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Platinum Combustion Tubes. August 18, 1876.
67 PLATINUM COMBUSTION TUBES.
then attached, and a stream of nitrogen passed through
the apparatus so as to displace the air, and the analysis In Liebig's system of organic analysis glass combustion conducted in the usual way.
If the combined weight of the combustion tube and tubes are employed, to the exclusion of either metallic or porcelain retorts. But the chemists who first performed boat, with their contained oxide of copper, is known before ultimate organic analysis occasionally used metallic com
ignition, then the loss after combustion will represent the bustion tubes, and Henry, in his work on chemistry, pub- the substance analysed contained no oxygen, then the
amount of oxygen abstracted from the cupric oxide, and if lished in 1826, states :-" The tube for containing the mixture of the oxide and the body to be analysed is by bulbs will be equal in weight to the oxygen lost from the
amount of oxygen found in the potash and sulphuric acid some preferred of copper, by others of crown or green oxide of copper. But should the body contain oxygen bottle-glass; but glass tubes seem, on the whole, to be
then the difference between the amount of O lost by the preferable to metallic ones.”
Although glass combustion tubes have been successfully cupric oxide and that found combined with the H and c used for a number of years, yet it is questionable whether will represent the amount of O present in the substance glass is really the best material from which to construct
analysed. apparatus intended to bear exposure to high temperatures. manner above described it would be possible to perform a
With a platinum tube filled with cupric oxide in the A glass tube, as a rule, can only be used once, and when succession of analyses, thus greatly economising time. several analyses have to be performed "charging” the This arrangement of apparatus is based on purely theore. combustion tube becomes an extremely irksome duty.
tical considerations. I have had no opportunities of For filling the combustion tube is an operation which requires strict attention to minutiæ, a slight deviation from practically testing the value of platinum combustion tubes. some rule being sufficient to vitiate the results. And
C. J. H. W. even when a tube has been carefully filled there is always
Bhagulpore, Bengal. a chance that it may either crack or “ blow out " during ignition. If an analysis could be performed in a few minutes an
PHOSPHINE (PH3). unsatisfactory result would be of trifling moment; but when the time spent over an analysis is remembered, a defective combustion means the loss of some hours' The only method of obtaining absolutely pure phosphine labour.
is by the decoinposition of phosphonium iodide by water, Platinum is apparently well suited for the construction which yields PHz and HI, but very pure phosphine may of combustion tubes, and if tubes of that metal could be be obtained by the action of sodic ethylate on P in employed it is probable that the time spent over mecha- alcoholic solution. The evolution of gas commences on nical details in organic analysis would be considerably warming slightly, and will continue regular for some days. lessened. A platinum tube about 18 inches in length, and from a strong alcohol solution the excess of hydrogen open at both ends, would be of convenient size for a com- rarely aniounts to more than 15 per cent. bustion tube. Itsinternal diameter might be rather narrower Aqueous and alcoholic solutions of ammonia (nitrine) than that of a glass tube, while its sides need not be thicker produce, when digested with phosphorus, mere traces of than that of an ordinary crucible. One end of the tube ; phosphine, only either at the ordinary temperature or ought to be provided with a platinum cap, which should the boiling point. either slide or screw on, so that the junction between the Clear phosphorus inmersed in strong alcoholic amtwo may be gas-tight at a red heat.
monia ard exposed to light (direct sunlight when that Given, then, a tube as above described: the question could be obtained) for a period of nearly six months, arises-How is it to be filled with cupric oxide ? The yielded only a very small amount of gas containing a following is a simple plan :
trace of phosphine merely, a white crystalline deposit (1.) The inner surface of the tube is to be coated with forming on the sides of the glass vessel in very small
copper. This is done by filling the tube with quantity. (It appears to be only white phosphorus.) a solution of cupric sulphate, and then decom- Similar formation of crystals was noticed by Commaile.
posing the salt by means of voltaic electricity. A smaller amount of similar looking white crystals (2.) The tube having been well washed and dried, a mixed with red phosphorus formed on the sides of a
cylinder of tightly-rolled fine copper gauze, about Aask containing aqueous ammonia to which phosphorus
potash solution used for generating it; even strong (3.) The tube with its contained cylinder of copper glycerin with only 1 to 2 per cent water when treated
gauze is now heated to redness in a combustion with potash and phosphorus gives off the spontaneously
W. R. H. The substance to be analysed should be mixed with Royal College of Chemistry. cupric oxide, and placed in a platinum“ boat” about 5 inches in length; one end of the “boat” ought to be filled with dry potassic chlorate.
