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July 28, 1876. vention, chloride of copper is volatilised; and it is by this invention tion of water and other liquids. H. Rawlings, Stamford Street, obtained in a dry state from the gases issuing from the apparatus by Lambeth. March 23, 1875.--No. 1053. The nature of this invention passing them through a suitable column or tower made of stone or is to provide a means of controling the currents of liquids passing other suitable material, and partly filled with pieces of burnt clay or through any filtering medium and substance by mechanical arrangeother similar material, the whole arrangement acting as a "scrubber ments and dispositions in the filtering vessels to attain this result, and of the gases, and being kept at any temperature between that at which to construct portable and table filters on an improved plan, that aqueous hydrochloric acid gas condenses, and that at which chloride storage of filtered waters may be unnecessary. Also to provide a of copper sublimes, say about between 300° ard 600°F. The chloride

ready means of regulating the flow of water through filters in the of copper condenses in this apparatus in a state much like wool, and

total quantity of liquid delivered, and for entirely stopping the flow if may be removed from time to time, and utilised; and this method of required. separating chloride of copper from gases containing it may be em- Improvements in the treatment of slag or scoria, and of iron. J. J. ployed whenever these gases containing it are obtained in the manu- Bodmer, The Grove, Hammersmith, and L. R. Bodmer, Lansdowne facture of chlorine by any other process than the process described Road, Notting Hill, Middlesex. March 23, 1875.-1054. Our invention herein.

consists, first, in disintegrating or granillating the scoria or slag from Improvements in apparatus for ventilating mines. W. Knott, Wigan, blast-furnaces and other furnaces by means of jets of water directed or and 1. Rudd, Blackrod, near Wigan, Lancaster. March 12, 1875.- projected against the flow or s ream of slag on its issuing from the No. 916. Our invention consists in placing the wings of ventilating furnace or runner. Secondly: in disintegrating or granulating iron in fans at an angle to the axis instead of parallel thereto as now usual; its liquid condition as its flow from the furnace or runner by jets of also in making the casing of such fans of cast or wrought-iron instead water, and also in disintegrating, granulating, and partly fining the of brickwork; also in varying the discharge orifice by means of a pair iron by using jets of steam either alone or together with jets of water, of plates hinged together, and moved to and fro in the flue; also in the

the disintegrated iron falling into water. use of one or more stationary plates that are put into the flue at various

Improvemerits in the manufacture of glucose-sugar, and in ob'aining distances from the sides to reduce the discharge orifice; also in infusions and extracts for brewing and other purposes J. N. Lessdriving the said fans by means of steam-engines set diagonally on the ware, Bow, Middlesex. March 24, 1875.-No. 1083. The invention frame supporting the fan-shaft.

consists, first, in causing the materials to circulate continuously Improvements in apparatus for the evaporation or concentration of

through the converter, whereby the process of converting them into fluids at high or low temperatures with or without the application of a glucose or grape-sugar is accelerated, the same process being also current oj air or steam. W. Morgan-Brown, Southampton Buildings, applicable for obtaining infusions and extracts for brewing ane other London.' (A communication from G. A. Hagemann, Copenhagen.) purposes. Secondly; in decolourising the liquor by means of sulMarch 16, 1875.-No. 965: This invention consists in evaporating phurous acid gas in its passage from the converter to the neutraliser. Auids by letting them trickle down vertical or conical tubes, the outer An improved method of and apparatus for carbonising coal, slack, part of such tubes being heated by steam or fire, and in some cases peat, wood, bones, and other like materials, subjected to a coking procurrents of air, cold or warm, are passed up the interior of the tubes cess, or to destructive distillation, whereby commercial products are in the contrary direction to falling Auid to assist the evaporation by obtained, and the vapours or gases utilised. J. Nicholas, Hope, near removing the vapour or adding to the heat of the liquid being Mold, Flint. March 27, 1875.-No. 1116. The features of novelty evaporated.

