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CHEMICAL N***,}

Remarkable Meteor. 1876.

247 tion at Glasgow, and stated that the system of protection re-, seeing it at Douglas, 220 miles N.N.W. of that city, imacommended by the Professor, and which he appears to have gined it at no very great distance from him. He brought regarded as new, was suggested, and its adoption strongly the matter before the Society for the purpose of enquiring advocated, nearly forty years ago by the late Mr. Sturgeon, whether the meteor had been observed by other parties, whose many valuable contributions to electrical and mag- especially residents in Belfast or Glasgow, in order to netical science seem to have been strangely overlooked by ascertain if it had been seen westwards of those two recent investigators and writers. The paper in which the places. system was first described was read before the London Mr. A. M. WORTHINGTON described the changes which Electrical Society on the 7th of March, 1838, and an take place in the forms of drops of liquids falling vertically abstract of it was published in the second volume of the on a horizontal surface, and exhibited the apparatus used “Annals of Electricity.” There is, however, one impor- in his experiments, and also a series of smoked glass plates tant difference between the two systems. Mr. Sturgeon bearing the impressions produced by the falling of drops considered it necessary that the copper sheathing or of liquids from different heights. covering of a protected room or powder magazine should be well connected with the ground; but Prof. Maxwell is reported to have stated that " there would be no need of any earth connection. They might even place a layer of

NOTICES OF BOOKS. asphalte between the copper foor and the ground, so as to insulate the building." It is obvious, however, that if the magazine were struck by lightning a disruptive dis Familiar Letters on the Mysteries of Nature and Dis. charge through the layer of asphalte would in all proba

coveries in Science. By Dr. T. L. PHIPSON. London: bility take plate, which might rupture the copper sheathing,

Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington. and thus ignite the contents of the magazine ; but by the In this book the reader is introduced to a number of subadoption of Mr. Sturgeon's plan an accident of this kind jects lying somewhat away from the beaten tracks of could not occur.

science, and often overlooked in our popular treatises. Remarkable Meteor.-The President said that on The author discusses the ignis fatuus, electric fogs, the Tuesday, the 15th of August last, whilst standing on the chemistry of the ocean, the science of sleep, plant motion, deck of the packet in Douglas Bay, in the Isle of Man, firestones, atmospheric electricity, lightning-prints, earthhe observed one of the most brilliant meteors that he had quakes, luminous animals, aërolites and inhabited planets. ever seen. At about 35 minutes past 9 o'clock p.m., These topics he handles in a suggestive manner; he Greenwich time, he was looking towards the west, when places facts in a novel light, and often shows the question: he observed a body, apparently larger than the planet able character of our stereotyped explanations of natural Jupiter, in the S.S.E., at an elevation of about 30° with phenomena. The Will-o'-the-wisp, he tells us, is, in the horizon, traversing the heavens at first in a nearly England, most common “in the peaty districts around horizontal direction, then gradually declining, and finally Port Carlisle, in Cumberland;" and on the Continent, "in disappearing by a steep curve to the N.N.W." When first the damp valleys between the pretty little university observed it appeared to be of a yellowish colour, but it town of Marburg and that of Cassel, and more certainly changed to a greenish blue before it sank out of sight. still in the grave-yards outside the town of Gibraltar." During its last stage it reminded him of a large Roman He points out that the phenomena must be clearly discandle, and from its great brilliancy appeared to be not tinguished from the “more or less stationary flames of very far from the place where he stood, but he observed ignited naphtha springs," common in the East and in no signs of its bursting, and it left little trace of a lumin Italy, and occasionally visible in Herefordshire and ous track behind it. The speed at which it travelled Lanarkshire. From his own observations, as well as from appeared to be less than that of most meteors which he the evidence of Dr. Dereham, he rejects the view of Ray, had observed.

