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July 7, 1876. to a small minority, in opposition to the wishes of the, with some of the water in a dry atmosphere of low tem. great bulk of those present. Strialy speaking, these perature, I expect to clear up this point by a further restrictive Bye-laws never had any legal existence, and investigation. they should at once be replaced by others in conformity with the Charter.
1 (6). Va204,3SO3,15H2O. Soluble Modification. “One half of the problem now under discussion—that of This form of the sulphate is obtained by evaporating a preventing voting by ballot becoming an organ for the solution of the crystals above described to the consistence gratification of personal pique-has solved itself in a of a syrup, and mixing the residue with strong alcohol, and manner which leaves nothing to be desired. The first in the same manner from the evaporated solution from part of the question-How to guard against the admis- which the crystals are separated. If the concentration is sion of unfit persons into the Society-is one in which not carried far enough, the alcohol takes up a considerable Council and Fellows are free to act, for the Charter spe. quantity of the salt, and thus causes a loss; the separa. cially provides that they may alter, vary, or revoke, tion of solid salt must, however, be avoided. The alcohol and may make such new and other Bye-laws as they removes the excess of sulphuric acid, and but little of the shall think most useful and expedient for the said body vanadic sulphate. After repeated washings and thorough politic and corporate, so that the same be not repugnant kneading, the alcohol dissolves no more of the salt, but to these presents.' Thus the way is clear to a satisfactory still takes up traces of sulphuric acid. The sulphate now settlement of the recent unwarrantable proceedings and appears as a transparent blue mass, of wax-like con. the permanent prevention of their recurrence, and to the sistence. It was left for some time over sulphuric acid establishment of safeguards against the degradation of without undergoing any change, and in this state sub. the Fellowship of the Chemical Society.”
mitted to analysis.
H2O (loss at 100° in 24 hours) 21474
0:39 By Dr. B. W, GERLAND.
In the residue (difference) 14.98 40'34 1.-VANADIC SULPHATES.
39'91 1 (a). Va204,3SO3,4H20. Insoluble Modification.
24-78 24:62 VANADIC sulphate is readily obtained in solution by the
35:47 action of dilute sulphuric acid upon vanadıc pentoxide in the presence of reducing agents such as alcohol, sulphurous acid, hydrochloric acid, oxalic acid, &c. The blue solu. By drying and long exposure to a temperature of 125°, tion thus produced is evaporated to the consistence of a this compound is not converted into the former one, the syrup and mixed with strong sulphuric acid, whereby a insoluble modification; the salt retains over 5 mols. of voluminous precipitate is at once formed. After cooling, H2O, and is still readily soluble in cold water and in the excess of acid is removed, the residue treated with dilute alcohol. The original compound, as it is separated water, care being taken to avoid rise of temperature; it is by alcohol, rapidly absorbs moisture from the atmosphere. then thrown on a filter and washed with cold water, or, The aqueous solutions of both modifications are identiwhat is preferable, with alcohol, and dried over sulphuric cal in every respect. I have not succeeded in obtaining acid in vacuum. The salt is of a pale blue colour, and crystals from them, either by evaporation at low temconsists of microscopic needles, which are slowly soluble perature or after the addition of sulphuric acid, nor by in cold, and rapidly in hot water. Exposed to the atmo- covering them with a layer of absolute alcohol. sphere, they absorb moisture and form a thick blue liquor. The solution of the sulphate becomes dark green by the After being dried in this manner for two days, the com- addition of ammonium vanadate, but remains clear in the pound was submitted analysis. At 100° it lost water, cold; boiling produces dark green, almost black crusts, and continued to do so for upwards of lwenty-four hours. adhering firmly to the sides of the vessel, and reflecting
The dried sample was dissolved in water, a little hydro- the light strongly, whilst the liquor becomes lighter. chloric acid added, and the sulphuric acid precipitated as Na2HPO4 produces with the solution of the vanadium barium sulphate. This precipitate passes through the salt a bulky greyish blue precipitate, which is readily filter even after long-continued digestion in the water- soluble in an excess of the phosphate, and also in acetic bath, but this difficulty can be overcome by moistening acid; K,Cr04 forms a yellowish brown precipitate. the paper with ammonium chloride solution. The excess The mixed solutions of equal molecules of vanadium of barium was removed from the filtrate by sulphuric sulphate and potassium sulphate dry over sulphuric acid acid, and the clear solution finally titrated with per. to a clear blue syrup, from which, after many days, a manganate for the estimation of the vanadic tetroxide.
