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CHEMICAL NEWS

On Anthracen Testing. Dec. 22, 1876.

267 place the boat in the muffle of a gas-furnace, and burn again in crystals and powder. The crystals obtained in there the carbon by heating it to dull redness. The oxide this way contained a large quantity of anthraquinon, of ruthenium which is then formed is not yet volatile at which I have converted into alizarin, and even the such temperatures: there only remains to reduce it by powder contained still a small quantity of anthraquinon. purified hydrogen. For that purpose we introduce the The determination of the melting and solidifying-point boat into a glass tube, through which we pass hydrogen, of the powder has no practical value; it only might teach which reduces the oxide with incandescence. We com- us that the powder is not pure anthraquinon, but it does plete the reduction at dull redness, and allow to cool in a not show us whether it contains anthraquinon, just what current of carbonic acid. We weigh the metal, after we want to know in our case. having washed it in water, which carries off traces of We know that a small amount of impurities alters the chloride of potassium. It is even indispensable to verify melting point of organic substances considerably, and we the weight of the metal after having digested it in a pla- are not justified to accept Dr. Versmann's compromise by tinum vessel with diluted hydrofluoric acid, which dis- considering the powder as valueless impurity in all cases solves a quantity of silica, often appreciable, derived from where the melting- and solidifying-point is below 270° or the vessels and filters. The 500 m.grms. of ruthenium above 280° C. It is nearly impossible to determine the taken yielded 498 m.grms.of metal, that is, four-thousandths “exact” melting-point of the powders on account of the of loss, which may be easily explained by the unavoidable dark colour which some of them assume on being heated. removal of matter, produced when we attack the metal in This alone would lead to disputes, and the results of Dr. the gold crucible in consequence of the disengagement of Versmann's new test will be in most cases too low. gas from the nitre. The liquid remaining in the balloon How misleading the determination of melting-points gave traces of iron, derived from hypochlorite, and 4:8 sometimes are we know if we go back to the time of the m.grms. of gold derived from the crucible. If we wish to alcohol test, where samples of anthracen were rejected determine the ruthenium contained in an alloy attackable "as containing no anthracen at all," because the meltingby aqua regia we dissolve it, and after having evaporated point was under 190° C. I have tested some of these the excess of acid introduce the solution of the chlorides identical residues of the alcohol test of the low meltinginto the distillatory apparatus described above, and add to point of 170° C. by the anthraquinon test, and found that it an excess of potassa and hypochlorite. This mixture, they contain more real anthracen than other residues saturated with chlorine and distilled as has been said, showing the melting-point of 205° C., and in the case of gives off, after one or several treatments with potassa and refined anthracen the melting-point shows nothing at all. chlorine, all its ruthenium in a state of volatile hyper- I have tested a number of samples all of the same mean ruthenic acid. Our note of November 15, 1875, contains melting point, 210° C., by the quinon test, and their perthe method which is proper to employ in the case where centage varied from 45 per cent to 99.5 per cent of ruthenium is associated with iridium, and forms with it an anthracen. alloy unattackable in aqua regia. We shall only recal Of all the anthracen tests which have been published that it is by the aid of baryta and nitrate of baryta, or bi. Messrs. Meister, Lucius, and Brüning's "new and imoxide of barium, that we cause these metals to enter into proved test” (CHEMICAL News, vol. xxxiv., p. 167; treatsolution. Thus, transforming the ruthenium into a very ment of the quinon with fun.ing sulphuric acid, &c., comes volatile product, which does not permit it to be confounded the nearest to the truth. The anthraquinon obtained by with any cther body, we give to the determination of this this test is not chemically pure, and Meister, Lucius, and metal a security which cannot be obtained by any other Brüning stipulate, therefore, to volatilise the product method.-Comptes Rendus.

obtained and to deduct the carbon and ash from the weight of the anthraquinon, and only the volatile part represents the pure anthraquinon. The volatilisation of

the quirion is objectionable, because it is very difficult to ON ANTHRACEN TESTING.

volatilise the anthraquinon completely without burning

some of the carbon. Chemically pure anthraquinon can By R. LUCAS.