which constitute this invention consist in constructing an apparatus, Improvements in the treatment of sugar-cane for the manufacture of being a chamber, oven, or vessel of fire-brick or iron with a range of sugar and of paper-pulp, and in the machinery or apparatus employed fire-bars at the bottom, so arranged that they can be dropped to allow therein. J. H. Johnson, Lincoln's Inn Fields, Middlesex. (A com- the contents of the chamber to lall out. On the top of the chamber munication from ). B. J. Mignon and S. H. Rouart, both of Paris.) there are apertures, and to one of these there is connected a pipe March 16, 1875.-No. 973. This invention has for its object treating which leads to a condenser. The condenser is connected to a purifier sugar-cane in such a manner as to render the extraction of the juice which is connected to an exhausting force-pump. This pump propels more complete, in order to obtain an increased yield of sugar, which the incondensible gases to where they are to be stored or utilised. result has also the effect of bringing the cane-trash into a better con- Attached to the condenser is a pump to free it from the condensed dition for the manufacture of paper, for which purpose it may be products. utilised. According to this invention it is proposed to split the cane Improvements in purifying raw or partly refined sugar. R. F. in the direction of its length before it is subjected to the actual or final Smith, Greenock, Renfrew, North Britain. March 29, 1875.-No.1136, crushing operation.

The feature of novelty which constitutes this invention is the use of Improvements in the manufacture of sulphate of soda or potash and

steam, conjoined with a vacuum, for the purification or partial purifibleaching powder, and in apparatus employed therein. G. D. Mease, cation of raw or partly refined sugar in the manner described, or any Lake Chemical Works, South Shields. March 16, 1875.-No. 977. mere modification thereof. This Provisional Specification relates to the manufacture of sulphates Improvements in machinery or apparatus for the manufacture of by the direct action of sulphurous acid, air, and steam upon chlorides pulp for paper. De'Angelis Rocco, Rome, Italy., March 31, 1875.of sodium and potassium. Also the processes for producing chlorine No. 1155. The wood from which the pulp is to be made is first cut and for preparing lime for the manufacture of bleaching-powder. into very small pieces by means of a revolving cylinder provided with

Improvements in the manufacture of soap. S. S. Lewis, Southamp- a very large number of steel knives, under which is drawn a carriage ton Buildings, London, and A. Copie, Bolsover Street, Middlesex. on which the wood is fixed. The wood thus prepared (or straw or March 17, 1875.-No.988. The said invention relates to the mode of

rags may be employed) is then placed in a cylindrical wooden vessel and means for improving the qualities and decreasing the cost of containing water, and provided with a mixing wheel. Sulphurous hard, soft, and toilet soaps. We dissolve ordinary soap, and mix with acid gas is introduced into this vessel, and the substances under operathe solution china clay or other ingredient. We use this compound as tion are converted into a colourless pulp, which is then conveyed to a a vehicle or body to hold the chemicals: we also add to the compound hopper, from which it passes on to an endless cloth, and thence between a portion of poudre de savon de palm. We add perfume when the a revolving granite cylinder and concave granite bed. A tube then compound is cooling for the toilet soap in the usual manner. The conveys it to a drum provided with three receivers, and the pulp detergent or cleansing property of this soap is the silicate of soda. which has become reduced to the requisite degree of fineness passes

Improvements in forming the hearth of puddling-furnaces. W. Inns, through a metallic wire gauze into a box beneath. The pulp, not Stockton-on-Tees, Durham. March 18, 1875.-No. 1005. According sufficiently reduced passes out of the drum, and is carried back by a to my invention I'take best tap" in the liquid state direct from the chain-pump to the hopper, to be again passed under the granite cinder bottom furnace, and before it becomes cocl cover with a layer cylinder. of the same of suitable thickness the cast-iron plates of the hearth of the puddling furnace.

Improvements in the manufacture of colouring-matter suitable for dyeing and printing. T. Holliday, Huddersfield, York. March 20

NOTES AND QUERIES. 1875.-No. 1031. Chlorinated or brominated anthrachinon, obtained as described in the Specification of Letters Patent granted to Charles Liebermann and Charles Graebe, dated December 18, 1868, No. 3850, Decomposing Furnace.-In reading over the discussion on Jones or otherwise, is heated with strong sulphuric acid until the compound

and Walsh's decomposing furnace (CHEMICAL News, yol. xxxiv., obtained is soluble in water. This product is then diluted with water, p. 28) I see the percentage of sulphate put down from a calculation and the excess of acid it contains neutralised with an alkali or an made during the discussion at 114. Should it not from the data given alkaline carbonate. The clear liquid obtained is then concentrated be rather more, viz., 117*85.-A PRIVATE STUDENT. and heated with caustic alkali, as is now well understood, until the colour is developed.

