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Dec. 15, 1876.
Newcastle Chemical Society.President's Address.

257 The following Report of the Committee was read :- deleef in connection with this subject, and with the theory

In commencing the ninth session of the Society the which he promulgated more than seven years ago, that Committee find that there is but little on which they need "the physical characters of a radicle are periodic functions specially remark.

of its atomic weight." Having pointed that out, he froThe number of members remains about the same, in ceeds to remind us that the characteristics which are asspite of additions to the list of new names, these being signed to gallium are precisely those which he assigned about balanced by withdrawals and removals from the seven years ago to the metal which he then designated district. The Committee would here observe that consi. “Ekaluminum," and which he argued, on purely mathederable trouble is caused by gentlemen who, without matical grounds, ought to exist. Now, whether this is giving any formal notice of withdrawal, neglect to pay merely a more or less interesting coincidence, or whether their subscriptions, and take no notice of the applications it is really the climax of a process of pure mathematical of the Treasurer. As every member, so long as his name reasoning, by which we shall be able to predicate radicles remains on the list, causes to the Society a certain amount which ought to exist, we can hardly yet say. When of trouble and expense, the Committee feel that it would " Ekasilicium," of which he has also predicted upon purely be only fair on the part of these members to signify to the mathematical grounds the existence, is discovered, and Secretaries their desire to withdraw.

discovered existing, as he says it will exist, in company The deficit, irrespective of arrears of subscriptions, has with arsenic, we shall then, I think, have a rather wider increased during the last twelve months, and the Com basis for induction. Still we must admit that the coinci. mittee will probably have to consider two alternatives—a dence, if a coincidence it be, is a very interesting one, less extended report of the discussions upon papers, or an and one well worthy of being recorded. Passing from abandonment of the refreshments which have been for this to a closely-allied subject, I may remind you of the some sessions provided at ordinary meetings; unless, in interesting paper, produced in the course of last year by deed, some source of increased revenue can be suggested, Prof. Henry Wurtz, on, as he entitles it," A New System e.g., an increased list of members.

of Geometrical Chemistry.” If you have read that paper The Committee are, of course, hardly in a position at I am sure you will agree with me that the greatest credit present to express a decided opinion on this very im- | is due to him for the untiring labour which must have portant point, but they hope to bring it before an early gone to the collecting of the data for his system. Every general meeting.

specific gravity which has ever been published on reliable In conclusion, the Committee appeal to all members to authority for any compound appears to have been collated assist them in their efforts to render the ensuing session by him; and in a not less notable manner is his ingenuity a successful one, by personal co-operation. It will be displayed in putting together these data, and in inducing seen, by referring to the Transactions, that the bulk of the eventually three laws, which I should certainly advise you labour in this respect has been borne by members whose to read for yourselves. names recur but too frequently, and the Committee would Passing from the applications of the purer and higherearnestly impress the desirability of a change in this for I suppose we must say the higher science of matherespect.

matics to our experimental data, we come to one or two Mr. N. H. Martin was unanimously elected a member. subjects upon which purely experimental data, and data

The following names were read for the first time :- of very considerable value, have been afforded to us during John Henry Payne, Jarrow; William Crake, Newcastle; the past year. Mr. Thomas has produced two papers-or H. E. Scholefield, Newcastle.

I should rather more correctly say three--of the very

highest interest, on the “Gases Occluded by Coal.” Í President's Address.

will not detain you by going into details which you can GentleMEN,—Before commencing the Address, the deli- scad for yourselves in the Fournal of the Chemical Society, very of which custom imposes upon me, permit me to

but I cannot help remarking that they are of exceeding thank you very sincerely for the honour you have done me interest, as additions to our knowledge on the subject, of in elecing me as your President-an honour which I ap. which we knew little or nothing previously, with the expreciate none the less that I could most sincerely have ception of the somewhat imperfect researches of Von wished it had fallen upon some other member of the Meyer,-researches imperfect, not because there had not Society. One of the principal difficulties which a Presi- been every care bestowed upon them, but imperfect, as I dent must experience on such an occasion lies in the cannot but think, from the method employed in carrying selection of topics; not but that in the range of our them out. I may remind you of his process for collecting science there is an abundance on which to speak, to more these occluded gases, consisting in heating a flask filled, or less profitable purpose, but the difficulty is really to partly with the coal under examination, partly