light blue powder separates. This is but slowly soluble Caiculated for
in cold water, still less so in dilute alcohol, but hot water Found.
dissolves it readily. From this solution the new comVa,0,13SO3,34,0. Va,09:3SO3,48,0. pound separates upon evaporation without any sign of SO3 .. · 51'48 5210
50'14 crystalline structure ; it is of very pale blue colour, and Va204 35'21 36.17
not hygroscopic, Two samples separately prepared and H20 (loss at 100
dried over sulphuric acid yielded the following results on in 24 hours) 3:58 13'31 11973
15'05 analysis :H20 (difference) 973)
25'08 I mol. 39'29
3.82 45.83 3.85 According to the analysis, the proportion Va204 and
1.63 SO3 is—
H2O (loss at 100°) 0:41 | 35*21. 51:48
H20 (difference) 17:84) =I:3'04
166.6 or nearly i mol. Va204:3 mol. SO3. The amount of water found corresponds as little with the formula It is evident from these figures that both preparations Va204,3SO3,3H20 as with Va204,3SO3,4H20. Probably were impure. They prove, however, that potassium has the last represents the original compound, and this parts, been substituted for hydrogen in the molecule of the
Notes on Vanadium Compounds. July 7, 1876.
3 vanadium sulphate, and the mother-liquor from which the The solution of this sulphate gives, with ammonium double salt separated, will contain acid potassium sul- vanadate, sodium phosphate and potassium chromate, phate. The formula of the compound will probably be- the same reactions as the acid sulphate above described. K2(Va2O2)3S04,xH20.
It is not altered by sulphuretted hydrogen, but, after addi. The blue crystals, or the soluble modification, dried at tion of sodium acetate and dilution with water, the gas 125°, placed in a thin test-tube and submerged in a bath of precipitates a chocolate-coloured sulphide : it requires, boiling vitriol or molten lead (330°), slowly lose water however, days and weeks to complete the separation of containing a little sulphuric acid, but the decomposition the vanadium from the liquor. is so gradual that even after many hours the salts are still As is already known, the vanadium sulphates are decompletely soluble. If, however, these salts, or the solu- composed by heat into sulphurous and sulphuric acid and tions from which they are prepared, are boiled with sul- vanadic pentoxide, the latter of which fuses at a still phuric acid for a short time they are completely converted higher temperature. Heated with acid potassium sulphate into a heavy sandy powder of greyish green colour, the the vanadium sulphates fuse without decomposition; it is composition of which is represented by the formula only at a bright red heat that they are converted into the Va2042SO3, whereas the supernatant sulphuric acid is pentoxide. almost free from vanadium.
The behaviour of the first of these vanadium sulphates 2 (a). Va204,2SO3. Insoluble Modification. marks it out as an acid salt, whereas the second one bears Prepared in the manner described, this consists of the character of a neutral sulphate, and their symbolic microscopic crystals, which are perfectly insoluble in cold representation seems best attained by the assumption of water, even after a digestion of several months, and after
a quadrivalent radical, " Vanadyl,” Va202, which leads to long-continued boiling the water only shows a pale blue
the following formulæ :colour. This action of boiling water is very slightly in
1 (a.) H2(Va2O2),3S04:3H20. Insoluble modification.creased by hydrochloric or sulphuric acid. Heated with a
Hydric vanadylic sulphate. little water in a closed tube to 150° or 200°, complete
1 (6.) Hz(Va2O2),3SO4,14H20. Soluble modification.solution takes place in a period varying from twelve to
Hydric vanadylic sulphate. forty-eight hours, and sometimes more ; but with more
Potassic vanadylic sulphate. water a slight green sediment is formed under the same conditions. Dilute alkaline solutions decompose the
2 (a.) (Va202),2804. Insoluble modification.-Neu
tral vanadylic sulphate. compound with the formation of brown hydroxide, which is readily dissolved by acids.
2 (6.) (Va2O2),2804,10H2O. Soluble modification.