CYANOGEN. been fitted on, and the potash and sulphuric acid bulbs attached, the whole of that portion of the tube which contains the 9 inches of cupric oxide can be heated to red. CYANOGEN, in solution in alcohol or water, rapidly ness, and the analysis conducted in the usual manner. undergoes decomposition, para-cyanogen, ozulmic acid,
By using small tubes, which could readily be weighed, and ammoniacal products being formed. it would be possible to determine the loss of oxygen ex- With absolute alcohol saturated with dry gaseous perienced by the cupric oxide during a combustion. cyanogen in the dark, a colouration due to decomposition Suppose it is necessary to examine a body containing was observed to commence after about an hour's exposure CHO. Arrangements would have to be made so as to to sunlight (in February and March); the same solution allow a stream of nitrogen to pass through the apparatus. maintained in darkness required four hours to develop the
The substance to be analysed is to be mixed with cupric same depth of colour. The rate of decomposition is oxide, and placed in the boat." The bulbs, &c., are about the same when ether is used.
August 18, 1876. But when dry chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, crystal- | further portion consists of boiled bones, and even of the lisable glycerin, carbonic sulphide, or benzol are used no green bones a large quantity is generally dry and very colouration or decomposition was found to take place, unlikely to undergo decomposition. How stores of such even after exposure to sunlight for three months. In the materials can produce effects at all comparable to those case of the solutions which do undergo decomposition, of a crowded church-yard, where the bulk of the mat.er such as alcohol, all the cyanogen is not removed or de- deposited is of a putrescent nature, Dr. Adams might find composed in the space of three months. A solution in it difficult to show. absolute alcohol made in March (1876) still yielded a But there is yet a third class of emanations—volatile cyanogen distillate in June.
compounds of arsenic and antimony. The sulphuric acid
W, R. H. employed contains arsenic, generally in the state of Royal College of Chemistry.
arsenious acid. This arsenious acid, in the process of dissolving bones, coprolites, apatite, &c., is decomposed by the chlorides, Auorides, &c., present, and there is, in
consequence, an evolution of such delightful compounds PLASTIC SULPHUR.
as arseniuretted hydrogen, chloride and fluoride of arsenic,
&c. It may perhaps be interesting to know that plastic in sulphuric acid, is not to be disputed. Nor can the re;
Now the presence of arsenic in pyrites, and consequently sulphur may be formed at the ordinary temperature. action by which it is said to be volatilised be pronounced When sulphuretted hydrogen is passed into water containing iodide in suspension, hydric iodide is formed and i impossible. But that it is given off to the extent here retained in solution, and a mass of sulphur is formed
assumed may well be questioned. If arsenic is as widely which may be drawn out into threads, and behaves in all diffused and as generally present as Dr. Adams holds the respects like the plastic sulphur formed in the usual way greater is the probability that it may have been present by heat.
not in the suspected material but in some of the reagents The whole of the sulphur is not in the plastic state, employed. We should like to know whether, in all the there being some ordinary precipitated sulphur intermixed investigations described or referred to in this pamphlet, a The colour is light red, due to iodine or probably a
so-called “blank experiment "was first made to eliminate
this source of error. sulphur iodide.
W. R. H.
But there is yet a further question :-To what extent Royal College of Chemistry.
can chlorides and fluorides of arsenic and antimony be mixed with moist air, and to what distance can they be conveyed without undergoing decomposition ? We should
recommend Dr. Adams to take a station 600 yards from a NOTICES OF BOOKS.
manure works-the distance of Bunchrew House from the inculpated factory--to draw a few thousand litres of air through water and to examine the resultant solution
for arsenic. On the Presence of Arsenic in the Vapours of Bone
Let us now examine the three sources of death and Manure ; a Contribution to Sanitary Science. By disease alleged to be given off from manure works, as here JAMES ADAMS, M.D.
