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Augnst 4, 1876. Vanadium, we find, is stated to be worth 28,680 francs and Christ Church, Oxford ; G. W. Mackie, B.A., private per kilo., or, in round numbers, seven times as much as

study ; H. Major, B.A., private study; H. F. Morley, gold.

B.A., University College ; M. F. O'Reilly, St. Joseph's Action of Ammonia and the Compound Ammonias College, Clapham ; J. A. Owen, private study'; J. H. upon the Phospho-platinous and Phospho-Platinic Paul, private study ; J. M. Raby, B.A. ; Owens College ; Chlorides.-M.G. Quesneville.-Not adapted for abstrac- H. L. T. Sack, B.A., private study; R. K. Sen, Edintion.

burgh University; G. Severs, private study; J. Shirley, Researches on Viscous Fermentation.-M. A. Com- private study; T. B. Silcock, private study; G. T. Smith, maille.—The continuation of a lengthy treatise.

private study; J. Stephens, University College and private Resorcin, and its Different Methods of Preparation. College ; J. T. Wright, private study; R. B. Yardley,

study ; T. E. Vasey, private study; W. L. Wills, Owens -M. F. Reverdin,-Reserved for insertion in full.

University College. Second Division : A. Atmaram, Colouring Matters Derived from Resorcin.-M. L. University College ; B. Borrah, University College; W. Durand.- Reserved for insertion in full.

K. Griffin, University College ; E. J. Hodges, private Use of Alkaline Sulphides in Dressing Hides.- study; T. Isherwood, Owens College and private study; A. Gelis.--The author points out that the use of alkaline M. Knowles, private study; L. Larmath, Owens College; sulphides in removing the hair from hides represented as a W. Palmer, University College ; J. Runciman, private recent German invention is really due to MM. Boudet and study; B. J. Snell, B.A., New College ; J. Trubert, St. Domminge, who took out a French Patent for the process Joseph's College, Clapham; H. W. Turner, University as early as 1838.

School, Hastings, and private study; H. Ullyett, private Importance of Sulpho-carbonates as a Remedy for study; J, B. Wohlmann, B.A., private study. the Phylloxera.-(Extract from a report read April 25, at the session of the General Council of Saône et Loire.) The writer maintains that the sulpho-carbonates, though

PATENTS. successful in small experimental operations, have proved a failure when tried upon a practical scale. New Volumetric Process for the Determination of


SPECIFICATIONS. Astringent Matters.-M. F. Jean.—Already noticed,

Improvements in the treatment of human excreta, and in the manu. Freezing Machines with Sulphurous Acid.—M. facture of manure therefrom, and in the apparatus employed therein. Raoul Pictet.- This paper is, in a great measure, modelled

F. G. Whitwham, Cannon Street, London. (A communication from

F. A. Bonnefin, Island of Mauritius.) April 2, 1875.--No. 1195. This upon the section on artificial cold in Dr. Hofmann's

invention relates to the treatment of human excreta, and to the proBerichte, which appears in the Chemical News.

duction of manure therefrom, and consists of a peculiar process of and apparatus for effecting the deodorisation or disinfection of the solid and liquid portions together, and of the liquid portion separately, in

order to fix the salts and gases, and render the excreta capable of Bulletin de la Société d'Encouragement pour l'Industrie being employed as a manure for agricultural purposes. Nationale, No. 31, July, 1876.

An improved method of and apparatus for treating fæcal matters so

as to destroy their noxious qualities and to obtain useful products This issue contains nothing of scientific interest. therefrom. W. E. Newton, Chancery Lane, Middlesex. (A commu

nication from A. Sindermann, Breslau, Germany) April 3, 1875.No, 1216. The fæcal matters are first subjected (under great heat) to

distillation, and thus are separated into their solid and gaseous or Les Mondes, Revue Hebdomadaire des Sciences, volatile parts. Whilst the solid matters remain behind in the retort, No. 10, July 6, 1876.

he volatile or gaseous parts pass through a tube into a vessel in which

the tar is deposited, and from thence they pass into other parts of the This issue contains no chemical matter.

apparatus, and are at last converted into illuminating gas.