THE LATE SIR CHARLES WHEATSTONE, Improvements in the manufacture of colouring matters. F. Versmann, Ph.D., Brecknock Crescert, Camden Town, Middlesex. March 20,


tion of the yellow dye, known as chrysotoluydin or phosphine, from The Physical Society of London, with the con

or ,

currence and co-operation of the Representatives of the late the manufacture of rosanilin, by means of bisulphide of carbon or Sir Charles Wheatstone, are preparing to issue a collected edition of petroleum.

his published and unpublished scientific papers. Separate copies of Improvements in converting glassy slag resulting from metallurgical several of the former being wanted for the use of the printers, the operations for the utilisation thereof. F. W. Dahne, Swansea, Gla- undersigned will be glad to receive offers of them on loan or for sale. morgan. March 22, 1875.-No. 1052. This invention mainly consists

DR. E. ATKINSON, York Town, Surrey. in converting the glassy slag resulting from iron blast-furnaces and other metallurgical operations into a stony or basaltic mass, and also

Black Lead (Registered) casting said slag into any shape required. The slag is cast into hot creates no waste or dust by its magnetic adherence to the stove, moulds, which are heated and kept at a high temperature, and then and the cleanliness of application makes this one of the marvels of allowed to cool for about twenty-four hours. Arrangements for household economy.-Sold by all respectable grocers and oilmen in carrying out this invention are described in the Specification.

blocks id., 2d., 4d., and is. boxes. Works, 95, Little Compton Street Certaiu improvements in the construction of filters for the purifica. Soho, London.

Ryall's Chemical

} Chemical Decomposition as Illustrated by Water. August 4, 1876.


phenomena. He held that “dephlogisticated air ” is an THE CHEMICAL NEWS, elementary substance-oxygen-united with imponderable

caloric, and that “inflammable” air, or hydrogen, is VOL. XXXIV. No. 871.

capable of taking the oxygen from the caloric, thus producing water and heat. “ Water is not a simple substance, but is composed, weight for weight, of inflammable

and vital air.” Thus water was at length deposed from METHODS OF CHEMICAL DECOMPOSITION its rank as an element.

In the first year of this century, when the news of AS ILLUSTRATED BY WATER.*

Volta's great discovery of the pile was made known in By Prof. J. H, GLADSTONE, Ph.D., F.R.S.

England, Messrs. Nicholson and Carlisle made various experiments with a series of halfcrowns, zinc plates, and

pasteboard soaked in salt. Knowing that water conducted Among the most venerable of the Chinese classics is the electricity, they inserted brass wires through corks at the “ Shoo King," a collection of ancient historical records ;

two ends of a tube filled with water, which they are and one of these records, the fourth book of Chow, con

careful to tell us came from the New River. They were tains a still more ancient document “The Geat Plan with its Nine Divisions,” which purports to date from the surprised to see a stream of minute bubbles rising from

one pole while the other was corroded, and that this early part of the Han dynasty-according to Dr. Legge decomposition took place at each pole, though they were about 2000 B.C. This remarkable treatise bears on physi, nearly 2 inches apart. They enlarged the distance, and cal as well as ethical philosophy, and commences with an account of the five elements, viz., water, fire, wood, metal, I found that 36 inches of water was too much for their and earth. The first element, water, is said to "soak and their brass wires, they found that the water was decom.

Substituting flattened platinum for descend," and also to “become salt."

This seems to be the earliest known record of that posed with the production of hydrogen at one end and world. In the “ Institutes of Manu," we read of the turned into stone had been previously dispelled by doctrine of elements which spread widely over the ancient oxygen at the other.

The old notion that water, by continuous boiling, was elements also as five, but they are earth, fire, water, air, Lavoisier, but Davy found that some salts and earths and ether; and according to the cosmogony of the Hindoo remained' behind when water was electrolysed, and that legislator, light or fire produced water, and water produced when the experiment was conducted in two cells comearth. There was, however, at least as late as two municating with one another, the liquid in the one cell centuries ago, a sect in India who held it as a religious became acid and the other alkaline. He traced the tenet that water was the prime and original element. Similar opinions found their way to Europe. Thus Bakerian lecture for 1806. He found that the earthly

origin of this in a masterly research, which formed the Thales, of Miletus, who flourished in the sixth century subs B.C., taught that water was the origin of all things. The from the vessels employed; and using gold cones filled

inces were original impurities in the water, or came Greek philosophers generally adopted the theory of several with distilled water and united together by asbestos, he elements, but reduced the number to four-fire, air, earth, convinced himself that nitric acid was produced at the and water. It is hard to say what was the precise meaning attached that these were produced from the small quantities of