laid down. Miasms or organic poisons could scarcely It appears that early in the present year a gentleman in meet with a more efficient corrective than chloride of the north of Scotland, whilst passing into a railway arsenic, fluorine, and other of the volatile compounds said station," encountered a volume of offensively smelling to be given off. On the other hand sulphuretted hydrogen vapour that was suddenly disengaged from a bone manure and sulphide of ammonium are admirably calculated to works, which (somewhat singularly, in our opinion) prac. purge the atmosphere of arsenical fumes. tically forms part of the station.” He immediately, as
We have had abundant occasion to examine chemical we are told, became sick and faint, and “continued manure works, and have observed not merely the provomiting until he reached Inverness," where, in spite of prietors, officials, and workmen, but the population of the the best medical advice there to be procured, he died on respective neighbourhoods. But there were neither the fourth day after encountering the evil odour. His mysterious and inexplicable deaths, nor a generally previous health is represented as having been excellent. lowered tone of vitality. The only complaints we have On this fact, which, we should say, indicated some ever heard had reference to the injury to vegetation from peculiar idiosyncrasy or very abnormal susceptibility on the fumes escaping from the chambers. We consider the part of the deceased gentleman, Dr. Adams founds a ourself fully justified in declaring that if manure works serious charge against chemical manure works in general. were the sole or the most formidable sanitary nuisance in The nuisances which they occasion are, according to
existence we should have reached the condition of Dr. our author, of a complex nature. There are, first, the Richardson's model city. We should recommend manure gaseous exhalations from decomposing animal matter, makers to take every practical precaution (as indeed most which, we are told, “may not only cause a nuisance but of them already do), but we must protest against their they may kill." Of these gases carbonic acid and sul- being singled out for special condemnation on the score phide of ammonium are given as examples. We believe of a single case. If we load chemical manufacturers with it is rather uncommon for these two compounds to be conditions which render it impossible for them to work at thrown off from a manure works in such an amount as to a profit the result is not difficult to foresee. affect the health of the vicinity.
There are next miasms, morbid poisons, or organic poisons, the causes of fever, cholera, &c. These are by Tables forming an Appendix to W. Dittmar's “ Manual of many authorities considered as solid organised bodies, merely held in suspension in the air. Dr. Adams, how
Qualitative Chemicals Analysis." Edinburgh : Edmonever, pronounces them “another class of gaseous exhala
ston and Douglas. tions proceeding from decomposing animal matter.” We have some time ago had an opportunity of expressing However this may be he ventures to consider a manure our opinion of Mr. Dittmar's valuable manual.
The works as dangerous, on this score, as a crowded church collection of tables, issued an appendix, embrace yard. To this view we must take decided exception. Metals, their mechanical and physical properties, and The amount of putrescible matter received in ordinary behaviour in the heat (an un-English expression); be. manure works is very small. A large part of the bones haviour of metals with aqueous reagents; properties of worked up arrive as bone-ash and as spent bone-black; a the more important metallic oxides ; metallic oxide and
Notices of Books. "} August 18, 1876.
69 dry-way reagents; generic reactions of mineral acid solu-, strange remark that since the researches of Darwin "no tions of groups of metallic oxides ; data for the discrimina- one will accuse savants of being devoid of imagination !" tion of the oxides of the silver and copper groups; data Further on we are told—“Let the Darwinists continue for the discrimination of the oxides of the arsenic, iron, their interesting romance.” From some occult reason barium, and magnesia groups; general scheme for the the countrymen of Lamarck look coldly upon modern analysis of a complex of metallic oxides dissolved in Evolutionism, and have contributed very little to the reaqueous mineral acid or alkali; examination of filtrate cent progress of the organic sciences. from sulphuretted hydrogen precipitate ; conspectus of The account of the experiments of Prof. Heckel, of methods for detection of non-metallic elements ; action of Montpellier, on the action of substances which hasten the salts on general acid detectors; and general scheme for germination of seeds, ends with a curious, and as some the analysis of solids. The tables are printed on good of our readers will think, an impertinent reflection :paper and the characteristic reactions are brought promin- " Who knows? pharmacy, which does so much evil to ently before the reader.
man, may, by way of compensation, do some good to vegetables."