"Improvements in the composition and manufacture of bituminous and No. 11, July 13, 1876.

other compounds, and in the application of such compounds to paving

and other purposes. G. Clark, Craven Buildings, Drury Lane, MiddleThe Abbé Moigno writes :-Having studied the radio. sex. April 5, 1875.–No. 1230. (1) The production and manufacture meter made by MM. Alvernnat Frères, I am inclined to

of a bituminous compound, having asphaltum as its base, and in blocks believe that the movement must be ascribed to an effect similar in character to native rock asphaite, and designated in the of reađion exercised by the gas which, first absorbed by easily heated in a copper, and readily used when so heated for paving the blackened surface of the discs, is disengaged in dark or other purposes. (2) The combination of wood with asphaltum or ness, re-absorbed under the influence of light, again any other bituminous or other plastic compound in the form of blocks evolved, &c. He connects the phenomena of the radio-compound contained in a wooden box or frame or part of a frame, meter with the attraction and repulsion exerted by light forming an outer casing, wholly or partially, to the said block, and upon plants.

laid down as paving in the manner described in the Specification.

(3) The use of sawdust or any vegetable particles of fibre, wool, or Experiments on the Combustion of Organic Matter hair as part of the materials, separately, or any one of them mixed under the Double Influence of Heat and Oxygen.- with one or more of the others in any bituminous compound made as M. Désiré Loiseau.-An interesting paper, which would Improvements in the manufacture of sugar. A. V. Newton be of little value except accompanied by the needful Chancery Lane, Middlesex. (A communication from F. 0. illustrations.

Matthiessen, New York, U.S.A.) April 5, 1875.-No. 1234. The contents of the vacuum pan (consisting at this stage of the manufacture of crystal foating in a medium of syrup) are run out through a cock or valve in the bottom thereof into a separate vacuum chamber where a

further concentration is effected before submitting the sugar to the MISCELLANEOUS.

clarifying operation.
Improvements in the preparation

of oils to fit them to be mixed with varnishes or dissolved gums. M. Zingler, Buckland Crescent, Belsize

Park, Middlesex. April 8, 1875.-No. 1276. Castor oil or other nonUniversity of London.—The following is the List of drying oil to be mixed with varnishes or dissolved gums is prepared by the candidates who have passed the recent first B.Sc. heating the oil with a small proportion of anthracen, or by adding to

it without heat a small quantity of tetrachloride of carbon. Linseed examination :—First Division : A. Black, private study ; oil or other drying oil is prepared in a similar manuer, so that it may T. Bolton, University College ; E. H. Cook, Royal mix without heat with varnishes or dissolved gums: or linseed or College of Science, Dublin; R. H. Cotton, B.A., Owens other drying oil to be mixed with varnish is prepared by dissolving

rosin in the oil by means of heat, and turpentine or methylated spirit College ; A. Cutfield, Epsom College ; A. W. Dallmeyer, are then added. University College; W. Fisher, B.A., private study; W. Improvements in treating and refining tallow and other fatty subFream, Royal College of Science, Dublin ; T. Gough, Provisional Specification describes melting tallow, and mixing it

stances. R. Lavender, Kircaldy, Fife. April 9, 1875.-No. 1291. This private study; W. H. Higgin, Owens College; E. Hop- with naphtha; when cold it is bagged and subjected to pressure, by kinson, Owens College ; W. E. Hoyle, Owens College which the oily matters and solvent are expressed.

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Improvements in the treatment of sulphur ores. A. A. Croll, Cole- the action of the sulphur on the colour. The compound obtained is man Street, London. April 10, 1875.-No. 1307. The object of the then cured and ground to reduce it into particles of the size required. invention is to subject ores containing sulphur to a certain degree of These particles are then mixed with the dough of ordinary vulcanite heat obtained by the passage of atmospheric air through charcoal, in proportions varying with the effect desired to be produced, and then coke, or other carbonaceous matter in the state of ignition. For this tormed and cured. By these means effects are obtained very much purpose the chamber for the ignited carbonaceous matter is in direct resembling granite and other stones or marbles in appearance. communication with one, or it may be several, close chambers con. Improvements in the mode of and apparatus for treating fibres for taining the sulphur ore to be acted upon. To facilitate the action of the manufacture of paper. T. H. Gray, Grant Road, Clapham the heat on the ore, such ore is previously broken up into compara- | Junction, Surrey. April 17, 1875.-No. 1412. I cut up straw, bamboo, tively small particles, and these are supported on grating or reticulate or other substances into lengths, say of 1 inch more or less, and subject work, the openings through which are close enough to prevent the the cut material to the action of rotating beaters contained in a fixed particles of ore passing through, whilst they yet admit of the free cylindrical case, armed at its periphery and at its sides with steel bars passage of the fluid sulphur obtained by the action of the heat.