positive pole and ammonia at the negative. Suspecting by the ancients to the term “ element.” It no doubt did nitrogen dissolved in the water combining with the not always convey the same idea. Water also, at least in liberated oxygen and hydrogen respectively, he took the Aristotelian philosophy, was a generic expression for extraordinary precautions. Making use of water which many bodies in a fuid condition, and signified not so much a special material substance as an inherent quality performing the experiment in vacuo, or rather in a space

he had carefully distilled in a silver still at 140° F., and of things. Thus it was said to be cold and moist, and the which he had twice filled with hydrogen and exhausted as opposite of fire which was hot and dry. In the philo- thoroughly as the means at his disposal would permit, he sophy of the middle ages we find the same views prevail. I then found that the water was decomposed without the ing, and the early chemists still looked upon water in the

either acid or alkali.

least production same light. Thus Becker enumerated five elements—air, then, wrote Davy," that water, chemically pure, is

It seems evident water, and inflammable, mercurial, and infusible earth ; decomposed by electricity into gaseous matter alone, into while Stahl adopted four-water, acid, earth, and phlo

oxygene and hydrogene." giston. The ancient theory maintained its hold till the

In the following year Davy discovered the metals of the experimental philosophers at the latter part of the alkaline earths, potassium and sodium, and found that eighteenth century gave a definite meaning to the term when these bodies are thrown upon water they decompose element, and showed that water, air, and earth are comit, appropriating its oxygen and setting free its hydrogen. pound bodies. Yet the idea of the elementary character This is due to the superior chemical power or “affinity” of water was not easily abandoned.

of the alkaline metals. In 1781 Cavendish found that when a mixture of what

In 1846 Mr., now Sir William, Grove observed that were then called "inflammable air" and "dephlogisticated air” is exploded by a spark in such proportions that the when steam was subjected to something like a white heat,

small quantities of mixed oxygen and hydrogen gas were burnt air is almost entirely phlogisticated, pure water condenses on the sides of the vessel, and' is equal in always produced.t. It has since been shown that the

gases are actually dissociated in one part of the flame of weight to the weight of the two airs. His theory was

the oxy-hydrogen blowpipe, after their first combination. that water consists of " dephlogisticated air united to

It thus appears that there are three distinct ways in phlogiston," and that " inflammable air is water united to

which water may be decomposed :-By an electric cur. phlogiston.” At the time of explosion, according to him, rent ;I by some substance which has a superior attraction the excess of phlogiston was transferred from the inflam- for one of its elements; or by heat alone. mable to the phlogisticated air, and thus both airs

It will readily be understood that the power of any one “turned into water.” Cavendishi also explained Priestley's of these agents will be augmented by the co-operation of production of inflammable air on heating iron filings strongly, by contending that the phlogiston of iron * Phil. Trans., 1807, p. I. united with the moisture from which they had not been + Ibid., 1847, P. I. freed. Lavoisier gave a different explanation of these

Though voltaic electricity alone is referred to in this discourse, it is well known that other forms of the same agent will effect chemi.

cal decompositions. Thus Prof. Andrews has resolved pure water * A leđure delivered at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, 1 into its constituent gases by fritional electricity, and by that derived Friday, May 5, 1876.

from the atmosphere.

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44 Chemical Decomposition as Illustrated by Water. { ,

August 4, 1876. either of the others. Thus, the action chemical affinity | positing the copper upon the zinc in a spongy condition ; is usually augmented by heat; for instance, if a pellet of then the zinc will be oxidised, and bubbles of hydrogen sodium be thrown upon cold water it melts, on account of will appear among the branches of the copper, even at the the chemical action at once set up, but if upon boiling ordinary temperature, but the effect is greatly increased water it not only melts but bursts into flame through the by the application of heat. greater violence of the action. This is the reason why, in The arrangement just described is the “copper zinc Priestley's experiment, iron at a red heat decomposed couple,” which has been employed by Mr. Tribe and the team, though it will not do so at ordinary tempera- speaker, and more recently by others, to effect a varie:y of