Crystallised vanadylic sulphate. The following analyses were made with samples prepared at different times. Nos. I and 2 were dried over
Berzelius described as acid sulphate of vanadium the sulphuric acid, No. 3 at 100°. In No. 1 the sulphate was obtaining these crystals.
compound (Va2O2)2SO4,4H2O. I have not succeeded in dissolved by treatment with a dilute solution of soda, and subsequently with hydrochloric acid ; the sulphuric acid
I am continuing the investigation of vanadium comwas then separated with barium chloride, and the analysis pounds, and hope for results which will elucidate their
constitution. carried out as described in 1 (a). In Nos. 2 and 3 the weighed sulphate was converted into the pentoxide by ig.
11.—MetA-VANADIC Acid, HVaOz. nition, and the amount of tetroxide calculated from its
I obtained this beautiful compound some years ago by weight.
The formula treating with sulphurous acid the yellow crystals which
formed by boiling the solution of the mineral copper
vanadate in sulphurous acid (Fourn. f. Prakt. Chem., 1871, SO3 49'52
48.99 vol. iv., p. 40), after their partial oxidation by exposure to Va204..
air (1).- (Proc, Manchester Lit. and Phil. Soc., 1873, p. 50). Loss at 100° 0:18
Since then I have succeeded in preparing it by simpler methods. A cold saturated solution of copper sulphate is mixed with a strong solution of ammonium chloride in
large excess. Ammonium vanadate in saturated solution 2 (b). Va204,2SO3,x20. Soluble Modification.
is then added until a permanent precipitate appears, and The insoluble sulphate, as already mentioned, is con
the mixture slowly heated to 75o, when the formation of verted into a deep blue, thick, oily liquid, when heated gold-like scales commences : this continues for some with a small amount of water to 150°, for some time. hours, until nearly all vanadium has separated as metaThis mixes with water and alcohol, and may be vanadic acid, and only a trace is left in solution. The boiled with either without suffering any change. The precipitate is collected on a filter, treated with dilute aqueous solution leaves a transparent, blue, gummy Sulphuric and sulphurous acid (to remove small quantities mass after evaporation over sulphuric acid, which in the of copper vanadate and red amorphous vanadic acid, course of a few weeks becomes quite hard, and is devoid which deteriorate the colour), washed with water, and of all crystalline appearance ; but when moistened with dried (2.) The compound is now free from copper, but alcohol and left under a loose cover it gradually assumes
retains a small amount of ammonia in spite of repeated a crystalline texture throughout. Its solution in alcohol treatment with acids; the sample (2) when submitted to yields, on evaporation at low temperature, beautiful blue, analysis contained sufficient ammonia to make it percepwell-defined crystals. I could only obtain the crystalline tible by smell on heating. This circumstance accounts form from the gummy mass alluded to by the method for the loss by heat in the analysis being greater than the described, and the precise manner of its formation remains calculated amount of water. Prepared in this manner as yet unexplained. I am endeavouring to prepare crys. the meta-vanadic acid possesses the most brilliant colour tals for a crystallographical examination.
and lustre. The bronze separates in much smaller scales The analysis of blue crystals gave the following re
of inferior colour and appearance, when dilute solutions, sults :
and particularly copper nitrate instead of the sulphate, Va 0,2503,104,0 are rapidly heated to the boiling point. The meta-vanadic
requires- acid thus prepared more effectually resists reducing agents, 3279
as well as the solvent action of alkalies, so that boiling
with ammonia or with sodium carbonate has no percepHo expelled at 130° 26 37 35.54 tible action. The purification is effected as above, with
dilute sulphuric and sulphurous acid (3.) Meta-vanadic acid may also be obtained by adding a solution of ammo.
CHEMICAL NEWS, 4 Action of Certain Kinds of Filters on Organic Substances.