or blades. The materials are then submitted to a boiling process, with Improvements in the manufacture of aerated waters, and in apparatus the addition of chemicals to reduce the fibres to pulp. and vessels therefor. W. F. C. S. Corry, Belfast, Antrim, Ireland. April 12, 1875.-No. 1318. The manufacture and preservation of aërated waters free from noxious ingredient or objectionable metallic THE CHEMICAL NEWS or other impregnation, and the construction of apparatus and vessels therefor, consisting in whole or in part of glass, china, delst, porcelain, clay, earthenware, pottery, agate, flint, marble, or other stone, cement,

JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE. alabaster, enamel, glaze, platinum, gold, silver, ivory, bone, horn, ebonite, vulcanite, india-rubber, gutta-percha, asbestos, leather, hide,

Edited by WILLIAM CROOKES, F.R.S., &c. wax, shellac, resin, catgut, teak, cork, ebony, lignum-vitæ, oak, hornbeam, or other wood, paper, or other plastic material, or of a combination of the same, which may be imbedded or enclosed within, or con. Published every Friday. Price 4d. Annual Subscription, post free. tain, or be supported by, metai or a combination of metals, or be used

including Indices, £1. for coating or plating the apparatus or vessels heretofore employed.

Improvements in the manufacture of alkali. H. G askell, Widnes, CHARGES FOR ADVERTISEMENTS. Lancaster. April 12, 1875.- No. 1323.' This invention relates to that

£ s. d. stage in the manufacture of alkali in which black ash is made in re

Five lines in column (about 10 words to line) 0 3 6 volving furnaces: consists in first charging the furnace either with

Each additional line salt-cake and a portion or the whole of the "slack," or with salt-cake

Whole column

I 15 0 alone, and when the salt-cake has "fluxed" or "softened,” so that it

Whole page ..

3 occupies less space in the furnace, adding the remainder of the charge. Improvements in the manufacture of candles. P. Lombardon,

A reduction made for a series of insertions. Sydenham Park, Kent. April 12, 1875 - No. 1327. To this end I make Cheques and Post-Office Orders, crossed "London and County use of tallow (by preference the soap made according to an improved Bank,” payable to the order of William Crookes. process for which I have obtained Letters Patent, dated October 27,


Improvements in the treatment of sewerage with a view of extracting the fertilising products therein contained, and in the apparatus em

THE London. (A communication from G. P. Harling and J. R. Johnson; QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF SCIENCE. Rum Gaillon, Paris.) April 13, 1875.-No. 1335. This invention describes the extracting fertilising products from sewerage by allowing

Edited by WILLIAM CROOKES, F.R. S., &c. the liquid to flow in wide and shallow currents over a very slightly inclined surface: the tendency of this arrangement is to cause a rapid settlement of the solid matter, which is removed or dried by currents

Now ready No. LI., July, 1876, price 5s. of air.

CONTENTS, Improvements in apparatus to be used in disinfecting linen and bedclothes, and the walls, ceilings, and floors of rooms, and for other like

1. On the Geological Age of the Deposits containing Flint Impurposes. l. Teychenné, Birmingham, Warwick. April 13, 1875.

plements, at Hoxne, in Sussex, and the Relation that No. 1337. This invention consists of a pan or vessel, portable or

Palæolithic Man Bore to the Glacial Period. By Thomas fixed, divided by a vertical division into two compartments, on: com

Belt, F.G,S. partment consisting of a closed vessel in which the disinfecting vapour

II. A Scheme of Water Supply for Villages, Hamlets, and Country or gas is volatilised or generated, and the other compartment con

Parishes of the Central and Eastern Counties. By Prot sisting of an open vessel or chamber for receiving the linen or bed

Hull M.A., F.R.S., F.G.S.