chemical decompositions. Zinc foil is immersed in a soSimilarly the electrolysis of water is much facilitated if | lution of sulphate of copper until a black velvety deposit there is some chemical affinity between the oxygen and of the metal is produced : the soluble salts are then the metallic conductors. It is generally said that it re- washed away, and the couple after being dried is ready to quires two cells to decompose water electrolytically. be placed in any liquid it is desired to decompose. Water Now, it is true that if piatinum poles are employed there was the first body experimented upon, and it was found is no visible disengagement of gas when one cell only is that the action would go on as long as there was any meused; but with zinc poles a single cell of Bunsen or tallic zinc left in union with the copper, the amount of Grove is amply sufficient. Zinc alone without the voltaic hydrogen evolved gradually diminishing, though varying current is incapable of displacing the hydrogen in water; somewhat with the temperature of the day. The great but it must be borne in mind that the tendency to com- influence exerted by heat is, however, better shown in the bine with oxygen is a constant property of this metal, and subjoined table, which gives the results of an experiment is easily brought into activity by the co-operation of the reduced to the unit of an hour's work. feeble voltaic current. The increased effect upon electrolysis which is due to the nature of the poles is in pro

At 2.2° C.

I'I c.c. of hydrogen produced. portion to the electromotive force of the different metals.

5'5 For pure water the order is-zinc, lead, iron, copper, 34'4

13'9 silver, platinum, as tested by a galvanometer. This 55'0

62'0 difference of result according to the nature of the metals


174:6 employed in the electrolytic cell appears generally to have


5280 been overlooked, and it is the feeblest metal-platinum -which is usually employed for experimental purposes,

These figures strikingly exhibit the rapid acceleration doubtless because it is incapable of oxidation-the very of the action at the higher temperatures. reason of its feebleness.

A greater effect may be produced by substituting for the When the other metals of the above list are used, not copper a still more negative metal. Thus a zinc platinum only does the positive pole oxidise, but the oxide, or couple acts with much greater energy upon water. Gold rather hydrate, dissolves more or less in the pure water, zinc couples, and many others also, have been tried, but and becomes itself an electrolyte. The consequence of gold has the practical disadvantage that the precipitated this is that the positive electrode gradually wears away,

metal does not adhere well to the zinc. Aluminium alone while the metal is transferred to the negative electrode, does not decompose water, not even, according to Deville, and is deposited upon it in crystalline fringes or filaments.

at a red heat; but an aluminium copper couple decomWith silver these are particularly beautiful, as they poses it slowly, and an aluminium platinum couple more assume arborescent forms, especially when able to spread rapidly, even in the cold. One of the most recent discocver the surface of the containing vessel.

veries is that aluminium when amalgamated with mercury The temperature also of the liquid subjected to elec- is converted into hydrate, even by the moisture of the trolysis has a great influence upon the result. Thus in air. The most powerful combination, however, might be an experiment where zinc poles and pure water were em

expected to be that of the most positive and the most ployed, the deflection of a galvanometer was found to

negative metal which can be conveniently brought to. increase about fourfold between 5° C. and 80° C., and the gether. These are magnesium and platinum; and in fact, action augmented nearly pari passu with the tempera- if strips of magnesium foil be coated with finely.divided

platinuin by immersing them in platinic chloride, and the A similar result occurs, as might be expected, when two resulting salts be washed away, a couple may be obtained dissimilar metals, such as zinc and copper, are placed in which produces a most vigorous evolution of hydrogen cold water in connection with one another, and the water when it is placed even in cold water. * is heated. The deflection was found to double between The decomposition of water by the copper zinc couple about 30° and 80° C., but the difference for every 5° at the

was of course a matter of little practical importance; it higher temperatures was several times greater than at the does, however, yield hydrogen in a state of purity, even lower ones.

though the zinc be largely contaminated with such a sub. Another very important point in the electrolysis of water

stance as arsenic-a fact which may prove of great conseis to reduce to a minimum the very great resistance offered quence in medico-legal inquires. These observations on by the water itself. This is effected by bringing the elec

water led to a long series of experiments on other bodies, trodes as near to one another as possible; and for the especially organic compounds. The action of the two same reason, if the force be generated by the action of two metals in conjunction frequently effects not only the dissimilar metals upon water, they should be brought into splitting up of a compound, but a re-distribution of its the closest proximity.

