution of morphia reduced 8.5 c.c. of decinormal* • But this action gives rise to at least two distinct

isomers, and a study of their formative and transformative permanganate solution.

After filtration 100 c.c. of the liquid did not reduce any reactions leads to the conclusion that the difference be. appreciable quantity of the permanganate. Thus it has tween them depends upon whether they result from a subbeen proved that one single filtration through a thickness of stitution of the introduced radical for the H of a methyl

, 6 inches of “silicated carbon” is sufficient to remove or of a methylen residue; the paraffin radicals resulting morphia from a solution containing 132 m.grms. of the in this way from the introduction of a foreign radical in hydrochlorate of morphia in one litre of water (or 9'24 the place of H, &c., affording the means for their classifi. grains per gallon.)

cation. Thus:Having arrived at this result, I next endeavoured to

Butyl (primary). Pseudo-butyl (secondary) reach the limit of strength capable of being dealt with by



C2H5 these filters. I dissolved 2-739 grms. of hydrochlorate of

ICH morphia in 3 litres of distilled water, thereby getting a solution containing 913 m.grms. of that salt per litre of Iso-butane.

Iso-butyl. Kata-butyl tertiary.

(CH2C1 water (or 63.91 grs. per gallon).

(CH This solution, as will be seen, is capable of decolourising

нс усны

HC CH3 decinormal permanganate solution at the rate of 59 c.c.


(CH; of permanganate per 100 c.c. of the morphia solution. Whether residues are synonymous with radicals, and

It was poured on a very small silicated carbon filter ; whether both are tri., di-, mono-, or anhydric, and also tri-, the first half of the filtrate was rejected and the second di-, and mono-atomic, does not clearly appear from the half examined. The filtrate was at first found to contain context. much morphia, but after making it pass and re-pass How purely visionary or hypothetic these fundamental through the filter the morphia was so far reduced in conceptions are does not appear to have disturbed the quantity that 100 c.c. of the filtrate decolourised only Professor at all. An alcohol may be considered a water 2 c.c. of decinormal permanganate, showing that about derivative28ths of the morphia had been absorbed by the filter. To

, attain this result, five or six passages through the filter were required.

or a paraffin derivativeUntil I break up the filter and weigh the fragments of the cake, I cannot say with accuracy how much silicated carbon has been required to absorb the morphia. Roughly, but these condensed forms are very optional, and must be however, the weight of the cake may be set down as

referred to their fundamental basis. 1000 grms, and, at that rate, 1000 grms. of silicated car

Pentane, for instance, may be considered a propyl. bon is capable of absorbing at least 2 grms. of hydro

* This solution contained 0'4 milligramme of active oxygen per
cubic centimetre,


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