III. Vivisection. clothes to be disinfected. The bottom of this chamber is charged with the disinfecting material, and the linen or clothes are laid upon a per

IV. Infusorial Earth and its Uses. forated partition. By the application of heat to the bottom of the

V. The Nizam Diamond - The Diamond in India. By Captain

Richard F. Burton. apparatus the disinfecting material is volatilised in both chambers, and by the action of the vapour or gas directly generated in the

VI. Certain Phases of Bird Life. By Charles C. Abbott, M.D. clothes-chamber, and that conveyed to it under pressure from the

VII. The Loan Exhibition of Scientific Apparatus at South Ken. other chamber, the clothes or linen are thoroughly disinfected. By

sington. means of a flexible pipe on the top of the closed vessel or chamber the Notices of Scientific Works, Progress of the Various Sciences, &c. disinfecting vapour or gas may be directed upon walls, ceilings, and floors of rooms, or other surfaces it is wished io disinfect.

London: 3, Horse-Shoe Court, Ludgate Hill, E.C. A new method for removing the incrustation from boilers of steam tion of metal. V. Felice, Rome, ItalyApril ,

EXPERIMENTAL MILITARY, and NAVAL SCIences, At the time steam is to be got up the following specific is to be intro- under the direction of Professor E. V. GARDNER, F.E.S., &c., duced into the boiler through an aperture in its upper part. 1 kilo. of

of the late Royal Polytechnic Institution and the Royal Naval College. japan earth (that is to say, catechu); 50 grms. of sal ammoniac; The Laboratory and Class Rooms are open from 11 to 5 a.m. and 75 grms. of sumach, the whole forming the quantity for each ten from 7 to 10 p.m.daily. horse-power engine. Improvements in the purification of water and other fluids. T.

Especial facilities for persons preparing for Government and othe

examinations. Spencer, Euston Square, London. April 15, 1875.-No. 1368. The Private Pupils will find every convenience, object of this invent is to consolidate granular magnetic carbide Analyses, Assays, and Practical Investigations connected with (used for the purification of water) into solid but porous magnetic blocks of any shape by treatment in an oven in mixture with flour,

Patents, &c., conducted. and then by increasing the heat to give the same coherence sufficient

For prospectus, &c., apply to Prof.E V.G., 44, Berners-street, W to render them applicable for portable and other filters. The means

TANNENBAUM, oxide or ferruginous refuse, and applicable to similar purposes.

37, FITZROY Improvements in bleaching fabrics, yarns, fibres, paper pulp, and

STREET, offers Jewellers, Mineralogists, Lapidaries, and other articles. F. Wirth, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Germany. (A com

especially Collectors of Rare Cut Gems (which he possesses in all munication from V. V. Baerle, Worms, Germany.) April 15, 1875.- existing

kinds), large Collections of Fine Hyacinths in all Colours, No. 1382. I lay the article to be bleached first in a cold solution of

Clear Spanish Topazes, Blue and Yellow Amethysts, Jargon, silicate of soda. After the operation the stuff is pressed out. The

Olivine, Fossils, Fine Collections of Shells, Thousands of Indian material is then worked with cold water, and placed in a weak solu.

Pebbles. Polished Agates, &c., Starstones and Catseyes, Garnets, tion of chloride of lime. The stuff is bleached in weak hypochlorite of Cape: Rubies, Fine Slabs of Lapis Lazuli, Fine Emeralds in the lime.

Matrix, Fine Crystallised Rubies and Brazilian Topazes, and Improvements in the treatment of that preparation of india-rubber

Thousands of Rare Opals. Specimens and for Cuttings. Orders commonly called vulcanite. W.C. Henderson, Pownall Road, Dalston,

effected to all parts of the world. Middlesex. April 17, 1875.-No. 1404. The object of the invention is to obtain various coloured effects in vulcanite. India-rubber is combined with colour to the depth of colour or tint desired, and to the

and Potash, in large or small quantities, and either solid combination obtained is added sulphur as may be required for the

or in solution, at ROBERT RUMNEY'S, Ardwick Chemical purpose of the conversion of the india-rubber, and having regard to Works, Manchester

finging the percention et successive incrustations and for the preserva. BERNERS COLLEGE OF CHEMISTRY.