be volatilised completely without leaving a mark if heated carefully, but if it is heated too quick and some drops of

the anthraquinon fall back on the heated bottom of the EXPERIENCE with the “ anthraquinon test” has taught crucible some carbon remains. us that the anthraquinon obtained is not pure anthra- To overcome this difficulty of volatilising the quinon, quinon. I have made some experiments to obtain and to make the test more exact, I propose the following chemically pure anthraquinon by increasing the quantity alteration and addition to Messrs. Meister, Lucius, and of chromic acid. By taking 15 grms. of chromic acid and Brüning's new test. Instead of volatilising the quinon, boiling for four hours without using the “ appendix," I i dry it on the filter and treat it again by the anthra. obtained the same results as with the usual anthraquinon quinon test with chromic acid. The whole test would test with appendix. I now increased the chromic acid to now read as follows:20 grms. and boiled for six hours, but there was no altera- Take i grm. of anthracen, place it in a flask of 500 c.c. tion in the result, and the chromic acid seems not to act capacity with upright condenser, add to it 45 c.c. of glacial further on the impurities so long as the chromium salt acetic acid, and heat to ebullition. To this solution and oxidation products are present. But if we finish the (which is kept boiling) add, drop by drop, a solution of test in the usual way, and treat the anthraquinon again 15 grms. of chromic acid in 10 c.c. of glacial acetic acid with chromic acid, some of the impurities are destroyed, and 10 c.c. of water. The addition of the chromic solubut the result is not chemically pure anthraquinon. Dr. tion should occupy two hours, after which the liquid is to Versmann published in the CHEMICAL 'News (vol. xxxiv., be kept boiling for two hours longer, four hours being repp. 178, 192, and 202) some very interesting experiments quired to complete the oxidation. The flask with its conon anthraquinon, and he proposed (CHEMICAL News, tents is to be kept standing for twelve hours, then mixed vol. xxxiv., p. 178) a new anthracen test by separating with 400 c.c. of cold water, and again kept standing for the crystals and powder resulting from the anthraquinon three hours. The precipitated anthraquinon is now test. I have tested a number of samples of anthracen collected on a filter, and washed, first with pure water, by Dr. Versmann's new test and examined the crystals then with boiling dilute alkaline solution, and finally with and powders separately for anthraquinon. The crystals pure water. The quinon is now washed from the filter which I obtained by Dr. Versmann's method were not all into a flat dish and dried at 100° C. It is then mixed in the chemically pure anthraquinon ; they lost in weight when same dish with 10 times its weight of fuming sulphuric acid treated by the anthraquinon test. The powders I dis- (sp. gr. 1•88) and heated to 100° C. for ten minutes on a solved in glacial acetic acid and separated them cach I water-bath.' It is then taken at once from the water-bath

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268
The Potash Theory of Scurvy.

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Dec. 22, 1876. and kept in the same dish for twelve hours in a damp this alkali. There is an opinion that the juice of the lime place to absorb moisture. Then add 200 c.c. of cold (Citrus limetta) is stronger and more acid than lemon. water to the contents of the dish, collect the precipitated juice, but in chemical constitution there is not much difquinon on a filter, and wash, first with pure water, then ference between :he two. Fresh vegetables, as a rule, are with boiling alkaline solution, and again with pure hot rich in potash salts; potatoes, which may be placed at water, and finally dry.

the head, containing no less than 51 per cent in their ash, The quinon is now removed from the filter and put into according to Way and Ugston, and 55 according to a flask of 500 c.c. capacity, and the small quantity of Griepenkerl. Grape-juice, which may be considered as quinon remaining on the filter paper is washed off with the representative of the light wines so largely used in 45 c.c. of hot glacial acetic acid into the same flask. Now the French and Russian marine, contains in its ash from heat to boiling and add slowly a solution of 15 grms. of 60 to 70 per cent of potash, while the husks of grapes have chromic acid in 10 c.c. of glacial acetic acid and 10 c.c. of an ash containing 37 per cent. Rice, however, contains water and boil for four hours. The flask with its contents only 20 per cent in its ash. is kept for twelve hours, then mixed with 400 c.c. of cold "Dr. Garrod, who has examined various kinds of food water, and again kept standing for three hours. The pre-in reference to this point, gives the actual amount of cipitated anthraquinon is now collected on a double filter, potash contained in different alimentary substances. and washed, first with pure water, then with boiling dilute From this we learn thatalkaline solution, and again with pure water, and finally dried at 100° C. until constant in weight. The weight of