elements; and this has resulted not only in the discovery A still more powerful means of decomposing water

of a simple means of producing various substances prewould evidently be a combination, not of two, but of all viously known, but the formation of several others hitherto three agents, chemical affinity, heat, and voltaic force unknown. Thus the first trials were made on iodide of acting at an insensible distance. Thus zinc has a strong ethyl in the hope that Prof. Frankland's beautiful process affinity for oxygen, but is unable of itself to displace the for making zinc ethyl might be simplified ; and not only hydrogen of water; when united, however, with a more was a better result obtained in a shorter time, but when negative metal, such as copper, its power is enhanced to the experiment was performed in the presence of alcohol such a degree that a separation of the constituents does it was found that pure hydride of ethyl was given off, and take place; but in the ordinary arrangement of a voltaic cell the action is so slight that no evolution of gas is per- * Phenomena resulting from different metals in co ceptible. To produce a visible effect, the metals must not frequently been observed by several experimenters, and some of them

are described by Mr. W.N. Hattley in the Chemical News (vol. xiv., only be close together, but ought to touch one another at

p. 73); but it does not appear that the metals have ever been freed a myriad of points. This may be brought about by de. (from concomitant salts, or their action understood or appreciated.





Development of the Chemical Arts. Aug. 4, 1876.

45 a new substance, the iodoethylate of zinc, remained in

REPORT the flask. Among the bodies which may be prepared more easily

DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHEMICAL ARTS or in greater purity by the copper zinc couple are the following :


Olefiant gas.

Methyl hydride. Acetylen. Zinc ethiodide.

(Continued from p. 34.) Ethyl hydride. Propylen. Zinc ethyl. Propyl hydride. Diamyl.

Zinc amyl.

Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, and Fluorine. Amyl hydride.

By Dr. E. Mylius, of Ludwigshafen. The substances that have been discovered by this agency | Whilst air is continually introduced so much lime is are the following:

added that altogether 1'5 to 1.6 equiv. of lime may be

present per i equiv, manganese, so that, deducing the Zinc propiodide


lime necessary to form chloride of calcium, only about propyl Zn(C3H7) 2.

equiv. of lime may be present to 1 equiv. of manganese isopropyl


in the mud produced. This is at first white, but becomes ethylobromide

Zn(C2H5)Br. gradually black as air is constantly introduced. For the iodoethylate ..

Zn(C2H50)I. charge of a cylinder to yield 2500 lbs. manganese there bromethylate

Zn(C2H50)Br. are required, for perfect oxidation, about 4956 cubic metres » chlorethylate

Zn(C2H5Ojci. of air and five hours time ; per lb. MnO2 1.982 cubic

metre of air is therefore requisite, of whose oxygen 14.8 Zinc propyl is a volatile liquid body, of sp. gr. 1.098, per cent is actually utilised. which takes fire spontaneously in the air, burning with a After completed oxidation the black manganese mud is bluish white flame. The haloid ethylates are a new class passed into settling vats, in which it is allowed to deposit of bodies which have been prepared from both ethyl iodide until its volume can be reduced one-half by syphoning off and iodoform, and their corresponding bromine and the supernatant solution of chloride of calcium. The chlorine compounds.

mud thus concentrated contains about 141 lbs. peroxide of The couple has also thrown some light upon the manganese per cubic metre, and is let off into suitable chemical structure of some of these organic bodies, as, vessels for the production of chlorine. for instance, by its different behaviour with the two iso

The advantages of Weldon's process, according to the meric bodies, chloride of ethylen and chloride of ethylidin. inventor, are : -The consumption of muriatic acid is This is a direction in which future investigation is likely smaller than when native manganese is employed, 50 to be rewarded. *

that, at least in England, 4 tons chloride of lime can be This method of quietly bringing about a chemical produced, on Weldon's process, with the same quantity change has found a practical application in the hands of of acid which is required for 3 tons on the old process. Prof. Thorpe for determining the amount of nitrates in In Germany and the Continent altogether the proportion samples of water-a question of great importance, which has hitherto been also one of great difficulty. The nitric may be less favourable, since the English method of acid is reduced by the couple to the condition of ammonia. developing chlorine in large stills by the introduction of

steam is less economical than the Continental procedure In a similar way chlorates are reduced to chlorides.!

in which small chlorine stills are heated externally. But The progress of research by means of the copper zinc

even on the Continent the balance of the consumption of couple was interrupted by the discovery of a curious re- acid is in favour of Weldon's process. The consumption action, by which also water and other substances may be of muriatic acid per ton of chloride of lime is 3301 kilos. decomposed. Metallic aluminium does not attack water

at 21° B. by itself, neither does iodine; but if the three are brought into contact, oxide of aluminium is formed and hydrogen consist of a perfedly neutral solution of chloride of

A second advantage of the process is that the residues gas is evolved ; and not only this, but the solution so calcium, whilst on the old process they consist of the produced will cause the oxidation of any excess of alumi.