Water-glass, or Soluble Silicates of Soda

CHEMICAL NEWS, 54 Advertisements.

Aug. 4, 1876. CAST-IRON COILS.



Can be made any Length or Diameter,

Newfall Tar Works, Carlton;

and Ammonia Works, Stockton-on-Tees.

anufacturer of Benzole, Toluole, Xylol For Testimonials and particulars, apply to

Solvent and Burning Naphthas, Cartolic Acid and Disinfecting ANDREW BELL & COMPANY, LIMITED. Tar, Crude Liquid Ammonia, Galvanising Salts, Coal-Tar, Pitch

Powder, Refined Anthracene, Naphthaline, Black Varnish, Refined Carr Hall Iron Works,

Creosote, Grease, &c., &c.

S.A. s. is always a buyer of Coal-Tar Naphthas, Crude Anthracene, HASLINGDEN, LANCASHIRE.

and all Tar Products.

All communications to be addressed to the offices at Middlesbrough. MINERALS AND FOSSILS.

Also Rock Specimens, British and Foreign Shells,
Crustacea, Microscopic Objects, Glass-

Capped Boxes, Card Trays, Tablets, &c.

Specimens sent for Selection to known or approved applicants.


of AMMONIA, VITRIOL, Brown and Rectified, Catalogues Free,







Sold by all Dealers throughout the World.




Catalogues on application.
Contracts supplied in large or small quantities of the following
Minerals :

BECKER & SONS, Rotterdam,


ASSAY, ANALYTICAL, PHARMACEUTICAL, cal Purposes ; free from rust and smalls. All percentages guaranteed from 60 per cent to 80 per cent.

Depot : Garston Dock.

Stocks always on hand.
SALT.-Supplied to all Railway Stations in England, Scotland,

Sole Agents for England, Ireland, and Wales :-
and Wales. Also by Sea to any Port, at Lowest Prices, for
Chemical and all other requirements.


89, BISHOPSGATE ST. WITHIN, LONDON. Balances are exhibited at the South Kensington Museum, and

Samples kept in stock by their Agents,
BOILER MAKERS, ENGINEERS, AND T. & M. will forward complete Ilustrated Catalogue on receipt of

postage stamp id.


(Late Page & Tibbs),

47, BLACKFRIARS ROAD, S.E., Makers of every description of Chemical,

Colliery, Copper Ore, Gold Continues to supply the Trade with Phosphorus, Chlorate of Potash Mining and Glass Machinery, including Crown, German Sheet, and Pure Acids, Pyrotechnic and all other Chemicals, Pure and Commercial Plate Glass Plant, as supplied to some of the largest Firmsin England,

at the Lowest Prices. Ireland, Scotland, and Wales.

SPECIAL QUOTATIONS ON APPLICATION. Makers of the latest Improved Revolving Black Ash Furnace with Siemens's Patent Gas Arrangement, and as used in the Manufac

47, Blackfriars Road, S.E.
ture of Soda.
Improved Valveless Air Engines, and Pumps or Acid Forcing, Air

Agitators, Compressors for Collieries, and Weldon's Patent Chlorine

Plymouth Tar & Chemical Works,
Caustic, Chlorate, Decomposing, and Oxalic Pans.
Gas Producers for Heating Furnaces.

Pyrites Burners for Irish, Norwegian, and Spanish Ores.
Retorts, Acid Gas, Nitre, Nitric Acid, and Vitriol Refining.
Improved Steam Superheaters for Resin Refining, &c.

Maker of Refined Anthracene, Naplttha (Crude and Improved Steam Sulphur Pans.

Rectified), Creosote, Lubricating Oils, Grease, Disinfecting

Powder, Pitch and all Tar Products, Sulphate of Ammonia. Photographs, and other information, supplied on receipt of Orders.




CHEMICAL, News, Mineral Phosphates and Superphosphate of Lime.
August 11, 1876.