, with reselect amongst the mass of materials which present them-cently boiled water, and collecting the gases evolved also selves at the very outset. We enter to-night upon our over water. I need scarcely point out to anyone who has ninth session. I may assume then, I think, that our even a limited experience of gas analysis the imperfections raison d'être is abundantly demonstrated, and it is hardly of this method, in regard both to evolution and collection necessary that I should occupy your time in considering of the gases. The more perfect method employed by what are the functions of a Society like our own, and how Mr. Thomas, of heating in a vacuum produced by the use far we discharge them. When we turn to the other alter- of a Sprengel pump, has yielded results very different native, a more or less systematic review of the progress from those of Von Meyer, and which, when the series of of our science during the last twelve months, we expe- researches is completed, cannot but be of the greatest rience at once the difficulty of sele&ion. The Journal of value to all who are concerned with the technical as well the Chemical Society, as most of you know, is made up

as theoretical consideration of the subject. almost entirely of abstracts, condensed of necessity into Mr. Galloway has dealt with a kindred subject-"The the very smallest space; and yet, during the six months Effect of Coal-Dust upon the Productions of Explosions ending last June, it occupied no less than 998 closely. in Coal-Mines.” Many of us, I believe, were present at printed pages. We may, however, select from among the the exceedingly interesting demonstrations which Mr. varied subjects which have occupied our little world during Galloway gave, some two or three years ago, in this room, the last twelve months some sufficiently prominent to in connection with his former research upon the effect of a afford materials for a few minutes consideration.

sound-wave on the passage of flame. This latter subject, We have no particularly sensational—if I may permit which Mr. Galloway has investigated, is equally closely myself the term-discovery to record. The nearest ap- connected with the well-being of coal-pits, and I may proach to that, perhaps, is the further examination by therefore state briefly the results at which he has arrived. M. de Boisbaudran of his new metal Gallium; and here It might have been very well doubted—and it is, in fact, I may remind you of the reclamation made by M. Men even now to a certain extent doubtful-how far dry coal

258 Newcastle Chemical Society.-President's Address. { , ,

Dec. 15, 1876. dust per se is capable of producing, when unmixed with mence experimenting with. Then, passing through the fire-damp, a mixture with air which can be termed explo- pin-hole the pipette, we fill by its means the test-tubes sive in the ordinary sense of the term. Experiments are which you see are cemented into the bottom of the box in progress with the view of determining this point, and it with an infusion of any animal or vegetable matter you is not impossible we may be able to lay some of the results choose. We abandon these, after heating them to rather before our Society during the present session. But what above boiling-point by a salt-bath below, to their own Mr. Galloway has shown us is, tliat where, in addition to devices. Now, Dr. Tyndall has repeated this experiment coal-dust, there is present a very small proportion of with some 600 different test-tubes containing every variety damp, which can hardly show itself by a cap on the of infusion, and he has found that when the tubes have miners' safety lamp, that very small quantity is equal to heen heated to boiling in contact with the mote-free air, the formation of an explosive mixture. A quantity, and then abandoned to themselves, they have never in any ranging from 1 to 2 per cent of fire-damp, when mixed ore case undergone the action which we style putrefaction, thoroughly with the air of the mine and coal-dust, and and after they have remained for some time unputrefied passing over a naked light, is capable of producing an the mere opening of the box is sufficient in two or three explosion, or, on a small scale, an exceedingly rapid com- days, by the action of the motes in the air from outside, bustion. Clearly these experiments bear upon the every; to initiate with unerring certainty the phenomenon of day work of our own district, and, as such, we are indebted putrefaction. I cannot see how we can logically come to to Mr. Galloway for his painstaking investigation of an any other conclusion than that this phenomenon, and, exceedingly important question.