more dangerous acid manganese solution and of solid nium with the formation of an equivalent amount of residues not easy to remove from the stills. hydrogen. It is not even necessery that free iodine should

The labour required in Weldon's process is less than be employed, for iodide of aluminium itself will determine the old procedure, and the men are less injured by the oxidation of any amount of metal. This action is chlorine. For, since the agents, manganese mud, milk greatly quickened by coupling platinum with the alumi- of lime, and muriatic acid, and also the residues are all nium. By employing alcohol instead of water a similar liquids, it is no longer necessary to open the stills and action is set up, and this has led to the discovery of

remove the solid residues. Hence every occasion for aluminium ethylate, Al2(C2H30)6, alcohol in which the polluting the air of the still-house by the introduction of replaceable hydrogen is substituted by aluminium. It is chlorine is obviated. The stills are charged and emptied a solid body at the ordinary temperature, but easily melts, by simply opening cocks. and is capable of being sublimed unchanged, its vapour Weldon's process, lastly, is worked more rapidly than burning with a luminous flame and white smoke of the the old method, and requires a smaller number of sand, oxide of metal. Other compounds prepared by this sin

stone troughs, though the latter advantage is out-balanced gular reaction, and the nature of the chemical changes by the cost of the oxidation apparatus. The productive which occur, are at present the subject of study. I

power of a sand-stone apparatus was, on the old process,

1270 kilos. of chloride of lime weekly; whilst on Weldon's * Further particulars respecting the decomposition of water by this method in Allhusen's works, at Newcastle, the weekly special kind of electrolysis may be found in Proc. Royal Soc., 1872, production is 4572 kilos. In the same establishment four p. 218; Report Brit, Assoc. 1872. Abstracts, P. 75; Journal Chem. Socop hours are required for the oxidation of 2500 kilos. of per* Researches on the action of the Copper"Zinc Couple on Organic oxide of manganese, being at the rate of 115 kilos. oxygen Bodies" is given in the Journ. Chem. Soc., 1873, pp. 445, 678, 961; per hour. 1874, pp. 208, 406, 410, 615; 1875, p. 508. See also vol. vii. of Proc. Roy. Inst. of Great Britain, p. 521.

The cost of the process in England as compared with f fourn. Chem. Soc., 1873. P: 54

the old method may be seen from the following stateSince this discourse was delivered, this peculiar reaction has been ments of Weldon's :elucidated in a paper read before the Chemical Society, on "The Simultaneous Action of Iodine and Aluminium on Ether and Com. pound Ethers." An intermediate body, the aluminium icdoethylate, * "Berichte über die Entwickelung der Chemischen Industri A1,(C,H,O),1g, is there described.

Während des Letzten Jahrzenends."

700 kilos.


Atomicity as a Principle of Classification. {


August 4, 1876. Per 1000 kilos. chloride of lime

is also found filling cavities in the quartz. The crystal Weldon's Process.-Labour, 1os. to 175. ; coal, 750

are quite brilliant, of a dark green colour, seldom more kilos.; lime, 1400 kilos. ; lime-stone for saturating the than o'r inch long, and, when occurring in fissures, form excess of acid, 250 kilos.

two series starting from each side of the fissure and Old Process.—Labour, £2; manganese, £6; lime, meeting in the centre. They are also found in nodules

with a stellar arrangement, more particularly in the cavi(To be continued)

ties of the quartz. They are strongly double refracting. Sp. gr. 2.33. They weather into a light yellow wacke. The whole thickness of the vein-matter in which the mica is found is not more than a few inches. The mine in

which it occurs has been worked for gold, and it is in REQUISITE AMOUNT OF SIMPLE FRICTION these micaceous deposits that the greater part of the gold OF SOFT IRON AGAINST COLD STEEL

is found. Some portions are extremely rich, as much as TO MELT IT.