Willoughby, Kirby, and Spence, who attributed this This meteor appears to have been observed by several phenomenon to swarms of luminous insects. These, he parties, for Mr. J. P. Norris wrote to the Times from

Abbey declares, "rise far higher in the air than does the Will-o'House, Bristol, under date of August 15—"A brilliant the-wisp, and present the appearance of hundreds of little meteor has this moment fallen due west of this house. specks of light.” He ascribes the flame to an escape of It first appeared in the neighbourhood of Arcturus, then marsh gas, through which a small quantity of phosseemed to burst, and trail light of rainbow colour, and was phuretted hydrogen is diffused, and considers that whervisible to near the horizon slanting towards the north. ever the wisp manifests itself, there lies the corpse of Its distance cannot have been great, for we saw it through some animal. This view agrees well with the provincial out two-thirds of its course against a dark cloud. It may name of “corpse-candle," and with a number of popular have fallen, therefore, in the neighbourhood of Clevedon."' traditions. Folklore, however, records also cases where A correspondent, writing from Further Barton, Ciren. the spectator of a wisp has received a sudden blow or cester, on Wednesday, says—“At about 9.30 yesterday shock, and this, as the author suggests, points to electric evening (15th) a magnificent meteor was seen from this phenomena of a nature perfe&ly distinct from the true place, passing slowly across the north-western heavens wisp, and closely related with the fire of St. Elmo. about midway between Arcturus and the horizon. The On foys-a subject of peculiar though painful interest colour was vivid pale green, it left a greenish wake behind to dwellers in London-Dr. Phipson gives much curious it, and burst with brilliant scintillations of whiter light;" ) information. He even suggests a method for their and another says—" At 9.30 last night, Greenwich time, dispersal. "In order to disperse the dense electro-positive I saw the finest meteor or fire-ball that it has ever been London fogs it would be necessary to supply them with my fortune to observe. It passed just below E. Bootes, an abundant source of electro-negative electricity more and travelled northwards in a descending direction between quickly than the earth usually supplies it. In the present A. Canes Venatici and the large cluster in Coma, rather state of electrical science I imagine such a thing to be far nearer the latter. It exa&ly resembled the globe of fire from impossible.”. Dry ele&ro-negative fogs are supposed, projected by a Roman candle; the colour was of a bril- on imperfect evidence, to be connected with the appearliant yellow, and then after changing to a vivid green the ance of certain diseases. A dry blue mist of this kind meteor disappeared. The ball was pure, and unattended was noticed in London, in 1832, 1854, 1866, during the by luminous track."

period of cholera; and the yellow kind has been known to He gave the above particulars to show how observers accompany epidemics of scarlatina.” Such fogs are not were deceived as to the distance of meteors. The party dispersed by rain and wind. On the eveningo July 24th, who observed the one on the 15th of August near Bristol 1872, “when a tolerably stiff breeze from the s... was thought that it fell near Clevedon, while he (the President) / blowing, I found that it was impossible to see the tree

248
Notices of Books.

CHEMICAL News

{ Dec. 8, 1876. on the towing-path from Putney Bridge." The author out the imperfection of our knowledge concerning the has never been able to obtain decided indications of ozone causes of earthquakes, Dr. Phipson indulges in a strange, during the prevalence of an electro-negative fog, “but and we cannot help saying a most unscientific remark :sometimes electro-positive fogs have shown no ozone “What a field is here open to our young geologists if either in spite of the strong suffocating odour which often they can be persuaded to abandon collecting fossils and accompanies them. This would argue in favour of the petrisactions !" Why we should abandon the observaexistence at certain periods of antozone in the air-a fact tion of any class of natural objects is to us a mystery. which it would be exceedingly interesting to place beyond There is a very curious chapter on “ lightning-prints." a doubt."

The term needs a little explanation. Occasionally it In the chapter on the " chemistry of the ocean" the happens that when men or animals have been struck by curious fact is noticed that one halt of all the known / lightning, and especially if killed, peculiar impressions elementary bodies have been recognised in sea water. I have been left upon their bodies, which seem to be the We learn also that the waters of the Caspian, which has impress of some adjacent object. Many of the accounts no known outlet, are yet, unlike those of the Dead Sea of phenomena of this kind are either altogether mytholo. and of the Great Salt Lake, less salt than the Ocean. We logical or much exaggerated. Thus, according to the turn next to a letter on the “science of sleep, somnam- Abbé Lamy, "on the 18th July, 1689, lightning struck the bulism, and anæsthesia.” Here, apropos of a certain tower of the church of St. Sauveur, at Langy, in France, theory propounded to account for the periodical recur- and printed upon the cloth of the altar some Latin words rence of sleep, we find the following important and most of a prayer book. The words Qui pridie quam puteretur, truthful remark :