There is an interesting notice of the effects of the rareAnnual Record of Science and Industry for 1875. Edited fied air of high mountains upon the human life. The by Spencer F. Baird. London: Trübner and Co.
monks of St. Bernard rarely exceed the age of 35, and
the majority of them die between 25 and 30. At the This useful record has now reached its fifth annual Little St. Bernard, according to Dr. Niepce, none of the volume, and in our opinion maintains its satisfactory cha- inhabitants attain the age of 45. The author nevertheless racter. In addition to a classified selection of extracts thinks that moderate elevations, say from 800 to 1500 from scientific journals and the Transactions of learned metres, are favourable to health and vigour. Here, al. societies, there is a general summary of scientific and in though the amount of oxygen inhaled is smaller, yet, dustrial progress during the year 1875, an obituary of according to Jourdanet, the carbonic acid is eliminated eminent scientific men, and a bibliography, which, how-more readily from the blood, and the vital energy may be ever, does not profess to be exhaustive.
consequently greater. We believe that few discoveries, inventions, or other It is mentioned as a curious fact that ashes from the scientific facts of importance, will be found to have been great fire of Chicago fell in the Azores on the fourth day omitted, and, as there is in every case a reference to the from the commencement of the conflagration, whilst the original authority, the work will be invaluable to all who empyreumatic odour led the inhabitants to suspect that wish to know the general results obtained during the past some great forest was burning on the American continent. year. Much that is novel cannot be expected, since a According to the investigations of Dr. Viand Grand considerable time must elapse after the expiration of the Marais the bite of the common viper is much more danyear before such an extensive assortment of facts can be gerous than is commonly supposed. Out of 362 cases compiled.
which he has recorded, 63, or rather more than one-sixth, The classification of subjects is—Mathematics and as: have proved fatal, one of the deaths occurring in two tronomy, terrestrial physics and meteorology, general hours after the bite. It is remarked that in all these cases physics, chemistry and metallurgy, mineralogy and " ammonia had been largely employed,” though we do geology, geography, general natural history and zoology, not learn in what manner, The question is somewhat botany, agriculture and rural economy, domestic and complicated by the fact that there are two species of vehousehold economy, mechanics and engineering, technol- nomous serpents in France, as indeed in all the more ogy, materia medica, ar.d miscellaneous. This classifica- southern parts of Europe,-the_true viper, “pelide" tion might doubtless be amended in several respects, but (Pelias Berus), found also in England, and the asp methodological accuracy is not in request in England, * aspic" (Vipera aspic), well known and dreaded in Illyria, where the majority of the “respectable and intelligent Southern Hungary, &c. The latter is decidedly the more classes cannot even discriminate between "science"
dangerous. At the same time, however, our attention has and "art,” and apply the former term to very strange just been called to a reputed fatal case in England. A pursuits.
young man, named George Thompson, was bitten by a
viper, whilst ascending Leith Hill, on July 27th, and died Causeries Scientifiques. Par HENRI DE Parville. Paris
on the 29th notwithstanding medical treatment.
The section on vaccination and the small-pox may J. Rothschild.
prove interesting during the present agitation anent the This work has now reached the fifth year of its useful compulsory vaccination-laws. The author's views would
The present issue, like its predecessors, gives a scarcely, we fear, find grace in the eyes of the Local brief, chatty, and readable account of recent discoveries, Government Board. He says—"No, vaccination does inventions, and other topics of scientific interest.
not place you in any case absolutely out of danger. Vac. The first paper, on the invasions of the sea, contains, cinated, re-vaccinated, re-vaccinated again, you may still among other things, a hypothetical map of the ancient contract small.pox during an epidemic.". These views, isle of Atlantis,-not in accordance with the modern which are declared to be those of the highest medical Dutch theory, and a somewhat better established chart authorities, certainly detract not a little from the glory of the coast of France in the times when Jersey and popularly ascribed to Jenner. Alderney were still part and parcel of the mainland. It On the sewage-question the author takes the opportu. is a somewhat unpleasant fact that the lands submerged nity of committing himself. He says-"Chemical prowithin the last few thousand years seem generally to have cesses of purification are costly and inefficacious. The had mild climates, whilst the territories recently elevated sulphate of alumina, on which so much dependence has -such as certain parts of Siberia--are not merely cold been placed, certainly clarifies sewage; the gelatinous and dreary in themselves, but are the lair whence the late alumina agglutinates the solid substances, but the disCanon Kingsley's favourite wind issues to desolate West-solved matters, mineral and organic, are nowise retained (!) ern Europe.