probably, its close ally fermentation, depend upon the I come now to a set of experiments which possibly action of what Prof. Tyndall calls motes. Others perhaps many of you have already read in detail, and which par- would give to them the name of germs, but if we call take alike of the purely scientific and of the practically them motes we commit ourselves to nothing except that interesting character. I allude to the researches which the suspended matter of the atmosphere is closely conDr. Tyndall has conducted, after his well-known patient nected with these phenomena. I should weary you if I method of experiment, on the relation of the optical de- were to go into detail on the different forms in which this portment of the atmosphere to the phenomena of putre experiment has been repeated. You will find them faction and fermentation. It is so obviously impossible to described at length in the original paper, and the more give more than the very briefest abbreviation of these you read the more I think you will be possessed with a results that I must refer you for details to the paper in the sense of their beauty. But there is one part of the expeTransactions of the Royal Society ; but the cardinal experiments which is so exceedingly interesting, both theoretiriment, of which all the others are variations, and upon cally and practically, that I must attempt its description. which the proof of Prof. Tyndall's proposition mainly Let another set of tubes be connected with the sides of rests, I think I shall be able to explain in a very few this box; let them be filled with a putrescible fluid ; let minutes, with the assistance of the working model on the that undergo the action of putrefaction ; and when that table. I need not remind you, I suppose, of the former action is at its highest, and when the gases evolved during researches of Prof. Tyndall in this same direction. I need it have completely filled the box, let the lower tubes be not point out to you how he has shown that the purity or also filled with a putrescible fluid, by means of the pipette. otherwise, as regards suspended matter, of the atmosphere Let that be boiled and abandoned to the action of the gases can be determined rapidly, easily, and certainly, with the evolved during putrefaction, and in no case will it undergo assistance of a sufficiently powerful beam of light. I need putrefaction. It may be in the fullest contact with the not remind you of the “ motes in the sunbeam," which most nauseous gases from putrefaction, but as long as Prof. Tyndall has happily adopted as the term to designate only gases are brought into contact with it, it will not the somewhat indefinite suspended matter of the atmo-putrely; but let the smallest fraction of matter already sphere, but I may just illustrate by experiment his beau-putrefying be introduced into the “protected” fluid, as tiful demonstration of the probability of the organic we may term it, and putrefaction is absolutely certain. I character of—at any rate by far the larger portion of-that should probably spend too much time if I were to go into suspended matter. If we turn on this lime-light, and details as to the practical bearings of this experiment, bring below its track, marked out in the air of the darkened but I think you will see the analogy which Prof. Tyndall room, a Bunsen burner, you see the appearance of smoke points out between this and the not unfrequent case of produced by the heated air traversing the light track, and sewer gas causing zymotic disease is not a far-strained destroying the suspended matter. Now, extending the analogy after all. When we endeavour to trace a conapplication of this process, Prof. Tyndall has constructed nection between sewer gas and zymotic disease we are an apparatus, of which we have a rough working model constantly met with this objection-" If it is really the before us on the table. We have a box which can be dreadful thing it is said to be, why is there not disease in closed practically dust-tight. We have the means of every house in which it may be smelt ?" Not to dwell on transmitting a powerful beam, such as we have just been the probable necessity for a favourable nidus as well as for using, from side to side of the box, and so observing the germ, in order to initiate that class of disease, I may whether there is any difference in optical deportment of point out that here the sewer gas, instead of being actually the air inside the box and the air outside it.' We have, the cause of disease, simply tells us, by its unmistakable of course, in front the means of observing this; and we smell, that communication is established between the have a small door fastened dust-tight, by which we can drain and the house, -it may be to bring in only compa. keep the box in communication with the external atmo- ratively innoxious gas, but it may be to bring in a current sphere, or not, at will. Lastly, we have an aperture above of gas laden with zymotic poison, which we may liken to through which we can pass the point of a pipette. We the motes in this box. And the more you consider this varnish the sides, top, and bottom of the box with a mix- case the more you will see the close bearing this experiture of glycerin and water, to act as a mote trap and detain ment of Prof. Tyndall's has upon a matter which concerns the suspended matter which settles upon it. Then, closing our public health in the closest degree. the different apertures of the box, we leave it to itself for I should not leave this subject, or, if I did, I should a few days, and from time to time examine it with leave it exceedingly incomplete, if I did not refer to Dr. the help of such a beam (or a stronger one), as you have Frankland's elaborate paper on the examination of potable just seen. After a time the whole of the motes in the waters. I will not detain you by enlarging upon the vexed little portion of included air have settled on the sides and question of water analysis, but there one or two points in bottom of the box. The track of the beam of light can the paper which are of sufficient interest to be worth reno longer be distinguished inside the box, although we marking on. Probably many of you have read all that is can see it easily before it enters and after it emerges; and there said of the case reported from Switzerland, of the now our air is optically pure, and in a condition to com- | conveyance of typhoid fever for very nearly a mile in dis