One ounce of rice

contains 0'005 gr. of potash. the quinon obtained is to be calculated in the usual

lemon-juice

0.852 manner into anthracen. The quinon obtained should

boiled potato

1.875 always be tested for ash, and the weight of the ash de

raw be

9'599 ducted from the weight of the quinon before calculating it

salt beef

0'394 into anthracen. A few words about anthracen might be interesting to various anti-scorbutic foods is the potash which they con

“But without assuming that the active principle of these tar distillers. Some people believe that anthracen show: tain, there is no doubt whatever that chemical analysis is ing a low percentage is identical with a low quality abundantly able to show the quality of lime-juice in an anthracen, and that a high percentage anthracen must

accurate and rapid manner. The constituents of lime. always be of good quality. This is an error. Some tar distillers push the distillation of the tar or of the anthracen juice are not many, the organic part contains citric acid, oils too far and they get an anthracen of inferior quality, inorganic constituents consist nearly half of potash, and

mucus, vegetable albumen, pectin, and sugar ; whilst the because it is principally the last portion of the distillate the rest of the ordinary ingredients of the ash of plants. containing the so-called pitch anthracen, which is of inferior quality, and some of the alizarin makers stipulate, It is certain that most

of these have no action as far as therefore, in their contracts “the anthracen must not be scurvy is concerned, and a little investigation could not made from pitch.” My experience is that anthracen of fail to show whether the specific consisted of the potash bad quality cannot be improved by simply pressing, and then be to see generally that the article was in a state fit

or some other constituent. The work of the analyst would that the quality is not always improved by washing with for food and likely to keep, and specially to see that the solvents. But the quality of inferior anthracen is improved (1) if the anthracen in question has not been percentage of the active ingredient did not sink below a filtered and pressed by a re-distillation of the same, considerable time which it is supposed lime-juice would

certain standard. Too much stress has been laid on the leaving the last portion as pitch in the still, and (2) if the take to analyse; and Dr. Leach has stated authorita. anthracen has already been pressed by a systematical tively that any juice may be safely pronounced good, bad, re-crystallisation from solvents.

or indifferent in from twenty to thirty hours after its receipt by the inspecting officer.' This is far longer

than would be required. When once the appliances THE POTASH THEORY OF SCURVY.

for such analyses were in working order, we do not hesitate to say that a skilsul chemist would supply all the

necessary information in a couple of hours. The discussion which has recently been carried on in the “ Assuming, as will most likely prove to be the case, columns of The Times respecting the outbreak of scurvy that the potash salts are the specific agents against scurvy, on board the “ Arctic " vessels has recalled to our notice chemical analysis is seen to be indispensable in the selecan article published in this journal in 1867 (CHEMICAL tion of anti-scorbutics for use on board ship. It then, News, vol. xv., p. 37), in which we referred to the views however, becomes a question whether the active agent of the late Baron Liebig and other high authorities, who could not be stored and administered with far more ecoheld that the value of lime-juice as an anti-scorbutic is nomy, ease, and efficacy in the form of some convenient due solely to the potash which it contains. It may serve pharmaceutical preparation (such as the granulated a useful purpose if we reproduce extracts from this article. effervescing citrate of potash) than when given through At any rate they will show the importance of lime-juice the exceedingly unscientific, clumsy, and ofttimes re. being tested by competent analysts :

pulsive expedient of serving out lemon-juice to the men. “ Lime-juice is used in the English Navy and Merchant It might also be worth while to ascertain whether the deService as an efficient anti-scorbutic. Amongst American sired end could not be secured by letting chloride of potasseamen scurvy is almost unknown, and this immunity has sium partially replace chloride of sodium in the preservabeen ascribed to the very general use of potatoes ; whilst tive processes to which the provisions are subjected. in France and Russia the rareness of this disease is simi

“Whether every sample oflime-juice should be separately larly ascribed to the almost universal consumption of thin examined before shipment, or whether Dr. Stone's suggeslight wines as a beverage. Rice, which has been frequently tion be adopted of licensing a limited number of limeproposed as a substitute for potatoes, has, however, been juice vendors, and occasionally verifying the genuineness proved to be utterly valueless as an anti-scorbutic. Again, of their commodity by analysis, is a matter which need the evil effects of salt meat are notorious, but fresh beet not at present be discussed." alone is capable of preserving health for almost any time.