It clarifies ; it does not purisy.” It is somewhat strange The next chapter contains an account of the "patent if chemists have still to learn that salts of alumina are colours.” of Croissant and Bretonnière, and of the tem- perfectly able to precipitate not merely suspended, but pered glass of M. de la Bastie, though the rival process dissolved organic bodies. Centuries of experience in of M. Siemens, of Dresden, seems to have been over- dyeing and lake-making have put this beyond doubt. looked.
Nor must it be thought that colouring-matters are the A notice of the recent discoveries on the carnivorous only organic compounds capable of thus uniting with habits of certain plants is introduced, with the somewhat nascent alumina. "It must further be remarked that in
August 18, 1876. the best precipitation processes the salts of alumina, iron, | Analytical chemistry, chemical technology, metallurgy, &c., are supplemented by bodies which have the power of and organic chemistry. In the first year the course of absorbing and occluding the impurities, or of effecting chemical technology includes the following subjects :their decomposition by the transfer of oxygen from the wood, peat, coal; charcoal, coke, gas, artificial illuminaatmosphere.
tionı, tar, and its derivatives; by-products of the manuThe radiometer of Mr. Crookes is described and figured. facture of coal-gas ; products of the dry distillation of Mention is made of the objection of Prof. 0. Reynolds, wood; acetic acid, naphtha; mineral oils, nitre, nitric and of the experiments by which it has been met. The acid, gunpowder ; the alkali manufacture ; sulphur, its author adds that M. Faye, a member of the Academy of distillation and purification ; sulphuric acid, salt-cake, Sciences, has long ago maintained that the rays of the soda-ash, caustic soda, hyposulphite of soda, recovery of sun were endowed with a repulsive force. Dr. Coilongue, soda from waste products; hydrochloric acid, chlorine, also, the inventor of the dynamoscope, published, about and bleaching-powder; salts of potash and soda; magne, three years ago, a treatise on the attractions and repulsions sium and aluminium, iodine, and bromine. In the second of elder-pith under the action of solar heat and of that of year the student enters upon tinctorial chemistry, the the human body. “It is important to refer to these manufacture of glass and earthenware, soap, wines, sugar, works from the point of view of historic truth, although explosives, &c. As far as possible opportunity is given to they are not able to diminish the honour of Mr. Crookes's the students to see the actual working of the processes discovery."
whose principles they have under consideration. The question of animal automatism, recently resusci- The professors in the University are Europeans or tated, is also discussed here, and is very naturally extended Americans, but there is a regular staff of native assistants, from the rest of the animal kingdom to man.
and no doubt the services of foreigners will be dispensed We cannot further multiply extracts from this volume, with as soon as there are natives sufficiently trained for but we have, we trust, furnished proof sufficient that it is the purpose. The Japanese are far too astute not to see replete with interesting and suggestive matter.
that the nation which relies upon foreign talent and invention must ultimately see its own children sink down
to be “ hewers of wood and drawers of water. The Errors of Homæopathy. By Dr. Barr Meadows.
A laboratory sufficient for all present wants has been London: G, Hill.
built and fitted up. It comprises a large analytical room,
a convenient lecture hall, store-rooms, office, &c. Appa. The fundamental principles of Homeopathy do not appear ratus, both chemical and physical, seem to have been to advantage in the "fierce light" of Dr. Meadows's liberally supplied. The works on chemistry and physics criticism. Still we may doubt whether many of the class
in the University Library amount to 2697 volumes. who, as patients, put their faith in Hahnemann and his
The arrangements for the study of biology are scarcely system will be either willing or able to follow the train of
so complete, but we learn with pleasure that the students reasoning presented in this pamphlet. Perhaps for the
are encouraged to form botanical and zoological collecgeneral public the most telling argument against the tions. We are suprised to find such an utterly unsatisview that the power of a medicine is increased by dilution factory work as 'Guizot's “ History of Civilisation” or “ attenuation " is the rejoinder that if that be the case selected as a text-book in the course of instruction on the same must hold good with contagions. Yet they are
history and philosophy. Will it be surprising if some universally allowed to be rendered less powerful and day Japan should become one of the seats of research, active, just as ventilation is more perfect, in other words
whilst England, suffocated by competitive examinations, just in proportion as they are diluted. A majority of the believers in Homoeopathy, however, characteristic of the far East ?