55 THE CHEMICAL NEWS. acid for the development of chlorine, and passes again

through the same rotation as a mixture of chlorides of

magnesium and manganese. The hydrochloric acid, VOL. XXXIV. No. 872.

which is given off about the end of the evaporation, is exactly sufficient to evolve concentrated chlorine from the solution of chloride of lime, into which the diluted

chlorine obtained by roasting the residue from the evapoREPORT

ration has been transformed. Hence only that part of

the hydrochloric acid is lost which is consumed in decom. DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHEMICAL ARTS

posing the hypochlorite of lime, whilst 62 per cent of the

chlorine which enters the process in the form of hydroDURING THE LAST TEN YEARS.*

chloric acid is utilised in the free state. In this manner By Dr. A. W. HOFMANN.

it is possible to obtain 1000 kilos. chloride of lime with (Continued from p. 45.)

the hydrochloric acid evolved from 700 kilos. of common salt. The magnesia and manganic oxide are not con

sumed, but merely play the part of transferrers of oxygen. Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, and Fluorine.

Preparation of Chlorine according to Deacon. If By Dr. E. Mylius, of Ludwigshafen.

Weldon has succeeded in preparing chlorine from hydro. The use of Weldon's process is decidedly increasing. In chloric acid in a continuous process without, theoretically the beginning of 1874 the annual produce in England on at least, requiring more than one initial charge of native this system was 50,800,000 kilos. chloride of lime, and manganese, the problem of converting hydrochloric acid plant for the further production of an equal quantity was

into free chlorine, without the formation of any by-proin the course of erection, whilst the previous annual pro- duas, has been much more completely solved by Deacon. duction on the old system did not exceed 91,440,000

It has been long ago proposed to utilise for the manukilos. In Germany the “Silesia” establishment at

facture of chlorine the well-known property of cupric Saarau has carried on Weldon's process with advantage chloride to be decomposed on heating into chlorine and for several years. In Belgium, according to Mr. Weldon's cuprous oxide, which latter in a current of air yields account, the works at St. Marie d'Oignies, near Charleroi, copper oxychloride ; but the experiment was never carried have introduced the process. In France the same step out on the large scale. The same applies to the fact, has been taken by the St. Gobain company, whilst Kuhl. likewise long ago known, that hydrochloric acid mixed mann,t Merle, and other manufacturers are preparing to with air and passed over ignited porous bodies is partially adopt the new method. In Saarau, where, as already converted into chlorine and water. Deacon has succeeded mentioned, Weldon's process has been in operation for in founding upon the combination of both these reactions some years, it is carried on exa&ly as above described. a process which enables us to obtain chlorine continuously The consumption of lime for the regeneration of material without the formation of any troublesome residues what. for 100 kilos. of chloride of lime is 70 to 75 kilos. inclusive of the sediment which becomes useless in preparing milk

(To be continued.) of lime. To regenerate enough for 2500 kilos. chloride of lime air is forced in for five to five and a half hours, and from 75 to 80 per cent of the manganese present is con- MINERAL PHOSPHATES AND SUPERPHOS. verted into peroxide. The air-pump employed works

PHATE OF LIME.* with 45 horse-power, and has a cylinder of 7*32 c.m. in diameter, and 94•16 in height. The piston makes 40

By WALTER C. REID. strokes per minute. The loss of peroxide of manganese

(Concluded from p.50.) at Saarau amounts to about 10 per cent (von Kulmitz).

The above-described process for the regeneration of manganese residues has one deficiency. A portion of the

German or Nassau Phosphate, deposited, like the Borhydrochloric acid is used to saturate the lime of the deaux variety, in pockets, is found chiefly in the neighcalcium manganite, and both lime and hydrochloric acid bourhood of the rivers Lahn and Dill, in Nassau. Some are generally allowed to escape in the almost worthless of it is of a yellow colour, breaking with an earthy state of chloride of calcium. To obviate this defect fracture; other portions have the appearance of pieces of Weldon has planned a modification of his process which phosphate, cemented together with ferruginous clay, and renders it practicable to obtain as much as 62 per cent of in rare cases it appears in a crystalline form. The richest the hydrochloric acid employed in the form of free chlorine, varieties are of a light yellow colour, and tolerably free whilst only a small quantity of chloride of calcium is from iron, &c.; but the predominating lower qualities are formed as a by-product. He attains this result by decom contaminated with much iron ore, clay, limestone, &c. posing the manganese solution not with lime, but with

Analysis of German Phosphates. magnesia. For this purpose the process is modified as follows :—The liquid derived from the evolution of chlorine

Triphosphate of lime

58 to 65 per cent. Carbonate of lime ..