to the end of the prayer were all reproduced, with the ex“ It is a notorious fact that medical men, whose know- ception of Hoc est corpus meum and Hic est sanguis meus, ledge of chemistry is necessarily, in most cases, somewhat which in the book were printed in red ink.” In 1986, limited, are very fond of getting behind a chemical screen Leroy, a member of the French Academy of Sciences, when confronting a difficult physiological problem ; in announced that Benjamin Franklin had frequently told like manner certain chemists, whose acquaintance with him, some forty years previously, the case of a man who, mathematics is of a most elementary nature, are prone to whilst standing at his door during a thunder-storm, saw shield their incapacity of dealing with troublesome facts the lightning strike a tree opposite to him. It was afterby erecting screens of mathematical formulæ, or abstruse wards discovered that a reversed image of the tree was chemical formulæ, as nearly as possible allied to them, indelibly imprinted upon the breast of that man. A Mr. which they create for the occasion, losing sight of nature James Shaw relates a case which had occurred in 1812. altogether, and dealing, like our sensation-novel writers, Six sheep feeding in a small pasture surrounded by a with the products of their imagination.” We fear that wood at Combe Bay, near Bath. They were killed by a certain neo-chemical luminaries will be apt to exclaim flash of lightning, and when flayed "the inside of each with Costard, “me," "still me" as they read this passage. skin bore a very faithful image of the surrounding land.

In a chapter on the marvels of applied ele&ricity Dr. scape." Phipson remarks that “ Man's command of fire at once The following case is fully authenticated :-In 1836, a distinguished him from the rest of animated creation. In young man was killed by lightning near Zante. He had the higher classes of apes and monkeys, for instance, around his body a belt containing some gold pieces. and although we do not observe so great a dread of fire as we the images of some of these were indelibly printed see manifested by quadrupeds, yet there is not a monkey, upon his right shoulder. The impressions produced, how. however highly organised, that has the slightest power ever, were not fac similes of the gold pieces, but circles of over fire. I recollect a scene narrated by the captain of three different dimensions, corresponding exactly in size a ship that was wrecked on the coast of Madagascar. with the three kinds of pieces of money in the belt. Im The crew made a large fire in the woods at night, and pressions appear also to have been produced in some cases having withdrawn from the blazing embers they secreted upon inanimate bodies. Thus, according to Professor themselves in order to observe what the monkeys would Andreas Poey, lightning engraved upon the dry leaves of do with the fire. As soon as the sailors had retired, a palm tree in Cuba the representation of some trees numbers of these agile beings leaped from the boughs and growing at the distance of 340 yards. Further observa. approached the fire, the warmth and glare of which they tion is here wanted and may both extend our knowledge appeared to enjoy. Theyapproached nearer and nearer as the of the properties of ele&ricity and lead to useful applica. fire gradually burnt out, but not one had the intelligence to tion. throw in a single bough to keep the fire alive, though Treating of " life on the earth” the author shows that numerous logs and sticks were scattered upon the ground.” | its correlation with the physical “forces," if modern word The only fault we have to find with this narrative is that splitters will allow us the use of the term, is incomplete. there are no monkeys in Madagascar, whilst the lemurs, Life, indeed, may produce heat, light, electricity, and che. which, to some extent, take their place, are but ill-mical action, but it has never, within our observation, organised for throwing logs or sticks upon a fire.

been produced by them. Turning to the duration of life According to Dr. Léning, M. de Romas, and Arago, the he considers, quoting the well-known case of Cornaro, problem of transforming thunder clouds, and thus prevent that sobriety is its most essential condition. It must, ing the formation of hail has been solved, and all however, be remembered that Cornaro does not appear to that is required is that our knowledge should be reduced have been'a hard worker. The quantity of food sufficient to practice. The damage done by hail in the south of for a man whose days are spent in the dolce far niente France in a single storm has been known to amount to a must necessarily be quite insufficient for persons whose million sterling. An interesting application of electricity brains or whose muscles are kept in constant exertion. is the rendering sea-water, &c., potable by passing We do not believe that in these days " the generality of through it a current from the battery. The author has people eat far too much.” not unsuccessfully experimented on this question at The proportion of the time of gestation and of the subOstend.