reaches that state of immobility which we once thought will decline to discuss principles and confine themselves to the success of some Homeopathic practitioner or hospital. This argument is very fully met. In Fleischmann's celebrated Homeopathic Hospital, at Vienna, the mortality is actually greater than-in fact, nearly double
CORRESPONDENCE. - the average mortality of half a dozen English provincial infirmaries and hospitals. Yet in the former the proportion of really serious, not to say incurable, cases is much WELDON'S PROCESS FOR THE MANUFACTURE the smaller. Somewhat amusing are the two counter
OF CHLORINE. testimonials at the close of the work. An amateur Homeopathist declares “it is a national calamity and nothing else when a doctor is converted.” On the other
To the Editor of the Chemical News. hand, a qualified Homeopathic physician denounces the Sir, In the portion of your translation of Dr. E. Mylius's credulity of his amateur colleagues and laughs at their contribution to Dr. Hofmann's “ Report on the Developsupposed cures !
ment of the Chemical Arts during the last Ten Years,”
which appears in the CHEMICAL News, vol. xxxiv., p. 33, The Calendar of the Tokio Kaisei-Gakko, or Imperial facture of chlorine which bears my name," the following
Dr. Mylius says, with respect to the process for the manu. University of Tokio, for the year 1875.
account is founded partly on Mr. Weldon's paper in the The wonderful progress of the Japanese in Science and CHEMICAL News (vol. xxii., p. 145), and partly on his Industry has already attracted general attention, but inany letter to Dr. A. W. Hofmann, dated March 12th, 1874." of our readers will doubtless be surprised to hear of the In the portion of the same translation which is given in existence of a university so well organised and so amply the CHEMICAL News, vol. xxxiv., p. 55, Dr. Mylius fitted with every needful appliance. As a specimen of attributes to me, as having been made in the letter referred the arrangements we give some of the particulars of the to, the statement that M. Kuhlmann, among others, was department of applied chemistry, which is placed under "preparing," at the date of that letter, to adopt the prothe superintendence of Prof. R. W. Atkinson. Before cess in question; and on this Dr. Hofmann says in a entering this special department "the student must have foot-note :-"On September 18, 1874, I found in the completed the general course of study in the Kaisei- establishment of M. Kuhlmann no preparations for the Gakko, or have passed a satisfactory examination in the introduction of Weldon's process." English language, Inorganic Chemistry, Mathematics, As I am thus made to appear in the Berichte and in your and Elementary Physics." The course of study occupies columns, as having written to Dr. Hofmann something three years and comprises the following subjects :- | which is not true, I am sure I shall not count in vain on
August 18, 18%.} Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.
71 your permitting me to show how utterly unjust is the through any lack of the most conscientious care. But the position in which that foot-note places me.
foot-note does me grave injustice all the same. Here, Sir, are the ipsissima verba of what I said about On another occasion I may ask your permission to point M. Kuhlmann in my reply, written on March 12, to the out certain errors into which Dr. Mylius has fallen in his letter which Dr. Hofmann had addressed to me on account of the chlorine manufacture. Meantime I conFebruary 22, 1874 :-" The process has also been adopted clnde by entreating of your courtesy that this letter may in France by the Compagnie de St. Gobain, and is on the appear in your to-morrow's issue if possible.--I am, &c., point of being adopted by M. Merle, M. Kuhlmann, and
WALTER WELDON. other French manufacturers." I thus simply did not use
Abbey Lodge, Merton, Surrey, August 17. the expression attributed to me by Dr. Mylius, to which Dr. Hofmann attaches his foot-note. And as regards the expression I did use, I can conceive no form of words more exactly fitting the facts as they stood then. M. Kuhlmann had accepted a license for the use of my pro- CHEMICAL NOTICES FROM FOREIGN cess as early as April, 1870. He had not at that time
SOURCES. actually determined to adopt my process, but was waiting, like so many others, to see the results of Mr. Deacon's. The time came, however, when, on each occasion of my
Note.-All degrees of temperature are Centigrade, unless otherwise visiting Lille, he spoke of the adoption of my process as a
expressed. thing now settled and decided upon, to be carried into effect so soon as the necessary attention could be spared
Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances, de l'Acadenie for it. Early in 1874, before the date of my letter to Dr.