July 7, 1876. nium vanadate or acid sodium vanadate (the red salt) to will be found to be ozone, which may be proved by the the solution of a copper salt, separating the precipitate known test of a strip of paper saturated with iodide of (which consists of copper ortho-vanadate, Cuz Va208, with potassium. small excess of vanadic acid) and heating the deep yel. When the moistened paper is put on the top of the tube lowish brown solution, which has a strongly acid reaction without touching the water in the tube, the paper turns to 75o. The colour becomes gradually fainter as the sepa- brown. ration of the bronze proceeds. The filtrate from the If a flower with its stem and leaves is put into the copper vanadate contains, even if vanadiate has been used tube, the decomposition of the peroxide will be caused by in excess, a small amount of copper, which separates with the entire plant, but in the same way as the absorption of the scales, but is easily extracted with dilute acids (4). the plants, when in a growing state, is most active at the
Copper salts can be replaced by zinc salts, and probably sponges or hairs which terminate the roots, so decompoby salts of any heavy metal which forms a sparingly sition of the H02 mostly takes place at the end of the soluble ortho-vanadate, and is not precipitated by ammo- stem where it is cut through, also at the leaves. nia in the presence of ammonium salts. Ortho-vanadates The presence of the ozone may also be proved by its of copper and zinc are partially converted by long.conti density. If the tube is shaken a little, the active or ozonnued boiling with ammonium chloride into meta-vanadic ised oxygen rises more freely from the bottom of the acid.
tube, because the ozone is more dense than ordinary The materials for the analyses were weighed after drying oxygen. The decomposition goes on gradually, and if a in the water-bath, then heated to redness; the loss calcu- bunch of flowers, instead of being put into a glass filled lated as water, and the residue as vanadic pentoxide. with water only, is put into a glass filled with a weak The residue of No. 1, which was prepared from impure solution of HO2, the room may be filled with czone in a materials, was fluxed with sodium carbonate, dissolved in more simple and easy manner than by any other known water, and a small quantity of insoluble matter, consisting process. of lime and ferric oxide separated; the filtrate was acidu- If a strong solution of HO2 be used, the active oxygen lated with acetic acid, and lead acetate added; the preci- evolves itself tumultuously, and if an electrophore is pitated lead vanadate was washed with water, and decomplaced near it, a slight deflection takes place, proving that posed with sulphuric acid and alcohol: upon evaporating there is chemical reaction going on, but the Aowers then the solution of vanadic acid and igniting the residue, the very soon fade. vanadium pentoxide was left in a pure state.
ON THE ACTION OF CERTAIN KINDS OF H2O (loss by ignition) 873
FILTERS ON ORGANIC SUBSTANCES. Vajo,
90'88 9078 90.66 Impurities (cão, ře,0%) 0-21
By J. ALFRED WANKLYN. Meta-vanadic acid is a highly hygroscopic substance. It suffers no change at 150°; at higher temperatures it In continuing my investigation into the action of the loses water and leaves vanadic pentoxide, which fuses at, silicated carbon filter, I have proceeded to experiment on a still higher temperature.
solutions containing a by no means infinitesimal quantity I am still engaged with the study of the formation of of organic substance, and, as will be apparent from the this remarkable form of vanadic acid, which resists che following details, have obtained a very striking result. mical reagents to a surprising extent; meanwhile I com- In these experiments I employed a rather larger filter municate some experiences that may be of interest. than before, viz., a filter containing a cake of silicated
The filtrate from the copper vanadate (4) yields, on carbon 6 inches in thickness, and the filter was quite new. heating, less of the meta-acid the longer it has been kept, Experiment I.-Into a quantity of boiled London water so that after eight or ten days it remains clear on boiling , (which yielded o'00 milligramme of free ammonia and This change is not indicated by any visible alteration. 0:04 milligramme of albuminoid ammonia per litre) I
The original liquor evaporated in a thin layer at low placed a weighed quantity of acid sulphate of quinine. temperature leaves a crystalline residue: this forms a In this manner a large volume of dilute solution of acid clear solution with cold water, which, heated to 75°, de- sulphate of quinine of such a strength that one litre posits meta-vanadic acid in scales.
contained 14'2 milligrammes of the acid sulphate was The same liquor parted, on the dialyser, with all the prepared. Before making the experiment with the filter salts within five days, whilst but little of the vanadic acid | i subjected some of this dilute solution of quinine to the penetrated the parchment paper. The vanadic acid was ammonia process, and obtained from 1 litreiest in a new soluble modification; its solution yielded no Free ammonia ..
trace scales on boiling, but remained clear, and deposited red Albuminoid ammonia
0:48 m.grm. amorphous vanadic acid after considerable evaporation. The meta-vanadic acid possesses properties which re
The solution was then poured on the filter, care having commend it as a substitute for gold-bronze. With care it
been taken beforehand to empty out all the water which can easily be obtained of beautiful colour and lustre, al
was in the filter, most equal to gold, and as a very fine powder, mixing I considered that the first litre would consist of water
The first litre of filtrate was thrown away, inasmuch as readily with gum or oil. It is in no way affected by the displaced by the solution of quinine. Successive halfatmosphere or by moisture. Macclesfield, May, 1876.
litres of filtrate, as they came through the filter, were analysed with the following results :
Milligrms. per Litre.