CHEMICAL News
, } Present State of the Iron Manufacture in Sweden.

259 tance through a water supply. The two experiments cited, introduced without necessity; they neither exert any inare so interesting and so ingenious, and lead to such ex- fluence on the progress of the story, nor are made to ceedingly important practical results, that I may go into illustrate any physical principle, and they soon disappear, then a little in detail. In the first instance, to establish having merely served to add a few pages to the bulk of the fact that the source of the water-supply from which the book. The science of the book, after a careful exthe contagion was supposed to have been derived in the amination, appears to us accurate, and it is certainly first instance was really in connection with the public illustrated with no small felicity. Exception may, howwells, which were supposed to have conveyed the disease, ever, be taken to certain remarks on colours in the sixth the following experiment was made:-Some hundred- chapter. Thus the author asserts that “the supposed weights of common salt were put into the suspected effect of scarlet (dazzling the eye) is explicable by its water-supply, and in the course of a comparatively short comparative rarity in nature, and I doubt not but that if time the quantity rose in the well water to sixteen or all the green and red changed places we should be as eighteen times the normal amount. I do not think we much attracted by green as we now are by red, and would need any further proof that the two sources of water- | attribute to it the same exciting effect; while the repose supply were in complete connection ; but to supplement you speak of as belonging to green would seem to belong that experiment, and to trace the effect of the filtration of to the scarlet foliage to which our eyes would be so much the water through a very considerable length of porous accustomed.” soil, a few hundredweights of flour, sufficient to make We are at a loss to conjecture upon what facts this the water thoroughly turbid, were thrown in and stirred singular opinion can be based. Scarlet is, indeed, someinto the suspected source. Although the salt had tra- what rare in nature, but in dye works it is as plentiful as versed the connecting strata not a trace of the flour could is green, and the examination of pieces of scarlet cloth to be detected, either by chemical or microscopic examina- ascertain whether they are correct to shade is found very tion in the contaminated well water. Mechanical filtration fatiguing to the eyes. If scarlet or even magenta then had been quite sufficient to remove this suspended swatches are regarded for a long time, and fixedly, the eye matter, but had, nevertheless, been insufficient to remove becomes temporarily incapable of judging of their exact the subtle typhoid infection. Now, that that proves posi- tone. The observed effects of light of different colours tively that infection is due to a “germ,” I do not say: it upon vegetable life clash also with Mr. Routledge's view. will be evident that the phenomenon is equally easily ex- The fifteenth chapter, in which the author treats of work plicable, whether we suppose it to be due to an infinitesi- and its measurement of energy, and explains the meaning mal germ, so minute as to pass the filtering-bed in such of the foot-pound, may be advantageously read, not merely way as an infinitesimal particle---say of sulphate of ba- by children, but by many of mature age who entertain rium-passes a filter-paper; or whether we suppose it to somewhat hazy notions on this subject. be due to a definite soluble poison existing in solution ; We hope this volume may meet with such a recepand therefore capable of passing any filter, no matter how tion as to induce the author to extend his plan and proeffective. On either ground the results seem equally ex- duce a companion volume dealing in a similar manner plicable ; but they point clearly to one fact--that no process with some of the many scientific questions not here inof mechanical filtration, however complete, can really be cluded. trusted to purify water which has once received the infection of the diseases which we group together for convenience under the name of zymotic.