sequent growth of the young animal to the duration of its In his letter on earthquakes, Dr. Phipson remarks that life is next considered. But it is an exceedingly difficult in his opinion "enough stress has not been laid upon the thing to determine the average natural life of an animal constant presence of snlphur among the products of in a wild state. In captivity or domestication so many volcanic action

In earthquakes we have con disturbing influences come into play that the result is of stantly a suffocating smell of sulphur or sulphurous gas, doubtful value. And, supposing that the time of gestation and the same occurs in intense thunder storms, especially. bears any fixed proportion to the normal period of life, is when the lightning strikes an object on the earth's surface. there any a priori reason for affirming that the same ratio We have not yet the key to this enigma." In pointing must prevail in all the different divisions of the animal

2

S,}
Dec. 8, 1876.
The Society of Public Analysts.

249 kingdom? “As to the time of growth we know already , syrups, as found by incineration, is potash, and in the that it bears no constant proportion to the duration of life. majority of instances this assumption is a correct one. In mammals and birds the period of maturity is much. It is almost impossible for many persons employed in longer than the period of growth; but in many insects, sugár-houses to find time or opportunity for an ash estie.g., the goat-moth and the cockchafer, it is very much mation by the ordinary method, but a correct knowledge shorter. This chapter of his work Dr. Phipson concludes of the potash percentage-besides its value as an adjunct with the following passage :

to the Duncan and Newlands process-affords also the "Those men who abide by experiment and observation, means of finding the total ash. The potash percentage and who simply record their scientific experience, are not is readily found thus by any intelligent workman :-Weigh likely to shock the religious opinions which govern so 100 grms. of syrup in a beaker; add 30 c.c. alcohol and many of their fellow creatures; it is otherwise with those 30 c.c. water, containing in solution about 15 grms. tarwho indulge in speculative theories and who attempt to iaric acid. Stir vigorously for a few minutes ; then allow explain everything in their manner. These are only bigots the mixture to rest for about half-an-hour. Collect the and fanatics in another form, and they deserve the odium precipitate upon a tared filter, allow it to drain, then wash which they draw upon themselves from the opposite ez- with other 60 c.c. mixed alcohol and water. Dry in a treme of humanity."

water-bath, and weigh. One-fourth of the precipitate is We cannot agree with this passage; observations and potash. experiments pure simple" will arouse persecution the

Potash x 5

= total ash. moment their results are seen to clash with ecclesiastical tradition. In the very next chapter Dr. Phipson declares :" When the latter (Galileo) began to give the world the compared with the ordinary ash estimations made in the

“ The following are estimations made by this method as benefit of his observations he was most villanously per laboratory :secuted.” With theories, geological, biological, or as

Potash Potash calculated tronomical, theologians have, as such, no right to

Ash found.

calculated from Acid Tartrate interfere. In a manner striály analogous physicists,

2-5ths of Ash

weighed. geologists, and the like have no claim to dogmatise on

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I'94 religious questions. We have always denounced every

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I'83 attempt made by either body to exceed its boundaries,

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2:43 but we cannot forget that the first transgression of this

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3:61 nature was made by the theologians.

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3.62 But there can be no need for us further to multiply

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3.69 either extracts or comments. Whoever has followed us

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2'74 so far will admit that Dr. Phipson's "Familiar Letters"

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223 abound in facts not generally known and in interesting

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2'97 reflections. Though popularly written, in the sense of

470

1.88 being free from the cumbrous terminology now so much affected, they may be advantageously read by the professed rity of the collected bitartrate, incinerate 5 grms. in a

"In the event of any doubt being entertained of the puman of science as well as by the person of ordinary cul- platinum capsule, boil the resulting black flux in water, ture, and will certainly set both thinking.

filter and wash the carbon thoroughly, and titrate the file trate in the usual way with normal acid. This could only be necessary when much lime is present in the syrup-a

most unlikely thing to happen in this country. CORRESPONDENCE.

“Greenock, August 15, 1874."

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ESTIMATION OF POTASSIUM BY MEANS OF

PROFESSOR WÖHLER.
ACID TARTRATE.