“ These facts are found to agree perfectly with the potash theory of scurvy. The mineral constituents of University of London.—The following candidate has emon-juice are found to be extremely rich in potash, con passed the recent examination in Public Health :-H. taining, according to Mr. Witt, upwards of 44 per cent of Franklin Parsons, M.D. (gold medal), St. Mary's Hospital.

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Dec. 22, 1876.
Experiments on the Radiometer.

269 PROCEEDINGS OF SOCIETIES. attached to a small magnetic needle, and this might be so

checked by an external magnet that the strongest light

would be incapable of causing the needle and vanes to PHYSICAL SOCIETY.

make a half rotation. If the circumference of the globe December 16th, 1876.

be graduated, and the apparatus be brought within the in. fluence of a source of light, the angle to which the needle

is deflected will be a direct measure of the intensity of the Professor G. C. Foster, F.R.S., President, in the Chair. light, and Mr. Crookes showed that by a simple arrange

ment such an instrument might be rendered self-recording. The following candidate was elected a Member of the Prof. Dewar exhibited a simple electrometer which he Society :-Mr. W. Baily, M.A.

has designed, sounded on the discovery of Leipman that Mr. CROOKES described some of the most recent results the capillary constant is not really independent of the he has obtained in his experiments on the radiometer, and temperature or the condition of the surface, but is a exhibited many beautiful forms of the apparatus, most of function of the electromotive force. If a capillary tube be which have been devised with a view to decide on the immersed in mercury, and dilute sulphuric acid be placed correct theory of the instrument. He commenced by de- in the tube above the mercury, and a current from a scribing the arrangement he has used for some time past | Daniel's cell be so passed through the liquids that the in studying the resistance offered by air and other gases i mercury forms the negative pole, the column will be deto the rotation of a mica disc. It consists of a mica / pressed to an extent dependent on the diameter of the plate suspended by a fibre of glass, and enclosed in a tube. In making an electrometer, Prof. Dewar has inchamber which can be exhausted to any required extent. creased the sensitiveness by connecting two vessels of A mirror is attached to the mica, and the movement of a mercury by means of a horizontal glass tube filled with luminous point reflected from it shows that the decreasing the metal, except that it contains a bubble of dilute acid. swings form a logarithmic curve, and Mr. Crookes takes | The tube must have an internal diameter of 2 millimetres, the logarithms of the decrements of the swings as a and it is essential that it be perfeály clean, uniform in measure of the viscosity of the gas under examination. diameter, and horizontal. The instruments exhibited were From the normal atmospheric pressure to the best vacuum constructed by Messrs. Tisley and Spiller, and Prof. Dewar which can be obtained by the ordinary air-pump this showed that it is possible by means of them to measure decrement remains nearly constant, and these experiments an electromotive force equal to 1-10,000th of a Daniel's have been carried on in vacua of remarkable perfectness, cell; forces capable of decomposing water must be the highest exhaustion obtained being represented by measured by causing two currents to act against each I millimetre on a scale of 10 miles, a point which was other. The index bubble is brought to zero by uniting the attained by means of a Sprengel pump with improvements mercury cups by a wire. The apparatus is very conveniby Mr. Gimingham, and measured by a McLeod gauge.ent, as it requires no preparation, and is extremely simple Is the “ logarithmic decrement” be represented by 125 at in its action. He then showed an instrument arranged by a pressure of 760 m.m., it is not reduced to 70 until the Mr. Tisley for producing, a current by the dropping of pressure has been reduced to 35-millionths of an atmo. mercury from a small orifice into dilute sulphurie acid, sphere, and at this point the action of light on a radio- If the vessels containing the mercury and the sulphuric meter is at a maximum. On continuing the exhaustion acid be connected by a wire a current is found to traverse this influence is found to decrease, and Mr. Crookes con- / it, and Prof. Dewar explained how the electrolysis of cludes that in a perfect vacuum the log dec. would not be water might be effected by this means. He then exhibited zero, but about 0:01 ; that is, a mica plate would not con- a delicate manometer suitable for measuring very slight tinue to oscillate for ever, a fact probably due to the vis. variations of pressure, and he illustrated the use of it for cosity of the glass fibre. About fisteen different forms of proving Laplace's law that the internal pressure, multithe radiometer were exhibited, and their inventor has plied by the diameter of a soap-bubble, is constant. It satisfied himself that the theory of their action proposed consists of a U-tube, one arm of which is about 15 inches by Mr. G. Johnstone Stoney is the only one capable of long, and is bent horizontally, and levelled with great completely accounting for their action, and he considers it care. If the shorter arm be connected with a tube on to be in all probability the correct one. By means of a which a bubble has been blown, and the diameter of the double radiometer, consisting of two globes of different bubble be varied, the position of the extremity of the diameters, and having a wide opening between them, alcohol column will be found to vary in accordance with and provided with a four-armed fly which can be made to the above law. rotate in either bulb, it has been shown that, other things being equal, the velocity of rotation decreases as we in. crease the diameter of the bulb. As, on the molecular