Free Ammonia. Albuminoid Ammonia. FORMATION OF OZONE BY THE CONTACT OF
0'04 PLANTS WITH PEROXIDE OF HYDROGEN.
0:14 If a fresh stem of a plant is put into a test-tube filled The circumstance of the low of albuminoid with a weak solution of peroxide of hydrogen, the latter ammonia not being confined to the first portions of filtrate, decomposes, and almost immediately the oxygen bubbles is a demonstration that I had eliminated the influence of are seen rising to the surface, and a portion of the oxygen | dilution by water previously occupying the pores of the
5 filter, and the result may be accepted with confidence that surface, greater power of resisting hydrochloric acid, and a solution of quinine, which yielded 0-48 m.grm. of albu- its less weight. Sometimes a combination of both minoid ammonia per litre, was so purified by a single materials is made, the bricks being placed below and the filtration through 6 inches of “silicated carbon ” that coke above. In order to distribute the water equally after filtration it yielded only o‘04 or o'02 m.grm. of among the contents of the tower we employ either a albuminoid ammonia per litre.
rocking trough or Segner's water-wheel. The coke must Encouraged by this result I prepared a much stronger be filled in neither too compact nor too loosely; the solution of quinine, viz., a solution containing 118 m.grms. former error impeding the movement of the gases, and the of acid sulphate of quinine per litre. The acid sulphate latter leading to the subsequent settlement of particular of quinine which I employed was in large crystals, and portions. In both these cases the gas selects the more had been previously investigated and found to contain open passages, and a large part of the tower may be 21'1 per cent of water of crystallisation. As the reader thrown out of action. The towers may also deviate from will observe the above-mentioned solution contained the perpendicular, when the water runs down one side 8.26 grs. of the salt to the gallon of water, and such a alone, leaving the other nearly dry, and as these parts solution is quite bitter to the taste.
allow the freest passage to the gases the actual absorption Experiment II.- The above described solution of becomes very small. quinine (118 m.grms. of acid sulphate of quinine in a litre A very convenient arrangement for condensation is the of water) was passed through the filter, and after rejecting combination of coke towers and Woolff's bottles, introthe first litre of filtrate, examinations of the further duced at Stolberg and elsewhere. The gases escaping filtrate were commenced. The filtrate yielded
from the salt-cake pans and muffle furnaces, considerably Milligrms. per Litre.
cooled in passing through a long series of earthenware Free Ammonia. Albuminoid Ammonia.
pipes, are led into a long row of Woolff's, tubulated on
both sides at a fourth of their height reckoning from the This result was further confirmed by evaporating a
bottom and connected by caoutchouc tubes well secured quantity of the filtrate down to dryness and weighing and with cement ; thus the liquid in all stands at the same igniting the residue. As will readily be understood, a
level. From these the gases enter the coke towers, solution containing as much as $1 grs. of sulphate of bottles to be there strengthened by the muriatic acid gas
whence the condensed acid flows back into the Woolft's quinine per gallon is strong enough to be dealt with. by continually streaming over it, and thus reaches the se. simple means, and accordingly I experimented in that manner with the solution before and after filtration, and quired strength (Hasenclever). got perfectly satisfactory results. Finally, I tasted the is carried so far that whilst in the first year of the opera,
In England the condensation of the hydrochloric acid filtrate and found that all bitterness had gone away. Thus I have arrived at the startling result that by a
tion of the Alkali Act, 1:28 per cent escaped, in the second simple filtration through 6 inches of silicated carbon a
the loss was reduced to 0.88 per cent, in the third to oʻ73, solution of quinine, containing 80 grs. of the acid sul- ) and in many works as far as can be ascertained the conphate per gallon of water, is totally deprived of quinine. densation is perfect. I am extending the investigation to non-nitrogenous
(To be continued) organic substances, and have operated upon a 10 grain to the gallon solution of cane sugar. Action there seems to be ; but, so far as I am able to judge at present, it is neither so rapid nor so complete as in the instance of
NOTICES OF BOOKS. quinine and nitrogenous substances generally.