To the Editor of the Chemical News.
To the Editor of the Chemical News.

SIR,—The leading members of the executive of the German SIR,- In the CHEMICAL News (vol. xxxiv., p. 231) you Chemical Society in Berlin have nominated the veteran publish the first portion of a paper by•Mr. P. Casamajor, Prof. Wöhler President of the Society for the coming on the Estimation of Potassium by means of Acid Tar- year. trate.” He claims special applicability for his method to I feel that the announcement will be hailed with delight the estimation of potash in the syrups of sugar-houses. by every chemist, and I beg you to allow me the opportu. In the Sugar Cane for October ist, 1874, I inserted a short nity of pointing out to such of our craft as are members of paper, for the use of foremen or others employed in such that excellent society that they are entitled to vote at the houses, containing a description of the same plan of election of President; and that they should not neglect to working, adapted to the facilities and time at their com. give expression to the respect and admiration all must feel mand. With the platinic chloride at our call in the for the illustrious chemist by sending without delay, by laboratory, it seemed useless to attempt any elaboration post-card or letter, to the present President or one of the of the tartaric acid mode of estimation, which may, in its Secretaries of the Society, in Berlin, a short statement, own sphere, be a useful aid to those seeking for a rapid signed and dated, to the effect that they give their votes means of assaying the probable ash in syrups. In the in favour of Prof. Wöhler.-I am, &c., same number of the Sugar Cane, or the previous one,

WALTER FLIGHT. there is a paper by Mr. Casamajor on the." Expansion of

Savile Club, 15, Savile Row, W., Sugar Solutions by Heat,” so he could hardly be quite

December 6, 1876. ignorant of the appearance of mine. I append a copy of my paper.-I am, &c.,

THE SOCIETY OF PUBLIC ANALYSTS. Robert FRAZER SMITH. Glasgow, December 2, 1876.

To the Editor of the Chemical News.

SIR,—I had hoped that I might be spared the necessity of " The following is the description of an easy and fairly following the example of the Treasurer and one of the correct practical method for the estimation of potash in Vice-Presidents of the Society of Public Analysts in resyrups and sugars. It is assumed, as a general rule, that signing, before the expiration of my year of office, my two-fifths of the weight of ash present in sugars and position as President, and also my membership, in the

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CHEMICAL NEWS, 250 Chemical Notices from Foreign Sources.

Dec. 8, 1876. Society, but the occurrence of another in addition to behalf of MM. A. Zaytzeff and P. Sorokine, describes reseveral previous acts of irregularity in the performance of searches on the action of iodide of allyl and of zinc upon the secretarial duties, and the disapproval I entertain and acetic ether. M. Menschoutkine communicates, on behalf have expressed, without effect, of these and of the manner of M. L. Lound, his studies on the transformation of canein which the editorial duties have been conducted in con- sugar when its aqueous solutions are heated. He finds nection with the Society, have caused me now at once to that these solutions are inverted when heated to 100° in tender my resignation, and thus to express to the members presence of air. If heated in the absence of air, or in pre. of the Society my reason for so doing.--I am, &c., sence of air perfectly purified, there is no transformation.

T. REDWOOD. Nitrogen and oxygen have no action; carbonic acid acts 17, Bloomsbury Square, W.C.,

more fully than air. The transformation must be ascribed December 5, 1876.

partly to the carbonic acid, partiy to other substances in the atmosphere not yet determined. M. Menschoutkine,

on behalf of MM. F. Wreden and Znatowich, announces CHEMICAL NOTICES FROM FOREIGN that hexa-hydrocymen and decahydro-naphthalin are obSOURCES.

tained in the action of hydriodic acid upon naphthalin. The same chemist communicates, on the part of M. G.