DEUTSCHE CHEMISCHE GESELLSCHAFT, movement theory, the rotation is due to a throwing off of

BERLIN. particles from the blackened surface of the mica, it follows

November 27th, 1876. that, if a piece of transparent mica be attached to each fly in front of the blackened surface, the rotation will take Prof. A. W. HOFMANN, F.R.S., President, in the Chair. place in the opposite direction, and this proved on experiment to be the case. And, further, when such a plate is F. WÖHLER, " Action of Palladium in an Alcohol Flame." placed on either side of the vanes, the motion of the in- | Palladium held in an alcohol flame is rapidly covered with strument is almost entirely stopped. As these facts can carbon. The author supposed this to be due to its affinity be explained on the “ molecular movement”

for hydrogen, but finds by experiment that palladium poration and condensation "theory, Mr. Crookes arranged does not decompose ethylen and the various gases of the a radiometer having four transparent mica vanes, and alcohol Aame below a red heat, although below the de. mounted in a rather large bulb. At the side of the bulb composing temperature of ethylen. He suggests the a plate of mica, blackened on one side, is so fixed in possibility of a temporary absorption of hydrogen, as in a vertical plane that the vanes can pass, and when light the case of copper heated'in ammonia gas. shines on this fixed plate the fly is found to rotate, a E. BAUMANN, “Synthesis of Hydrogen-Phenyl-Sulphate fact which in itself disproves the latter theory. Many and its Homologues.". This compound, which the author other curious forms were exhibited, in some of which the discovered in urine, is easily obtained by the action of vanes were cup-shaped, as Mr. Crookes has found these to pyrosulphate of potassium, K2S2O7, on a concentrated act as well as the ordinary form, a convex surface acting aqueous solution of potassium phenylate. Corresponding as though it were blackened. In conclusion, he exhibited compounds of cresol and resorcin are obtained in a simia photometric four-vaned radiometer, in which the fly was

lar way.

or the "

eva

270

CHEMICAL NEW, Deutsche Chemische Gesellschaft, Berlin.

Dec. 22, 1876. H. WILLGBRODT, “Action of a-Dinitro-chloro-benzol the latter's property of forming compounds similar to upon Acetamide. The two alone give no reaction at a hydrogen-phenyl-sulphate on entering the animal or. temperature of 150°, but upon addition of magnesia ortho ganism. Substituted phenols possessing the character of para-nitraniline is obtained. The reaction with acetamide an acid do not, however, show this reaction. is much more difficult than that with oxamide.

P. HUNAUS, On Citric Acid and Aconitic Acid." In H. WillGERODT, “ Action of u-Dinitro-chloro-benzol the course of investigations upon the constitution of citric upon Carbamide.” The reaction has been studied under a acid the following compounds were obtained :-Trimethylgreat variety of circumstances in the attempt to introduce citrate, C,H1407, by the saturation of an alcoholic soluthe dinitro-phenyl radical into carbamide. In all cases, tion of citric acid with gaseous hydrochloric acid, triclinic however, dinitraniline (melting-point 180°) has been ob- crystals melting at 79°; acetyl-trimethyl-citrate, by treat. tained, and the carbamide has been completely decomposed. ment of the preceding compound with acetyl-chloride, a