The Combined Note Book and Lecture Notes for the Use

of Chemical Students. By Thomas ELTOFT, F.C.S. (To be continued.)

London : Simpkin, Marshall, and Co. Manchester :

John Heywood

This book contains a table of the elementary bodies, with NOTICES OF BOOKS.

their symbols and atomic weights. Then follow remarks on elements, symbols, compounds, and chemical formulæ;

on the use of brackets; on oxides, anhydrides, and acids; Science in Sport made Philosophy in Earnest, being an

on the atomicity of the elements; tables of sulphides and Attempt, to Illustrate, some Elementary Principles of sulphites; on the formation of chlorides and bromides, Physical Knowledge by means of Toys and Pastimes. iodides, fluorides, and cyanides ; on the salts of dibasic Edited by Robert Routledge, B.Sc., F.C.S. London: acids ; on the density of gases and the "crith.” G. Routledge and Sons.

Then follow a number of leaves arranged for taking The author of this work tells us that his original design lecture notes, with certain headings to be filled up. was merely to produce a new edition of a work written tains all the best known methods for the preparation of

The last part of the book, as the author tells us, "consome half century ago, by a Dr. J. A. Paris, under the the various elementary and compound substances,” at title “ Philosophy in Sport made Science in Earnest.” least, as far as the non-metallic elements are concerned. He found it necessary, however, to re-write and extend

He has purposely left out any explanation as to the conthe whole of the scientific matter in the book in order to bring it into harmony with the existing state of knowledge. should be done by the student himself, either from his

dition under which they are prepared, preferring that this For the story with which the instructive portion of the lecture notes or text-books." By this method, it is original work is interwoven he has found it desirable to " substitute a quite different, much slighter, less intricate, without any cramming." Finally there is a table of

said, he gains “two objects, viz., good and sound work and perhaps more probable tale." This work, therefore, is a story, or, if the reader will,

tests for the most important acids.

The work, we are told, is "not in any way supposed to a novel made the vehicle of physical instruction and interspersed with lectures, or, as they are now called, take the place of a text-book, but to act as an adjunct to it.” "conferences.” The author expresses a hope that no one will find in the narrative in itself so much attraction as to "skip." the graver portions of the book. How far he is on the Present State of the Iron Manufacture in Sweden. right in this respect, considering the truly canine appetite

By Rich. AKERMAN (School of Mines, Stockholm). with which fiction is devoured by the public, may perhaps The iron manufactures of Sweden, though long famous

London : E, and F. N. Spon. be doubtful. Were we an authority on such points we might question the raison d'être of Miss Ryland and her and still eminent as far as quality is concerned, are sister-gossips--characters not wholly new in literature not carried on upon a scale of great magnitude. This even though they combine with their morbid love of is due to the want of coal, which is only found in the scandal the new mania for “woman's rights." They are more southern part, and to the fact that the deposits of

CHEMICAL NEWS, 260 The Late David Forbes, F.R.S.

Dec. 15, 1876. iron-ore are remote from the more extensive forests and from his pen have appeared in the CHEMICAL News; peat beds. The ores consist chiefly of magnetite and amongst them we may mention those entitled : “ Ap. hæmatite. In some districts, such as Gräsberg, these two plication of the Blowpipe to the Quantitative Determinaores are so much mixed together that it is not easy to tion or Assay of certain Metals;" “Some Points in decide to which species samples ought to be assigned. Chemical Geology;" " The Preparation of Lime Crucibles