Fudakovski, an examination of saccharine matters conNote. -All degrees of temperature are Centigrade, unless otherwise taining galactose. M. Beilstein, on behalf of Dr. Cech, expressed.

communicates a notice of the colouring power of viridic

acin, which he recommends as a colour for esculents (a Bulletin de la Societe Chimique de Paris, very old suggestion). M. A. Borodine communicates, on Nos. 8 and 9, November 5, 1876.

the part of M. Schalfeieff, researches on the cerotic acid Decolouration of Indigo by Hydro-sulphurous extracted from bees'-wax. The acid obtained by Brodie's Acid and by the Persulphide of Hydrogen.-M. E. method is a mixture. M. Idanoff communicates researches Schaer.-It is generally admitted that the decolouration on diethyl-methyl-acetic acid, an isomer of enanthylic of indigo by these agents is due to its transformation into acid. There is, further, papers on the electrolysis of the white indigo, and, in fact, mere agitation in the air suffices aqueous solutions of oxalic acid, by M. N. Bunge; on the to restore the blue colour. But certain experiments seem differences observed between starches of different origin to show that the decolouration is produced by the forma- when submitted to diastatic action, by M. A. Dobroslavine ; tion of a colourless molecular compound. For indigo de- on the action of the saliva on divers kinds of starch, by colourised by hydro-sulphurous acid is regenerated, not Dr. Georgiefsky; and on the a&tion of iodide of allyl and only by the action of air and oxidising agents, but also by zinc upon oxalate of ethyl, by M. Michel Zaytzeff. decided reducing agents, such as sulphuretted hydrogen.

Absorption-Spectra of different Colouring Matters Further, indigo bleached by the persulphide of hydrogen and Metals of the Iron Group, with Applications.is restored by the action of sulphurous acid. These phe. This paper, which is taken from the Berichte der Deutsch. nomena are explained by the decomposing action of sul. Chem. Gesell

. (viii., 1246 and 1533), is incapable of useful phuretted hydrogen upon hydro-sulphurous acid, and of abstraction. sulphurous acid upon persulphide of hydrogen. We may, then, admit that indigo combines with hydro-sulphurous acid and persulphide of hydrogen, forming colourless com

Revue Universelle des Mines, pounds, which are destroyed with liberation of the indigo

July and August, 1876. by all agents capable of destroying either hydro-sulphurous Fermentation of Urine.-M. Leon Krafft.This acid or persulphide of hydrogen.

paper treats of the preparation of ammoniacal salts from No. 10, November 20, 1876.

the drainings of cesspools. These liquids are either mixed

with sulphuric acid or filtered over sulphate of lime, the result New Researches on Gallium.-M. Lecoq de Bois- being in either case the conversion of the volatile carbonate baudran.-Already noticed.

of ammonia into the fixed sulphate. The liquid, rendered Remarks of M. Boutlerow on a Note by M. L. limpid and clear either by settling or filıration, is evaHenry relating to the Fixation of Hypochlorous Acid porated down to one-tenth of its volume either over the upon Isobutylen.-M. Boutlerow remarks that M. Henry naked fire, or by the “graduation " principle. It is then has merely confirmed his researches, conducted nine years absorbed by a powder composed of turf, bone-black, ago.

mineral phosphate of lime, and baked gypsum.
Dissociation of the Bicarbonate of Soda at the
Temperature of 100°; a reply to M. Gautier.—M. V. Moniteur Scientifique, du Dr. Quesneville,
Urbain. The author maintains, contrary to the opinion

November, 1876. of M. Gautier, that if dried plasma is exposed to the tem

Chemical Patents taken out in France during the perature of 100° the bicarbonate of soda which it contains Year 1875.- A list of the titles of patents. is not decomposed.

Determination of Tannin.-G. Pouchet.—The author Stains Produced by Sulphocyanic Acid.-M. Pierre passes in review the processes known, and gives the preMiquel.—The author finds that sulphocyanic acid pro- ference to titration with permanganate in an alkaline duces upon paper free from iron a carmine-red spot, which solution. disappears spontaneously on exposure to the air, and more On Rosolic Acid.-MM. Graebe and Caro.-Taken rapidly if a gentle heat be applied. Ammoniacal vapours from Liebig's Annalen. destroy the colour immediately, and hydrochloric gas restores it. Thus a test-paper is obtained far more sensitive and O. Fischer.-From the Berichte der Deut. Chem.

Contributions to a Knowledge of Rosaniline.-E. than litmus.