des nces. No. 2, July 10, 1876. Hofmann, I had been shown the site in the works at Influence of Physico-Chemical Forces on the Loos, which had been determined upon for my apparatus ; Phenomena of Fermentation. – H. Ch. Bastian. I had had prepared, at M. Kuhlmann's desire, the drawings The author concludes from his experiments that the ferand specifications from which, with some modifications, mentation of urine is absolutely independent of germs the plant now at work there has since been built; I had which exist in the air. been consulted as to whether certain existing vessels and Mineralogical Notices.-M. F. Pisa ni.-An account constructions could not be turned to account for it, and
of the Amesite, of Chester (Massachusetts); Euchlorite; it had been decided that some of them could and should
from the same locality: yellow Spessartine, of St. Marcel be, and that others of them could not; and I had received in Piemont; and Bastite from Elba. repeated and positive assurances that the construction of the plant would be commenced either towards the end of
No. 3, July 17, 1876. the year then current, or at the beginning of 1875. Under Note on the Fermentation of Fruits, and on the these circumstances, I thought then, and I think now, Diffusion of the Germs of Alcoholic Ferments.-M. that to say that M. Kuhlmann was “on the point of
L. Pasteur. adopting " the process was to put the matter as accurately as it could be put without entering into unnecessary
Note on the Alteration of Urine, with reference to detail.
a Communication by Dr. Bastian.-M. L. Pasteur. And surely, Sir, looking back now on what has happened
Intercellular Generation of the Alcoholic Ferment: since, it is plain that the expression which I used in M. L. Fremy.—These three papers are rather biological March, 1874, has been justified by the event, notwith than chemical, and relate to the vexed question of sponstanding that M. Kuhlmann was a year longer in getting taneous generation. to work than M. Merle, who was equally spoken of in the Fourth Note on Electric Transmission through sentence in which that expression occurs. I believe that the Soil.-M. Th. du Moncel.-Not adapted for abstracM. Kuhlmann's apparatus was not actually ordered until tion. January, 1875; but I have before me as I write evidence
Measure of Electric Resistance in Liquids by that M. Kuhlmann had opened negociations with the Lancashire firm of engineers, of whom he eventually
means of the Capillary Electrometer.-M. G. Lippbought the mechanical part of it as early as July 17, 1874, so that this negociation had been commenced two months
Transformation of Saccharose into Reductive before that visit to Loos on which Dr. Hofmann “found Sugar during the Operations of Refining.-M. Aimé no preparations for the introduction of Weldon's process." Girard. -- Among the impurities which have an effect on
Earlier even than that, namely, in the month of May- the yield obtained from crude sugars in refining, practical four months before Dr. Hofmann's visit to Loos, and only
men place in the first rank the reductive sugar found two months after my letter of March 12-at a meeting at
among the products of the cane. Till lately it was Paris of the French Association of Chemical Manufacturers admitted that this glucose by its mere presence threw a M. Kuhlmann had said "Although I am myself the in
double proportion of saccharose into an immovable state. ventor of a process for the regeneration of manganese, I
Doubts have latterly been thrown upon this explanation; am going to employ, not my own process, but Mr.
the facts are beyond dispute. The author finds that Weldon's."
saccharose is alterable not merely in an acid medium, but In the face of these fa&s I cannot understand Dr: Hof;) Peligot has already pointed out that under various con
even in such as are neutral or verge upon alkalinity. mann's foot-note. That he "found " .. no preparations," &c., is quite intelligible in the sense that he saw no new
ditions glucose becomes converted into acid compounds, constructions on behalf of the process either in progress or
and in that state doubtless acts upon the saccharose. completed; but how he failed to become informed of how Detection and Determination of Magenta and far those "preparations” had been carried which neces- Arsenic in Wines Artificially Coloured. M. C. sarily precede constructive work is very puzzling. I am
Husson.—The author places a few grms. of the suspected not concerned, however, with the fact stated in the foot. wine in a phial, and adds a little ammonia, when the note, but merely with the manner of stating it. It is so mixture turns a dirty green. He then steeps in the liquid put as to do me very serious injustice. I am quite satis- a thread of white woollen yarn, withdraws it when satufied that the injustice is wholly accidental; and the far rated, places it vertically, and allows a drop of vinegar to higher qualities which we all know to be united with the Aow along it. If the colour of the wine is natural, as the splendid intellectual gifts of Dr. Hofmann, and which have drop advances the wool returns to its original whiteness, made him for so many of us not only a hero but almost an but if the wine has been sophisticated with magenta it is idol, make it certain that the accident has not befallen I dyed of a rose, deeper or paler. He has also examine