L. F. Nilson, “ Plato-nitrites and Diplato-nitrites." colourless liquid boiling at 280°; and trimethyl-monoThe author has studied the double nitrites of platinum chloro-tricarballyate, C2H13C106, obtained by the action monoxide and the metals. He regards these compounds of phosphoric pentachloride upon the first compound, a as containing the radical (PtO2(NO)4, which he terms heavy colourless oil; heating changes it into trimethylplato-tetra-nitrosyl. The acid previously regarded as aconitate. Aconitic acid he obtained easily in large quanacid nitrite of platinum is plato-nitrosylic acid, and the tities by first leading gaseous hydrochloric acid into citric salts plato-nitrites. With some metals he has obtained acid at a temperature of 140°, dissolving in a little water, diplato-nitrites, containing the radical Pt203(NO)4. Salts evaporating to dryness, and then following the customary have been prepared with thirty various metals. These method. salts are generally obtained as fine crystals, are as a rule A. Michael and T. H. NORTON, “ Preparation and Proeasily soluble in water, and not decomposed at 100°. perties of Tri-iodo-resorcin.Iodine monochloride added Beryllium, iron, and indium form diplato-nitrites only. to a cold aqueous solution of resorcin gives an insoluble

ALBERT ATTERBERG, Derivatives from a-Dinitro- precipitate of tri-iodo-resorcin, C6H13(HO)2. The crysnaphthalin and B-Dinitro-naphthalin.From a-dinitro- tals obtained from a solution in alcohol or carbon disul. naphthalin the following compounds have been prepared:-- phide melt at 145°, and are changed by nitric acid into dinitro-y-dichloro-naphthalin, C10H4Cl2.2N02; chlor- styphinic acid, C6H(HO)2(NO2)3. The readion is somenaphthylamin-hydrochlorate, C10H6C1.H2N.HCl; chloro. what uncommon. Treatment of pyrogallic acid with naphthylamin-sulphate, C10H6C1H2N.H2SO4; and chloro- iodine monochloride gives no results. naphthylamin, C10H6CI.NH2. B-dinitro-naphthalin on Otto Fischer, “ On the Phthaleins of Tertiary Arotreatment with phosphoric pentachloride yields large quan- matic Bases.". The author has obtained dimethyl-anilinetities of 8-trichlor-naphthalin, with a small amount of a phthalein by the action of phosphoric anhydride or other new dichlor-naphthalin, which receives the distinctive dehydrating bodies upon a mixture of dimethyl-aniline and mark %. The properties of 8-trichlor-naphthalin have been phthalic anhydride or phthalic chloride. It is of a deep thoroughly examined, and the compound changed into a green, soluble in most dissolving agents, and possesses all dichloro-phthalic acid, showing that only two of the the properties of a colouring principle. With hydrochloric three chlorine atoms are upon the same half of the naph. acid, picric acid, &c., it forms two series of salts, the green thalin molecule.

ones containing one molecule of acid, and the yellow two A. ATTERBERG, “On the Constitution of some Naphthalin molecules. By reduction, as in the case of phenol phthaCompounds." A consideration of the positions in the lein, two atoms of hydrogen are taken up, and another naphthalin molecule of doubly, and trebly-substituted new base, giving well defined salts, is obtained. Other chlorine derivatives.

tertiary compounds, such as methyl-diphenylamine, yield KARL Heumann, “ Apparatus for the Representation of also, by the above reaction, green colouring matters. the Manufacture of Sulphuric Acid.” A description of an W. Staedel and L. Ruĝheimer, “On the Action of ingenious arrangement for a lecture experiment.

Ammonia upon Chlor-acetyl-benzol." Two compounds reW.THÖRNER, * Derivatives of Para-tolyl.phenyl-ketone." sult from this reaction, both possessing the formula By the treatment of para-benzoyl-benzo-trichloride, C16H1302Cl. The first melts at 117°, and is easily oxi. C6H5-C0-C6H5-CC13, resulting from the action of dised, yielding benzoic acid. The second melts at 154', chlorine upon para-tolyl-phenyl-ketone ; with phosphoric is more insoluble than the first, and is oxidised with pentachloride oxygen is replaced by chlorine, and a ketone greater difficulty, yielding another aromatic acid as well pentachloride obtained. The rest of the paper is occupied as benzoic acid. with theoretical considerations upon the structure of the T. ZINCKE, “ Action of Dilute Sulphuric Acid upon two isomeric benzo-pinacolins resulting from the reduction Hydrobenzoin and Iso-hydrobenzoin : on Pinacone and of para-tolyl-phenyl-ketone, and accounts of experiments Pinacoline.Hydrobenzoin and iso-hydrobenzoin give undertaken with this object in view. To a-pinacolin he each with sulphuric acid a liquid and a solid crystalline assigns a formula analogous to that of pinacon, while B-compound. Both of the liquids were found to consist pinacolin is regarded as being similar in structure to the of the aldehyd of diphenyl-acetic acid. The solids possess pinacolins of the fatty series.