5 to 8 out of magnesium manganite, containing chloride of

Iron and alumina

10 to 15 magnesium and manganese, is evaporated at first in a

Insoluble matter pan and then in a kind of muffle, whilst a current of air is constantly passed through. Towards the end of the From these phosphates there is no difficulty in making evaporation the chloride of magnesium under the influence superphosphate quite dry, but they invariably set ex. of watery vapour yields hydrochloric acid, which is con- tremely hard, and they therefore require much breaking densed. After the liquid has been evaporated to a certain up. Very few cargoes of German phosphates arrive in consistence the salts are drawn upon a hearth, where this country now. they are roasted in a current of air. Here chlorine is

Spanish and Portuguese Phosphorites generally go under evolved, diluted with air, and is combined with milk of the name of Estremadura phosphate, from the province lime in a scrubber, whilst manganite of magnesium re- in Spain where it is chiefly found. It is hard, of light * " Berichte über die Entwickelung der Chemischen Industr‘e | less mixed with quartz, and becomes phosphorescent when

yellow colour, crystalline stru&ure, and generally more or Während des Letzten Jahrzeaends." + On September 18, 1874, I found in the establishment of M. Kuhl.

heated. It is tolerably free from iron' and alumina, but minn no preparations for the introduâion of Weldon's process.A. W. H.

* A Paper read before the Newcastle-upon-Tyne Chemical Society.



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Mineral Phosphates and Superphosphate of Lime.

Chemical News,

August 11, 1876. contains variable and often considerable quantities of

Analyses of Sombrero Guano. fluoride of calcium.

Triphosphate of lime from 69 to 76 per cent The following are some analyses of Estremadura phos. Carbonate of lime

to 4 phate :

Iron and alumina

7 to io
Fluoride of calcium

1} to if Triphosphate of lime.. 72 7807

72-6 80.6

Insoluble matter
Carbonate of lime


Nil. 4'2
Iron and alumina

When Sombrero guano is dissolved by itself, it makes a

8.8 Fluoride of calcium

51 3!)

high grade superphosphate of a light yellow colour. Insoluble matter.. 4 II'4

Navassa Guano, from the coral island of that name in 183 12'3

the Caribbean Sea, is of a reddish brown colour, and conIn dissolving, from 30 to 33 per cent of the phosphates sists of globular grains of phosphate of lime cemented in the superphosphates is rendered soluble ; but, owing to into hard masses, and contaminated with a good deal of the small quantity of carbonate of lime in the mineral, the iron and alumina. It is found chiefly in the cavities of superphosphates when first made are generally dense and the rocks which form the framework of the island. damp, and require some time to get into good condition. Norwegian and Canadian Phosphates.—Under the

Triphosphate of lime .. from 55 to 70 per cent

Carbonate of lime.. name of apatite, we import from Norway and Canada

4 to 6

Oxides of iron and alumina.. small quantities of phosphatic minerals, obtained from

15 to 18 veins in the primitive rocks. They are hard and crystal

Iron and alumina (as phos

8 to 10 line, of vitreous lustre, and of various shades of colour,


Fluoride of calcium white, yellowish white, and greenish white. According

Insoluble matter to Voelcker, the Norway apatite contains no fluoride of

4 to 5 calcium, but the Canadian a great deal. Neither contain Superphosphate of lime, when made from Navassa any carbonate of lime, and only a little iron and alumina. alone, is exceedingly hard and tough, and proportionately Some parcels have tested above go per cent of phosphate low in strength. of lime, but on an average they do not exceed 75 per cent. Curacoa and Malden Islands both furnish guanos, but The following analyses represent the best qualities :- they have lately been almost entirely sold on the Con

tinent, where better prices seem to be obtainable. In Norway. Capada.

these the phosphate of lime is in an unmineralised state, Triphosphate of lime..