Discursive Chemical Notes in Rhyme. By the author of
the “Chemical Review,” A. B. Part 1. The NonREPORT
Metallics. London : Van Voorst.
chemists are not generally credited with poetical tenDEVELOPMENT OF THE CHEMICAL ARTS
dencies. The philosopher of Penzance, too, when DURING THE LAST TEN YEARS.* courting the Muses found his subjects outside the labora.
tory; but the author of the little work before us, with By Dr. A. W. HOFMANN.
greater daring, gives us in verse the chemistry of the (Continued from p. 253.)
non-metallic elements, and despite the refractory and
unpromising nature of the subject the result is very far Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine, and Fluorine. from a failure. Whether, if he continues his task, he may By Dr. E. Mylius, of Ludwigshafen.
some day succeed in weaving the neo-chemical nomen. Where two muffle furnaces are in use with a total weekly clature of organic compounds into easily flowing verse yield of 8000 kilos. of salt-cake on the system of conden. the future can alone decide. But this poem is not merely sation just mentioned, 15 metres in height and 2:3 metres
a “philosophy in rhyme" dealing with the hard, dry in the square (interior measurement) suffice for the pro
facts of the science, it is also a satire. Chemistry has duction of a strong acid. At any rate the condensation its theories, perhaps its dreams, insisted upon the more is so perfect that in the second, or " washing tower,” strongly in the exact ratio of their absence of solid which may measure something less in the clear, the acid foundation. Chemists, too, like other men—and more obtained does not exceed the strength of 1° B., which than most men—have their rivalries, jealousies, feuds, may be let pass away in each channel, if it is not preferred and cliques. Even the prospect of finding their duties to let it pass down in the second or condensation tower.
and the accompanying emoluments gradually absorbed by The acid from the first tower may be further strengthened the engineers is not enough to compel them into unity. in the first trough--in which most of the accompanying There are those who say in their actions, if not totidem sulphuric acid is condensed—with a view to its utilisation verbis, “perish the profession, if we may not rule it.” in the manufacture of chloride of lime.
There is consequently good scope for satire, even of a Particular attention must be paid to the towers when sterner and more uncompromising type than what is fitted up. They are filled either with bricks or coke, the introduced in these pages. Our author, even where he latter material being preferable on account of its larger points out what is unsatisfactory, is good natured and
says of himself, not untruly :*"Berichte über die Entwickelung der Chemischen Industrie "To hurt one's feelings I could no more write Während des Letzten Jahrzenends."
Than walk to the Land's End like Walter White."
The Chenical Society.
CHIMICAL NEWS, 6
July 7, 1876. As a specimen of his satirical vein we quote the fol- , the author remarks, the balance with its bags must be lowing:
placed close to the spot where the men are engaged. It “But as I always wish to be particular,
must, at the same time, be secured from currents of air, And act in concert with the modern school,
from injury by falling rubbish, and from being foolishly I must not be atomic, but molecular,
A succeeding portion of this pamphlet treats of the
manufacture of illuminating gas without the use of coal. Plus six of oxygen or 30,
Since his former pamphlet upon coal-gas, the author has (I think I'm right, but yet feel rather hazy; For after thirty years or so the new
received fourteen letters from persons who describe them. Strange formulæ will tend to drive one crazy,
selves as “interested in gas-making,” and who express a And make him half inclined to write a letter
hope that he will not "lend himself to gas agitation." To some great gun and say. The old are better ').