Gesell., ix., p. 891. Nitro- and Amido-Naphthyl-Sulphurous Acids, and on their Derivatives.-P. T. Clève.-Not suitable for commission of naval Officers appointed to enquire into the

Duchemin's Compass with Circular Magnets.-A abstraction.

merits of this invention has reported. decidedly in its Correspondence from St. Petersburg, April 12, 1876. favour. -W. Louguinine.— The second part of the eighth volume Preparation of Thallium.-Dr. R. Nietski.—The of the Fournal of the Russian Chemical Society contains author is not satisfied with the method of Krause. He the following papers :-M. A. Zagoumenny has obtained takes the chloride of thallium, moistens it with water diphenyl-carbinol by the action of alcoholic potassa upon slightly acidulated, and adds a few fragments of zinc. benzo-phenon at 160° in sealed tubes. M. E. Wagner, on After a few days all the thallium is separated in a spongy

Dec. 8, 1876.
,} Early Closing amongst Chemists and Druggists.

251 mass, which is carefully washed, and dissolved in hot, unduly prolonged, and might be curtailed without incon. dilute sulphuric acid. The foreign metals and the other venience to the public or prejudice to the trade, whilst impurities remain undissolved. A pure and concentrated conferring great benefit upon employers and employed.” solution of sulphate of thallium is thus obtained, from Proposed by Mr. S. Drury, seconded by Mr. C. Butler :which the salt may be separated by crystallisation, and “ That the chemists and druggists present, being conthe metal may be obtained either by a galvanic current or vinced of the benefits to be derived from the adoption of by means of zinc.

earlier hours of closing, hereby form themselves into a Dyeing Aniline-Blacks.-M. Allard.— The author provisional committee with power to add to their number) protests against the claim set up by M. Grawitz to be the for carrying out the object of the meeting.” Proposed by first inventor of the process for dyeing aniline-blacks with Mr. R. A. Johnson, seconded by Mr. J. R. Faulkner :out exposure to air, the colour being due to the formation “ That the foregoing resolutions be forwarded to the Press, of double salts of aniline peroxidised by chlorates or

and to the various chemists and druggists of the locality, chromates.

with a view to their co-operation in the movement.” The proceedings terminated with a vote of thanks to the

Chairman. The next committee meeting is fixed for MISCELLANEOUS.

Wednesday, December 13, at the same time and place.

The Newcastle Institute of Mining and MechaniUniversity of London.-The following gentlemen cal Engineers.-We are glad to announce that this usehave passed the recent Second B.A. and second B.Sc. ful institute has lately received the honour of being inexaminations :-Examinations for Honours (B.A. and corporated by Royal Charter. B.Sc. conjointly); Mathematics and Natural Poilosophy.First class. J. S. Morris, B.A. (Scholarship), St. John's

MEETINGS FOR THE WEEK. College, Cambridge; J. F. Main, B.Sc., Trinity College, Cambridge. Second class. S. White, B.A., University Monday, 17th.-Society of Arts, 8. (Cantor Lectures.) “ The History

of the Art of Coach Building," by Mr. G. A. Thrupp. College. Chemistry (B.Sc. only).–First class. J. K.

Lecture IV.-Ancient and Modern Travelling and Crow (Scholarship), Owens College. Second class." W.

Public Carriages of Europe. W. Jones, Magdalen College, Oxford. Geology and

Medical, 8.

London Institution, 5. Palæontology.--First class. W. Hewitt (disqualified by

Royal Geographical, 8.30. age for the Scholarship), Royal School of Mines; J. K. Tuesday, 12th. --Civil Engineers, 8. Crow (Scholarship), Owens College; A. R. Willis, Royal

Photographic, 8. School of Mines. Second class. J. Monckman, York

Anthropological Institute, 8.

Manchester Literary and Philosophical, 7. shire College of Science; A. E. Tovey, private study.

WEDNESDAY, 13th.-Society of Arts, 8. "A New Process of Printing Royal Institution of Great Britain. The following

a Number of Colours at one Impression," by E. are the arrangements of the Lectures before Easter, THURSDAY, 14th.-Royal, 8.30.