240 dollars having been washed out from a single panful;

and while at the mine I saw 40 dollars taken from a few By B. S. HEDRICK, of Washington, D.C.

handsful. The gold is commonly found in the form of

fine scales which have been deposited between the crysThe development of heat by friction has been long tals of the mica. So generally is it diffused that it' is known. For some time it has also been known that the impossible to find a piece of the mica as large as a bean operations of rolling and rubbing had the effect of that does not contain gold. The mine is worked by changing the molecular structure of iron and steel. means of an open cut, now about 30 feet deep and These operations will tougher and compact cold iron, 150 feet long. and will harden and condense steel. Some time since The most interesting fact connected with this mineral Mr. Jacob Reese, of Pittsburg, Penn., had occasion to is the large proportion of vanadium it contains, and that, construct a machine for cutting bars of cold hardened too, in a form in which it has not before been found, unless steel. For this purpose he mounted a disc made of soft the small traces of it detected in some basalts should be wrought-iron upon a horizontal axis, so as to be rotated | part of an analogous compound. When I first discovered with great velocity. With any moderate speed no cutting the mineral I expected to find a mica rich in chromium, was produced; but, on giving the disc such a speed of and, on heating some of it in a test-tube with HCI, I obrotation as to cause the periphery of the disc to move

tained a green solution. Finding that by continued with a velocity of about 25,000 feet per minute (nearly boiling with acid the whole of the colour was entirely re5 miles), the steel was rapidly cut, especially when the moved from the mica, I availed myself of this method to bar to be cut was slowly rotated against the disc. Sparks determine the quantity of what I considered to be in a steady stream were thrown off. At first it was sup- chromium; fusing the residue from the acid solution with posed that the steel was simply rubbed or ground off; but carbonate of soda and nitre, and precipitating with lead, on examining the pile of accumulated particles beneath I also ascertained the amount of the alkalies; and, in the machine, they were found to be welded together in presenting, some specimens of the substance to the the shape of a long cone, similar to the stalagmites in Microscopical Society, and at the Academy of Sciences the limestone caves : they were nearly like the spikes of of California, in September, I made the general statement frost as formed in winter on Mount Washington, and that it was a potash-mica, containing 23 per cent chromic illustrated at the Troy Meeting. Real fusion takes place. oxide and traces of lithia. It was not until I had sent a The steel is melted by the swiftly-moving smooth edge of specimen of the mineral to Dr. Genth to analyse that the the soft iron disc, but the disc itself is but little heated. presence in it of vanadium was discovered, and to him is The bar of steel on each side of the cut receives but a due the entire credit of having first detected the true chaslight heat, and the ends are left with a fine smooth blue racter of this interesting mineral. I have availed myself finish. By this process a rolled, polished, and hardened of the action of nitro-hydrochloric acid on the mineral to steel bar, of 2 or 3 inches diameter, may be cut in two in prepare a considerable quantity of vanadic compounds for a few minutes. The soft metal disc of iron used was physiological experiment, as this affords about the easiest about 42 inches in diameter, and ths of an inch thick. method of obtaining vanadic acid, although it is imposThe particles fly off in a thick jet or stream apparently sible thus to extract all the vanadium from the mica.white-hot, through which the naked hand may be passed American Journal of Science and Arts. without injury, and a sheet of white writing-paper held in the stream for a minute is not burned nor coloured in the least. They glance off without burning the hand, having assumed the condition which causes the spheroidal state

ON ATOMICITY AS A PRINCIPLE OF of liquids.—Proceedings of the American Association for

CLASSIFICATION. the Advancement of Science, Detroit Meeting, August, 1875.


ATOMISTS have taken possession of Gerhardt's theory of ON ROSCOELITE: A VANADIUM MICA. types and have subordinated it to a more general principle, By JAMES BLAKE, M.D., San Francisco, California.

that of atomicity. They have said : there is a type water, because there exists a diatomic element, oxygen; a type

ammonia, because there exists a triatomic element, THE mineral to which I have given the name of Roscoelite nitrogen. Thus, in this way of looking at things, water -in hunour of Prof. Roscoe, of Manchester, who has done would appear as hydrogen twice condensed, in which half so much for the chemical history of vanadium-is a well, the hydrogen is replaced by an atom of oxygen,marked species of mica, containing quite a large percentage of vanadium. It was found in a gold-mine at

H2H, H20. Granite Creek, El Dorado County, in the lower hills on Ammonia

is hydrogen three times condensed, in which the western slope of the Sierra Nevada. It occurs in the three atoms of hydrogen are replaced by an atom of hanging wall of a small quartz vein, the country rock nitrogen, being porphyry. The mica appears to have been princi.

H2H, NH3, &c. pally deposited in fissures in the porphyry, and is usually in this system they replace the simple notion of combinafound in layers from Ath to 4 an inch thick, and seldom tion by that of substitution. On the other side, the symbolic extending continuously for more than 2 or 3 inches. It radicals of Gerhardt have been analysed, dissected in a

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