His proposal is to heat charcoal in a slow current of I took up
Frankland's book the other night ('Tis very clever, anyone may see),
atmospheric air, and pass it through a receiver filled with And, musing, wondered could a chemist write
benzoline of sp. gr. 0'704, at the temperature of 50° F. So quaint a work and out of Bedlam be:
The process, as is evident, is free from nuisance, and can
be easily managed in a private house. As regards the With his small and very fat round O's,
cost, the author cannot speak definitely, because he has Conjointly placed near apoplectic C's
found the prices both of charcoal and benzoline vary to In curious brackets, which, we may suppose, Are only there to irritate and tease.
the extent of 300 per cent. I gave it up when reading this queer type,
To get rid of gas companies, who in places where the And, growing sorrowful, smoked half a pipe."
ratepayers have not been wise enough to take such matters Of “hydroxyl” the author exclaims somewhat pro into their own hands generally have contrived to obtain a fanely, but aptly,
dangerous amount of power, and who too often use it in “Yet do not, if you love me, blame the muse,
a somewhat high-handed manner, would be a boon of no But rather this damn'd radicle abuse !
small magnitude. But at present the abolition of the gas After paying a graceful tribute to the memory of manufacture, with all its admitted drawbacks, would be Faraday, Graham, and Liebig, the poet bids us
most unpleasantly felt by those branches of industrial " Then cheer up, brothers; there are many yet,
chemistry which utilise its by-products.
The remaining parts of this pamphlet, though by no
the CHEMICAL News.
CORRESPONDENCE. strued as vivisection. Therefore let this " Fellow" rest in peace. To make further quotations would hardly be just to our
THE CHEMICAL SOCIETY. author, but we think the specimens we have given may make our readers inclined to enquire further. We believe
To the Editor of the Chemical News. that, like ourselves, they will conclude that the pen of this Sir,—The Chemical Society is undoubtedly passing anonymous poet will be of service both to the science and through a crisis, the satisfactory termination of which to the profession.
will not be facilitated by the use of such expressions as
"indiscriminate or reckless blackballing," " blackballing The Miners' Curfew and other Matters, Social and Political. I am one of those who believe that blackballing has been
clique," "meaningless and ill-natured blackballing,” &c. By Lewis THOMPSON, M.R.C.S. Newcastle-upon-carried somewhat too far, but I also believe that it has Tyne: Daily Journal Office.
been done from pure motives, however mistaken they may This pamphlet contains a description of an arrangement be; and if this is so, surely it is better to meet the party which is to give warning, by ringing two or three bells by argument, and not by abuse, which will only recoil on " as soon as ever the air
that surrounds it becomes dan- those making use of it. gerous to human life from an accumulation either of fire. As far as I can learn, the present agitation is caused damp or choke-damp:” The principle is that of the well- mainly by the conviction, shared by many, that the known electric bell, the circuit being closed and the bells Fellowship of the Chemical Society is, to the majority of caused to ring by a derangement in the equilibrium of a English chemists, the only distinction within reach which balance. Two oiled silk bags are taken, of a spherical might stamp them as chemists, and that such stamp form, and equal as nearly as possible in size and weight. should be made an honour worth having. Entrance into "One of these bags contains no air, but is compressed the Society has, however, it is argued, been made so easy into the shape of a plate, so as to present on each side a of late that its Fellowship has ceased to be any real dissurface equal to the area of a great circle of the other bag, tinction. It is therefore proposed to restrict entrance to which, however, is filled only to the extent of four-fifths real chemists only, and thus restore the prestige formerly with atmospheric air, and then securely tied. These bags connected with the letters F.C.S. On the other extreme are to be hung at the two arms of a balance, and carefully side, it is said that the Chemical Society has been estab. counterpoised." The air in the full bag, of course, will lished for the general promotion of chemical science, and expand and contract with the surrounding air, and hence not for the purpose of stamping its Fellows as chemists; will not be affected by barometric or thermometric changes that for the promotion of such object much money is But if the air becomes mixed with a lighter gas, such as wanted, and that all who are willing to pay assist the light carburetted hydrogen, the filled bag will descend, Society in doing its legitimate work, and are therefore the circuit will be closed by means of a bent wire, and the entitled to be admitted as Fellows. bells will begin to sound. If, on the other hand, the air Now it appears to me that much may be said on both is rendered heavier by an admixture with carbonic acid, sides of the question, and that at any rate it cannot be the her arm of the balance descends, and the bells are settled by the use of harsh terms. Would it not, then, be equally set in action. The bags are of oiled silk, like best for those who desire alteration to hold a public meet. that used for balloons, and each of them is to containing, thoroughly discuss their side of the question, and, if about 250 cubic inches of air.
possible, pass resolutions embodying the changes proThis idea, it must be admitted, is highly ingenious. As posed ?' Such resolutions should then be laid before the