alike the formula C14H120, have different physical proH. BRUNNER, " Preliminary Notice on the Action of perties, but identical chemical properties. From theoreSilver Nitrite upon Iodo-benzyl, of Silver Nitrite and tical considerations the author regards these bodies as the Potassium Nitrite upon Chlor-benzyl, and of Silver Ni. same compound in different physical conditions, and views trate upon Chlor-benzyl.” The results obtained are as yet hydrobenzoin and iso-hydrobenzoin as identical, explaining of no particular value.

their differences in the same manner, and placing them in R. v. d. Velden and E. BAUMANN, "Action of the Tur- the class of pinacones. pentines upon Animal Organisms.” Numerous experiments A. Blatzbecker and T. ZINCKE, “On Benzyl-iso. show the falsity of the statement that pure oil of turpen- phthalic Acid.” This acid, C6H5C6H3(COOH)2, is obtine, and bodies belonging to the same class, form com- tained from benzyl-isoxylol by oxidation with potassium pound ethers with the sulphuric acid present in animal bichromate and sulphuric acid. It melts at 278°. Various organisms. Previous statements upon this subject are salts and ethers have been prepared. By reduction with probably due to the fact that the turpentines experimented zinc and hydrochloric acid benz-hydryl-isophthalic anhyupon were not free from essential oils, or such substances dride is obtained, C15H1004. Sodium amalgam gives the as thymol, containing oxygen, and entering easily into dibasic benzyl-isophthalic acid, C6H3CH2.C.Hz.(COOH)2. combination with sulphuric acid.

L. KLIPPERT AND T. ZINCKE, "On Para-Xylenic Acid." E.BAUMANN and E. HERTER, “ Action of the Homologues The authors have obtained from para-dichlor-xylol, by of Phenol upon Animal Organisms." The various cresols, means of the dicyanide para-xylinic acid, thymol, resorcin, and other homologues of phenol, possess

C6H (CH2COOH)2.

Dec. 22, 1876.
,}
Deutsche Chemische Gesellschaft, Berlin.

271 It yields easily crystallisable salts and ethers, a number finds glass of the following composition best suited to of which have been prepared.

resist the decomposing influence of steamC. LIEBERMANN and M. Waldstein, "Emodin from the

5K2O3CaO24SiO2. Bark of the Rhamnus frangula.An examination of the acid in the bark of the Rhamnus frangula, termed by its An easy method to determine the value of glass in this discoverer, Faust, frangulic acid, shows it to be identical respect is to boil a finely pulverised sample for some time with emodin, CisH100s. This new source of emodin with water, and notice the decrease in weight. This allows of its being produced much more cheaply and amounts in some instances to 10 per cent. easily than by the method now in use.

c. LiebERMANN, “ Constitution of Oxythymo-quinon." From the comparison of numerous closely related compounds in the naplıthalin group, the author condemns the

NOTICES OF BOOKS. formula of Ladenburg in his lately issued work on “The Theory of the Aromatic Compour.ds."

C. BÖTTINGER, “ Action of Zinc-dust on the Chlorides Chemia Coartata, or the Key to Modern Chemistry. By of Sulpho-para-bromo-benzoic Acid." This reaction yields a mixture of the following four compounds, the separation

A. H. KOLLMEYER, A.M., M.D. London : J. and A.

Churchill. and purification of which are attended with great difficulty :-Sulphi-para-bromo- benzoic acid,

This work is singular in its shape--which more nearly C6HzBr(COOH)(S02H),

approaches that of a cheque-book than of any ordinary crystallises in fine needles, and is decomposed by heating author has adopted. His main object has been "to com

volume--a peculiarity due to the tabular form which the Sulphi-bromo-benzaldehyd, C6H,Br(COH)(S02Á), has an odour similar to that of the oil of bitter almonds, and with the study that deserves attention, and to give no

press into as small space as possible everything connected melts at 131°. Hydrosulph-bromo-benzaldehyd,

more explanatory matter than is actually required to C6H Br(COH)(SH).

render each subject perfectly intelligible," and he certainly and hydrosulph-bromo-benzoic acid, C6HzBr(COOH)(SH), has succeeded in condensing a wonderful amount of are both easily decomposed.