These ores belong to the primitive or Laurentian forma- for Great Heat;" “ The Composition and Metallurgy of tion, and generally occur in stratified masses, having the Some Norwegian Iron-Ores ;' and “ The Microscope in same strike and dip as the surrounding rocks. They may Geology.". be arranged in three classes, those rich in quartz, those He died at the age of 49, and was buried at Kensal abounding in magnesia, and those containing a notable Green Cemetry on Monday last. The Director General amount of manganese and interspersed with sulphides. of the Geological Survey and the Presidents of the The latter class, when their proportion of sulphides is not Chemical and Geological Societies were amongst those considerable, have been highly valued for the preparation who were present at the grave. of steel. The amount of iron ranges from 30 to 70 per The following account from the pen of Mr. F. Field, cent. They contain, in general, little phosphorus ; those who was one of Forbes's intimate friends, renders it unof Dannemorą having only 0.003 per cent, and those of necessary for us to refer at greater length to the scientific Persberg 0.05 per cent. The Grängesberg ores, however, results of his journeys and labours :have been known to contain even 1'5 per cent, being intermixed with apatite, whence it has been proposed to sub- “ The death of David Forbes, a man at once chemist, mit them to a preliminary treatment in the wet way geologist, and mining engineer, must have excited deep utilising the apatite as superphosphate. Titanium, which regret throughout the scientific world. Few men amongst is in some cases abundantly present, is an undesirable us have travelled so much or have had the same opporingredient, as it renders the process of reduction more tunities of research. From Finland to the South of Spain difficult and occasions a great waste of charcoal.

in Europe, from Cape Horn to Panama in the western The total amount of ore raised in Sweden during the continent of South America, did his journeys extend, and year 1874 from 696 mines was 21,692,998 centners, equal his museum bears ample testimony to the energy and to 922,524,000 kilos. The number of persons employed zeal with which they were prosecuted, embracing, as it was 7497. The book is illustrated with a large map of does, rare and sometimes unique specimens, mostly the mining districts of Southern Sweden, and contains a collected by himself, of all branches of natural history tabular view of the composition of Swedish iron-ores, from nearly every part of the globe. Only those who inconveniently arranged. The continental method of have travelled over the bad roads and mountainous disusing for decimals figures smaller than those denoting tricts of South America can appreciate the difficulty of whole numbers has been followed, to the tribulation of transporting specimens from the interior of the country to the readers' eyes. The value of the work to practical the coast previously to their shipment for Europe. Perhaps men would also have been greater if the weights of metal, a few reminiscences of David Forbes when a comparaore, &c., produced, exported, &c., had been calculated tively young man may not be altogether devoid of interest. into tons instead of kilogrms. Apart, however, from such I first met him in the Port of Coquimbo, Chile, in 1858, and mere defects of form and from certain expressions, which was surprised at the rapidity with which he had acquired cannot be considered idiomatic English, this publication the Spanish language. He was a thorough cosmopolite, will be highly interesting to all persons connected with and seemed as mucn at home with the Chilian miners and the iron manufacture.

smelters as if he had been born among them, entering into their peculiarities, accommodating himself to their mode of life, and making himself universally popular.

Whilst most foreigners, Englishmen especially, on taking OBITUARY.

a journey to the various mines, require many comforts which they deem indispensable, and have, at times,

almost a cavalcade of servants and mules, laden with DAVID FORBES, F.R.S.