90°74 9120 and in a fine state of division, they contain but little carIron and alumina

bonate of lime, and are almos: free from oxide of iroc, Fluoride of calcium

7.60 alumina, and silicious matter. They range in quality Sand, &c.


O'go from 65 to 80 per cent of tribasic phosphate of lime, the Chloride of calcium


0978 average being about 70 per cent. The lower qualities The apatites are the only mineral phosphates that con

are, however, almost as valuable proportionately as the tain an appreciable quantity of chloride of calcium. In higher, in consequence of there being no oxide of iron, one kind, from Snarum, in Norway, the fluoride of calcium &c., to deteriorate the product, as in the case of most of is, to a great extent, replaced by chloride of calcium, the inferior phosphates, and they are capable of yielding

superphosphates of high quality. thus :

Conversion of Mineral Phosphates into Superphosphates. Triphosphate of lime ..

gr:13 per cent

-It is scarcely necessary to remark that the phosphatic Choride of calcium


materials are mixed with sulphuric acid with the object of Fluoride of calcium


converting the unavailable natural phosphate of lime into From apatites alone it is difficult to make dry and

a state to be assimilated by plants, and, if we assume that powdery superphosphates; but, by mixture with weaker the acid acts upon all the ingredients simultaneously, we phosphatic minerals that contain more carbonate of lime, shall probably have the following decompositions :they work very well indeed.

(1.) Triphos. of lime + acid=biphos. of lime and sulphate of lime. Guanos.-As non-nitrogenous guanos, we receive phos- | 12.) Carb. of lime + acid = sulphate of lime and carbonic acid. phatic materials from the West Indian Islands. These (3.) Fluoride of calcium+acid=hydrofluoric acid and sulphate of lime. are called Sombrero, Navassa, Malden, and Curacoa, after the islets from which they are taken, and they are dis

Hydrofluoric acid + silica=gaseous fluoride of silicium. tinguished from the Peruvian, Mejellones, and Ichaboe (4.) Oxides of iron and alumina + acid = sulphates of iron and alumina. kinds by the almost entire absence of ammonia, by the small quantity of organic matter, and by the large propor

Phosphates of tion of insoluble phosphates which they contain.

Sulphates of iron and alumina + biphos. of lime= iron, &c. Sombrero rock or crust guano was at one time largely

Sulphate of lime. imported into England, but at the present time very little There can be no doubt about the action of the acid arrives in this country. It is quarried on Sombrero, one the phosphates and carbonate of lime ; nor can there be of the group of the Leeward Islands in the Caribbean Sea; much doubt about the decomposition of the fluoride of an islet about two and a half miles long, three-quarters of calcium ; for hydrofluoric acid and fluoride of silicium are a mile wide, and not more than 20 or 30 feet above the shown to be in the evolved gases, first, by the fact that level of the sea, and which is entirely composed of this glass is etched when brought into contact with them; and phosphatic substance. . Fragments of bones are found in secondly, by the depositing from them of pure gelatinous the rock, and it is supposed to be a breccia of bones of silica and hydrofluosilicic acid, resulting from the action turtles and other marine vertebrata, coral debris, &c., of moisture upon the fluoride of silicium. collected before the elevation of the islet above the water, But, if the oxides of iron and alumina are converted into and cemented together since by the droppings of birds sulphates, it will not account for the gradual precipita. carried down through the mass by rains.

tion, or "going back" of some of the soluble portion of It varies in colour and texture, some being porous and superphosphates, which continues for some time after sriable, whilst other specimens are dense and compact. being made. Recent importations have contained less iron and alumina Irihe acid is in sufficient quantity and powerful enough and more carbonate of lime than formerly, and from this to decompose the fluoride of calcium, ii seems strange it is inferred that the rock (at present worked from under that it should not also dissolve the iron and alumina ; but the sea) is mined in close proximity to the coral rock on the most probable way to account for “ reduced phos. which it rests.

phates," is to suppose, that, a portion at any rate; of


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