matter into very little space. The work is said to be B. ARONHBIM, On the Use of Molybdenum Penta- especially adapted to the wants of three classes of perchloride for the Production of Organic Chlorides.The sons: "Students intending to present themselves for joint action of this body and chlorine gas is the same as

examinations-to whom, as a rule, we should offer the that of antimony, penta-chloride, and chlorine, forming with general advice don't !-secondly, persons who have organic bodies highly chlorinated compounds ; carbon di- learned the old notation and-not believing in the adage sulphide, for example, is changed into carbon tetra- that a rose by any name will smell as sweet-wish to be. chloride. It also serves admirably for the substitution of come acquainted with the modern system ; and, lastly, chlorine for hydrogen in benzol when the latter contains those who desire to keep themselves posted on this sublikewise substituted hydrocarbons which it is desirable to ject, and who can thus easily refresh their memories leave intact.

without doing so at the expense of their other engageB. ARONHEIM, " Synthesis of Tolyl-butylen." This compound, (CH3.C6H4)CH2.C2H5, one of the few non- The work, after a few introductory remarks, opens with saturated hydrocarbon substitution derivatives of benzol, the usual table of elementary bodies, symbols, and atomic is obtained from the action of allyl-jodide and sodium weights. The laws of combination, the all-important subupon meta-xylyl-chloride. It is a colourless oil, boiling at ject of quantivalence, chemical formulæ, and equations 195°, and forming addition compounds with the halogens. are then explained. Next follows the main division of

the subject.

Opposite the name of each element are placed, in Monday, December 11, 1876.

parallel columns, its synonyms, its history, sources, equations (this latter term being used in a somewhat wide

sense, including such directions as “Union can be effected G. KRAMER and H. TROSCHKE,“ On Methyl-alcohol and by the aid of an electric spark passed through the mixed Dimethyl-acetal.The authors describe methods for ob- gases);" its properties arranged in two columns, the taining methyl-alcohol chemically pure, and analytical former containing its symbol, combining weight, specific experiments on the constitution of dimethyl-acetal. gravity, weight of a litre, and of 100 cubic inches; and,

G. Kræmer and H. TROSCHKE, “ On the Aldehyds and lastly its characteristic tests. Some of the information Ketones present in Wood-spirit." By submitting enormous given is, however, either defective or not happily selected. quantities of crude methyl-alcohol tó fractional distillation, Thus under the potassium compounds we find no mention the following bodies were obtained :-Methyl-aldehyd, of their greatest modern source, the Stassfurt salts. The ethyl-aldehyd, methyl-ethyl-ketone, dimethyl-ketone,amyl nitrates of potash and soda, we are told, occur naturally ketone, and three new bodies possessing the characteristics in India and Peru respectively. But when we turn to of ketones. The first possesses the formula CsH80, and sodium chloride we find that it is “manufactured in is probably a condensed ketone. The next, C8H 120, boils England, Spain, and Canada.” Surely it would have been at 135°, produces by oxidation large quantities of acetic more instructive to have stated that it occurs naturally in acid, and by treatment with sulphuric acid yields xylol, England, Poland, and North-Western India. Under C8H10. The third boils above 300°, yields with sulphuric aluminium we read that the white precipitate given by acid cymol, C10H14, and receives the formula C20H160. ammonia is insoluble in excess, which is by no means

C. LIEBERMANN,On the Formula of Brazilin.Bra- absolutely correct. The instructions for the preparation zilin, the red colouring matter of Brazil wood, has hitherto of common alum are also likely to mislead. It is pre. received the formula of Cz2H2007, The author considers pared, we are told, from "aluminous clay"-are not all C16H1405 as more correct. It possesses many points of clays aluminous ?-_"which is roasted, exposed to air, similarity with the colouring matter of logwood, hæmat. lixiviated with water, sal-ammoniac added to remove oxylin, C16H1406, and, where the latter, by decomposition, iron, and the solution then crystallised.” Under iron we yields pyrogallic acid, Brazilin yields resorcin. "He has read, in the column indicating its sources, "found pure and prepared tetracetyl-brazilin, C16H 10(C2H30)405, the lead as sulphide." Why the sulphide should be named as a salt, C16H12PbO3+H20, and halogen compounds of the source for iron in preference to the oxides is doubtful. general formula C16H12C12O5.

In organic chemistry the multitude of compounds has A. FRANCK, “ Action of Water on Glass." The author rendered it impossible for the author to carry out his

ments.

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