provisions and bedding, Forbes, if the idea suddenly

struck him, would take simply a single guide (and he The saddest duty of the editor of a scientific journal often went quite unattended) and traversed the most disis that of recording the death of eminent labourers in the tant portions of the Republic, with a rapidity and an field of science. In the too early death of David Forbes amount of observation which were astonishing. Thus science has been deprived of one of her most zealous and after being only a few weeks in Coquimbo, he had exhardworking devotees, while we have also to mourn the plored the Higuera, Tamaya, Arqueros, Andacollo, Ovalle, loss of a valued friend. Few men have enjoyed greater Tambidos, and nearly every other mineral district of im. facilities for acquiring a knowledge of nature by personal portance, knowing them better than most foreigners who observation in different parts of the world than David had resided in the country many years. I remember on Forbes, and armed with dauntless courage and indomitable one occasion he determined to make the journey from perseverance he made the most of his opportunities. Coquimbo to Copiapó on horseback, taking with him but Those who have heard him read papers at the Chemical one servant and trusting for provisions on the way as best or Geological Societies, or who have been present when he might. The road is through a desert, where water is he has taken part in a discussion know how ihorough and seldom obtainable, and should the horse founder far away how vast was his knowledge. It is to be hoped that the from any habitation the consequences might be very manuscript notes which he had made with the view of serious. He seemed to think nothing of this or other elaborating them in future years will not be entirely contingencies, made the journey, and returned to Coquimbo lost, but that they admit of being arranged and a few weeks afterwards, fresher and better than ever. published in some form or other, though they would have He had an iron frame, and in those days was perfectly been of infinitely higher value had they received the insensible to fear. When he was staying with me some addition of those still larger stores of knowledge which few months later, a gentleman fitted out a three-masted are now entirely lost. In 1858 David Forbes was elected schconer, and purposed taking a long cruise to the Fijis a Fellow of the Royal Society, and at the time of his and other islands in the South Pacific. Almost at a death he was senior Secretary of the Geological Society moment's notice Forbes offered to accompany him, and and also foreign Secretary of the Iron and Steel Institute, spent many months in that delightful part of the world. a post for which he was eminently fitted. His reports on This may seem a trifling incident; it is only mentioned the iron and steel industries are most valuable additions to show that while most of us take some time to consider, to technical scientific literature. Many excellent papers 'Forbes made up his mind instantly. In the Chile

war.

CHEMICAL News,
Dec. 15, 1876.
Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.

261 Revolution of 1859 Forbes, with many other Englishmen, CHEMICAL NOTICES FROM FOREIGN were my guests at the British Consulate. Although the revolutionary party were successful in the province of

SOURCES. Coquimbo, the Government had the supremacy on the coast, and the port was strictly blockaded. The blockade was respected both by the English and French men-of- Les Mondes, Revue Hebdomadaire des Sciences, Forbes (I know not why) was determined to go to

No. 5, October 5, 1876. Bolivia. No person was allowed to leave the spot: the

Report on Cremation, delivered to the Prefect of English steamer, on arrival, did not drop anchor, but Police by the “ Council of Hygiene and Salubrity” of moved slowly round the bay, depositing the mail-bag in the Department of the Seine.—The Commission conthe Chilian officers' boat. Forbes pleaded for a passage, sider that cremation would be free from all objections on but in vain. He was not the man, however, to be daunted the score of public health, but that its economy would be by a refusal. He hired a small sailing-boat, and with doubtful except furnaces were maintained in continual only two men and a slender store of provisions left from action, and that by rendering the chemical examination of a creek just outside the bay, by midnight, and made sail the body impossible it would prevent the detection of for Bolivia, leaving me the laconic lines-Dear Field, I murder by poisoning. have broken their blockade.-D. F.' I subsequently learned from him that the winds had blown him many assay of Cinchona Barks.-M. Dubois.-The author

Note on Herbelin's Method for the Expeditious hundred miles beyond the port of Cobija, and he had to beat back against heavy seas for more than a week. He finds that this method, which consists substantially in accomplished his purpose, but arrived, as may be supposed, extracting the powdered bark with benzol after previous half dead from fatigue and want of food.

treatment with ammonia, does not give satisfactory results. Although Forbes died at a comparatively early age,

Quinine is scarcely soluble in benzol, though the two he had led in the half century the lives of at least three compounds have a strong mutual affinity. men. An intermittent fever he had contracted in Peru