Meyerstein. 1876 :

SATURDAY, 16th.-Physical, 3. "An Experimental Contribution to Prof. John Hall Gladstone, Ph.D., F.R.S.-Six Lectures

the Theory of the Radiometer," by W. Crookes,

F.I.S. "On a Capillary Electrometer, ” by adapted to a juvenile auditory, on the “Chemistry of Fire;

Prof. J. Dewar, F.R.S.E. on Dec. 28 (Thursday), 30, 1876; Jan. 2, 4, 6, 9, 1877. Prof. Alfred H. Garrod, M.A., F.R.S.--Ten Lectures on

TO CORRESPONDENTS. " The Human Form; its Structure in relation to its Contour;" on Tuesdays, Jan. 16 to March 20.

E. H, Cook.-Received with thanks. Dr. C. R. Alder Wright, F.C.S.-Four Lectures “ On J. W.M.-Mr. Smith's letter renders the publication of yours un. Metals, and the Chief Industrial Uses of these Bodies and necessary their Compounds ;" on Thursdays, Jan. 18 to Feb. 8. William Pole, F.R.S., Mus. Doc.-Six Lectures “ On

Applications to the Arts and Manufactures. By THOMAS the Theory of Music;" on Thursdays, Feb. 15 to RICHARDSON and Henry Watts. Second Edition, illustrated with March 22.

numerous Wood Engravings. Mr. Ernst Pauer.-Two Lectures “ On the Nature of Vol. I., Parts 1 and 2, price 36s., with more than 400 Illustrations. Music: the Italian, French, and German Schools;" on Nature and Properties of Fuel : Secondary Products obtained from Saturdays, Jan. 20, 27. Mr. J. A. Symonds.—Three Lectures" On Florence and

facture. the Medici ;" on Saturdays, Feb. 3 to 17.

Vol. I., Part 3, price 338., with more than 300 Illustrations, Prof. Henry Morley.-Five Lectures "On Effects of the compounds: Soda, Potash : Alkalimetry: Grease.

Sulphur and its Compounds: Acidimetry: Chlorine and its Bleaching French Revolution upon English Literature;" on Satur

Vol. I., Part 4, price 215., 300 Illustrations. days, Feb. 24 to March 24.

Aluminium and Sodium: Stannates, Tungstates, Chromates, and 'The Friday Evening Meeting will begin on Jan. 19, Silicates of Potash and Soda : Phosphorus, Borax: Nitre: Gun. 1877, at 8 o'clock; the Discourse by Prof. Tyndall at Powder: Gun Cotton, 9 p.m. The succeeding discourses will probably be given

Vol. I., Part 5, price 36s. by Prof. Huxley, Prof. Osborne Reynolds, Mr. Francis Prussiate of Potash: Oxalic, Tartaric, and Citric Acids, and AppenGalton, Prof. F. Guthrie, Mr. J. F. Moulton, Sir John :ices containing the latest information, and pecifications relating to

the materials described in Parts 3 and 4. Lubbock, Mr. Frederick J. Bramwell, and others. To these meetings Members and their friends only are BAILLIERE AND CO., 20, King William Street, Strand. admitted.

in conjunction with the SCIENTIFIC DEPARTMENT of the A conference of chemists in the Notting Hill District, ROYAL POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTION. who were favourable to earlier hours of closing, was held

Instruction and preparation in CHEMISTRY and the EXPERI. on Friday last in the Mall Hall, the Mall, Notting Hill. GARDNER, F.A.S., M.S.A.

MENTAL SCIENCES under the direction of Professor E. V. Messrs. Johnson (Twinborrow), Westbourne Grove, Chas. The Class Rooms are open from 11 to 5 a.m. and from 7 to 10 p.m. Butler, Faulkner, Baker, Grosvenor, Long, H. Long, daily. Drury, &c., attended, and also Messrs. E. Kennedy and

Especial facilities for persons preparing for Government and other

examinations. F. A. Allen, Secretaries, Early Closing Association. The Private Pupils will find every convenience. following resolutions were adopted :-Proposed by Mr. A. Analyses, Assays, and Practical Investigations connected with P. Baker, seconded by Mr. C. H. Grosvenor :-"'That in Patents, &c., conducted. the opinion of this meeting the business hours observed at Berner's College, 44, Berners-street, W., or at the Royal Poly.

Prospectuses and full particulars on application to Prof. Gardner by the chemists and druggists of this neighbourhood are technic Institution.

Early Closing amongst Chemists and Druggists.- BERNERS COLLEGE of CHEMISTRY,

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