Phenomena of Digestion with the Cockroach.-. prostrated his strength greatly during the last few years The digestive juices of insects are alkaline or neutral, of his life. I met him a month ago at the B.' Club, of never acid. which he was a member, and, although complaining of New Experiments with the Radiometer.-D. S. illness, he seemed to me more cheerful than he had been Stroumbo.- If during the night a candle is lighted before since his late heavy domestic affliction. I little thought a radiometer of the same height, and placed at the dis. when I wished him better that I had shaken hands with tance of 20 c.m., it turns from the right to the left of an him for the last time.

observer, placed so that the radiometer is between him and

“ FREDERICK Field. the candle. The following facts were observed :-First. " Hither Green, Kent,

Whilst the radiometer continaed to turn slowly from the December 12, 1876."

right to the left I placed my five fingers on the glass stem of the instrument, and kept them there: in an instant the radiometer turned in the opposite direction, i.c., from the

left to the right wtth a greater speed, and continued to CORRESPONDENCE.

turn thus indefinitely. When I removed my hand the radiometer slackened its speed, and after having turned so

for some time it stopped for a few moments, and then SULPHUROUS ACID AS A DISINFECTANT. resumed its ordinary course from right to left at a slow

speed. Instead of applying five fingers I applied only one, To the Editor of the Chemical News.

but with the same result. I interposed silk, paper, and Sir,—In the CHEMICAL News (vol. xxxiv., p. 245), you effect was produced, as also when I surrounded the glass

copper between the finger and the glass, but the same reprint an article from the Lancet “On a Mode of foot of the instrument with a copper ring, which I held by Generating Sulphurous Acid for Use as a Disinfectant,

a silk thread.' I placed my finger on a point of the glass &c.," by Mr. Keates, in which it is stated that there is no ready, convenient, and easily controllable way of pro- from the circumference which the radiometer describes,

support very near the base at a distance of 10 to 13 c.m. ducing this valuable agent (sulphurous acid) in use at

when the same phenomenon took place, as also when I present;" and then Mr. Keates proceeds to describe a mode of generating the acid by the combustion of carbon placed my finger on any point whatever, situated below

the circle described by the radiometer. If I placed my disulphide, as if this method were a novelty.

I have used sulphurous acid generated exclusively from finger at a point above this circle the instrument was not the combustion of carbon disulphide, as a disinfectant for affected, and continued its ordinary course. If the finger rooms during a period of nearly seven years, and have in described by the radiometer, it stops after some oscilla

is applied to the glass at a point of the circumference this way consumed 6 cwts, of the disulphide during the last six years. Years ago I advocated this mode of dis. tions, and remains at rest, but resumes its ordinary course infection before the Society of Medical Officers of Health.

as soon as the finger is removed. Second. The radioI know that othéis besides myself have been in the habit brought its glass foot in contact with a bow of copper,

meter being at rest in a rather dark part of the room, I of using it.

No special form of lamp is required. The requisite which I held by a strong piece of silk or cotton moistened, quantity of the disulphide may be placed in an ordinary turn. I let fall the bow, and the radiometer in a few

and which I drew horizontally. The radiometer began to porcelain or copper dish placed on a tripod, and ignited moments ceased turning. I caused to be constructed a with a match. In five minutes several ounces of the radiometer with plain discs of mica, which did not turn if liquid may be easily and safely burnt. A much larger placed in the sun. If it was not a radiometer, properly quantity of the liquid should be used than that named by speaking, it was a sensitive instrument, with which the Mr. Keates—280 grs. for a room of 1300 cubic feet capa: following experiments were made :-(1) 1 rubbed the glass city. This would generate only 1-50th per cent by surface of the instrument circularly from right to left with volume of sulphurous acid in the atmosphere of the room. At least five times that amount should be burnt, so as to

silk-paper ; immediately the disks turned in the same die generate an atmosphere containing 1-1oth per cent of the rection, following the course of the paper. I rubbed in the disinfecting gas.-I am, &c.,

opposite direction; immediately the disks changed their Thos. STEVENSON.

direction, still following that of the paper. The frition St. Pancras, Middlesex,

ceased, and the disks ceased simultaneously. The cause December 9, 1876.

of this phenomenon is evident: the friction of the paper

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